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Newsroom/World View

NEWSROOM for January 18, 2000

Aired January 18, 2000 - 4:30 a.m. ET

THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT. THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED.

ANNOUNCER: Seen in classrooms the world over, this is CNN NEWSROOM.

RUDI BAKHTIAR, CO-HOST: Hello, everyone, glad you're with us for this Tuesday edition of NEWSROOM. I'm Rudi Bakhtiar.

TOM HAYNES, CO-HOST: And I'm Tom Haynes. We've got lots to cover today. Let's see what's coming up.

BAKHTIAR: In "Today's News": the many issues facing Chile's new president. How will he handle one of the most sensitive: the fate of former Chilean General Augusto Pinochet?

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

RICARDO LAGOS, CHILEAN PRESIDENT-ELECT (through translator): I will not forget our past but I will be focusing on the future.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

HAYNES: Tuesday means news from the "Health Desk." Today: hyperactive kids and the use of Ritalin. Is this popular prescription drug over prescribed?

BAKHTIAR: In "Worldview": being a world leader. Why many say the job is best left to a woman.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

MARY OKUMU, KENYAN: Women want conflicts resolved. Men want very different things. Men want a whole state. Women just want a safe place to be and raise their children on just a daily, daily practical level.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

HAYNES: "Chronicle" hits the campaign trail in the U.S. to find out if Gen-Xers feel dissed in presidential politics.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

ABBY MCGONIGLE, STUDENT: I haven't heard anybody even discuss it. I probably don't even know all the people who are running.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

BAKHTIAR: In our top story, we look at democracy, Chilean style. We head to Santiago, which is balancing its past with its future. That takes us to the present, which features a new leader in Chile. President-elect Ricardo Lagos is looking forward, promising to jump start the economy and tackle crime. The sixty-one-year-old is a socialist, but says he's committed to maintaining free market principles. He is calling for greater social and state policies that correct what he calls the inequalities of the market.

The election puts the first leftist in power since 1973, when socialist Salvador Allende died in the coup that brought General Augusto Pinochet to power. Pinochet is in London, fighting extradition to Spain, and if he returns to Chile, the president-elect would have to decide how to receive him.

Pinochet is wanted in connection with the deaths or disappearances of more than 3000 people during his rule. Even though Lagos has not supported Pinochet, he says he remains committed to the free-market principles Pinochet first started.

He also separated himself from the radical brand of marxism endorsed by Allende, who was the first marxist to be elected democratically to head a nation in the Western Hemisphere.

Now, chile is facing a new millennium, with a new leader, who's first task may be baggage from the past.

Maggie Cayon reports from Santiago.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

MAGGIE CAYON, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): More than 20,000 jubilant voters gathered here, in Chile's Constitution Square, to celebrate the victory of the country's first socialist president in 26 years. Ricardo Lagos narrowly beat Joaquin Lavin, winning 51 percent of the vote.

The last time thousands gathered in this plaza, right across from the presidential palace, was more than 20 years ago, as a million people cheered then-President Salvador Allende. The marxist leader was overthrown in 1973 in a bloody coup led by General Augusto Pinochet, who then imposed a 17-year dictatorship, running the country with an iron fist.

After losing a plebiscite in 1989, Pinochet returned the country to democratic rule and stepped into the shadows as head of the military, and then senator for life. Pinochet's possible return from London, where he has been held in house arrest for more than 15 months for alleged human rights abuses, did not overshadow the elections. Both candidates steering clear from making Pinochet an issue.

The issues that were at hand were crime, unemployment, health and education. Lagos' victory is a triumph for the ruling Concertacion Coalition, as it takes Chile into the 21st century.

He is inheriting a country that is economically stable, although it is going through one of the worst recessions in 20 years.

WALTER RIESZO, BUSINESSMAN (through translator): And the business projections for the next year range between a 5 1/2 and 6 percent increase. It would almost reach the growth sustained in the past 10 years.

CAYON: He will also have to deal with pending issues such as alleged crimes and human rights violations committed by Pinochet. Lagos has said the courts, not president, should decide whether Pinochet stands trial.

RICARDO LAGOS, CHILEAN PRESIDENT-ELECT (through translator): I will not forget the past, but I am focusing on the future.

CAYON: As Lagos tries to move the country forward and maintain its economic stability, he has the support of the opposition.

CHRISTIAN LARROULET, CHIEF OF LAVIN'S CAMPAIGN (through translator): All projects of law that favor the most needy in Chile, Joaquin Lavin will support them.

CAYON: It is unclear whether Lavin's popularity means the right- wing is getting stronger in Chile. That should become clearer in local and parliamentary elections this year and next.

Maggie Cayon, for CNN, Santiago.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

HAYNES: ADHD, or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. In the U.S., it's one of the most commonly diagnosed childhood conditions. It's estimated between three and five percent of children in the U.S. have ADHD. The most common characteristics include being easily distracted and also excessive activity and restlessness.

Students who have it often have trouble concentrating in school, trouble paying attention, and trouble staying focused on a task. As such, it's a major public health concern. And experts are trying to determine the most effective treatments and techniques to deal with the condition.

Rhonda Rowland reports.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

RHONDA ROWLAND, CNN MEDICAL CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD, a diagnosis that's practically synonymous with the drug Ritalin. But is Ritalin or any other stimulant drug the only treatment for ADHD?

This fifth-grader's parents don't think so. Since Shannon was diagnosed with ADHD three years ago, her parents have worked with teachers to modify her learning environment. For example, her desk is at the front of the classroom so the teacher can keep Shannon on task. At home, when given a chore, she's asked to tell her parents when it's completed. UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: Once we started doing something about it, her grades came up, her self-esteem came up, she was much happier in school

ROWLAND: Only after attempts were made to modify Shannon's behavior through environmental changes was Ritalin added to her treatment regimen. Her parents say they wouldn't think of using either treatment alone. They've seen the best results when combined.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: It's been great, for us and for Shannon. She can focus, she pays attention better, she listens to directions. She's not staring out the window, she's not daydreaming.

ROWLAND: The first step to successful treatment is getting the right diagnosis, but there's no definitive test for ADHD.

GRETCHEN LEFEVER, PEDIATRIC PSYCHOLOGIST: It's easy to recognize symptoms associated with the disorder, but it really takes some good clinical or detective work to determine whether those symptoms are related to ADHD or to some related disorder.

ROWLAND: Just as there's no standard means of diagnosing ADHD, there have not been any large studies done longer than three or four months to determine the best long-term treatment. Shannon's been fortunate. Her parents, doctors, and school work together to find the best means to achieve success.

Rhonda Rowland, CNN, Norfolk, Virginia.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

HAYNES: Next week in our "Health Desk," another ailment that strikes young people and it could leave you itching and scratching. We'll examine chicken pox and a vaccine that could keep you from suffering the discomfort and the complications. That's next Tuesday, right here on NEWSROOM.

ANNOUNCER: You're watching CNN NEWSROOM, seen in schools around the world, because learning never stops and neither does the news.

BAKHTIAR: Get set for "Worldview," and a musical interlude. We'll spotlight one of the most famous composers of all time and find out why he's scoring big in China. Then, a lesson in harmony around the world. Women leaders gather in the Philippines for a three-day discussion on transforming politics. The number of female lawmakers in the world has increased by only one percentage point per decade, and this global forum will prepare strategies for change.

Meantime, we hear from women leaders around the world who attended another recent workshop. We begin with a "Global Worldview."

SHELLEY WALCOTT, CO-HOST: Tomorrow, January 19, is the anniversary of the election of an important world leader who was a woman. Indira Gandhi was the first female prime minister of India. She held the office from 1966 to 1977, and from 1980 until her death in 1984 when she was assassinated. Gandhi was just one of several women who helped shape the world's political map. Some examples: Golda Meir, Israel's prime minister during the early 1970s, encouraged the emigration of Soviet Jews and strengthened Israeli ties with the United States. Around that same time, Isabel Peron was president of Argentina, championing the causes of Argentine women while tackling economic and political strife.

Margaret Thatcher was prime minister of Great Britain for 11 years, from 1979 until 1990. Under her forceful leadership, the British government, among other things, weakened unions and curbed inflation. Over in the Philippines, Corazon Aquino presided as president from 1986 to 1992. During her tumultuous tenure, Aquino restored some civil rights and released political prisoners, all while her government survived at least seven coup attempts.

Despite the track record of these strong female leaders, there are still relatively few women who hold political power in the world today. But some are trying to change that.

Bill Delaney has more from Boston.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

BILL DELANEY, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Faces at a symposium sponsored by Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government. Of that, more than half of the human race who remain only rarely in charge: women.

One-hundred ten women from 10 conflict zones gathered for two weeks to share insights on their particular perspective, so often close to war's tangled roots, so rarely part of the decisions that cause wars.

MARY OKUMU, KENYAN: In Africa now, 33 full-fledged armed conflicts are being fought in the region. And yet, in the reconstruction, we only do food aid, only do little, fast aids, you know, and not really get into the root causes of what brings about the conflict.

SUMAYA FARHAT-NASER, PALESTINIAN: So many persons of my family have been killed. So my son was shot. He is, for his life, disabled from an Israeli soldier. And my friends have been all in prison, and I know that we have to stop this, we have to see other ways.

BATYA MAZOR-HOFFMAN, ISRAELI: We have a special voice. I think men bring about wars and I thought women have to clean after them and mend all the wounds and repair all the things after them.

DELANEY: A conference to highlight the gulf between women's inherent power to confront conflict and women's still limited access to political power.

(on camera): Of some 185 countries in the United Nations, only about seven have women heads of state. Women average only about 10 percent in most parliaments. Only about three percent of heads of multinational corporations are women; exclusion, one conference participant said, that would amount to apartheid were it based on someone's color instead of someone's gender.

(voice-over): A shutting-out, women at the conference said, the world pays a price for in wars that don't end and wars that get started in the first place.

TANYA GALLAGHER, NORTHERN IRELAND: Women have a large -- they have a huge part to play in the peace process in Northern Ireland. We have two female ministers. Out of 108 assembly, I think there are only 14 women who represent Northern Ireland.

OKUMU: Women want conflicts resolved. Men want very different things; men want a whole state. Women just want a safe place to be and raise their children on just daily, daily practical level.

FARHAT-NASER: How many times I found myself much stronger, as men are. When there was a confrontation between soldiers and youth, for example, I immediately pushed myself into this situation and tried to say something, just to tell the soldier, please, look into my eyes. Do you see them? I am as your mother.

MAZOR-HOFFMAN: We bring about life, and I do not think it's our natural role to end life.

DELANEY: Women at the conference comparing notes on the complexities and often small rewards of reaching across physical and psychic barriers.

VITAYA CHAUHAN, INDIAN: I'm not saying it's very easy. There is an opposition, there is a sarcasm, there is a making sort of fun of it: Oh, you peacemakers; we know what you're doing. I may be working in a small organization which works with women and children, someone may be working directly in a very intense conflict area. I'm personally very optimistic about the slow, gradual but definite change women are making to this world in whatever little sphere they are.

MARINA SEGURA, COLOMBIAN: We are working to make peace workshops in the region where the guerrilla is. And with the women -- different types of women -- women in the army, women in the guerrilla, women that work with the local government -- we think it's, you know, something small that we are going to do, but it will start creating coalitions among them.

OKUMU: We may not resolve a conflict, but I believe what is happening here in this 110 people is transforming the conflict so it becomes a little bit more understandable, a little bit more manageable. The enemy is not that person across the fence, the enemy might really be my way of thinking, the way I was conditioned to understand the world, my world, your world.

DELANEY: Steps by women from very different worlds toward the old dream of one world -- dreams and practicality. At the conference's end, everyone received a laptop computer to stay in touch across borders.

Bill Delaney, CNN, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

ANDY JORDAN, CO-HOST: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was an 18th century Austrian composer considered one of the most creative musical geniuses of all time. A child prodigy, his father began teaching him music when he was 4 years old. Remarkably, Mozart started composing music the following year at the tender age of 5. By the time he turned 14, Mozart had composed several symphonies, church music and the first of his 22 operas. He also toured Europe playing music for kings, queens and nobles.

Ironically, the life of the child prodigy was not a long one. Mozart became sick and died when he was just 35 years old. By the end of his life, he had written more than 600 compositions. And, today, more than 200 years after his death, the sound of Mozart still resonates around the globe, as we see in China.

Rebecca MacKinnon reports on how one modern-day impresario is using classical Mozart to open the world to young musicians.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP, "FROM MAO TO MOZART")

ISAAC STERN, VIOLINIST: We have come here to meet with the Chinese people.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

REBECCA MACKINNON, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): In 1979, violinist Isaac Stern was one of the first American musicians to visit China after it opened up to the West for the first time since the communist revolution.

VERA SHIU, MUSICIAN: We thought he was just like a tornado.

MACKINNON: Vera Shiu was a teenager back then. Her exposure in the award-winning documentary about Stern's visit "From Mao To Mozart" led to a scholarship to study in the U.S., and an international career.

Wang Jian is now a world-acclaimed cellist. When Stern discovered him, he was only 10.

WANG JIAN, CELLIST: And he came and, immediately, he showed everybody that music is really about communication, is about, really, conveying a feeling.

MACKINNON: Expressing themselves was something most Chinese here were out of practice doing in 1979. China had just emerged from Chairman Mao's Cultural Revolution, when, for more than a decade, just listening to Western music could lead to death at the hands of Mao's fanatical Red Guards.

LI DELUN, CONDUCTOR (through translator): We didn't dare think about classical music. We lost a lot of what we had learned when we were young. When Isaac Stern came, he reminded us of many things we had forgotten.

STERN: This is the way a phrase is made.

MACKINNON: Now back in China 20 years after his first master class, Stern believes he still has something to offer to China's much more worldly and fashion-conscious young people.

STERN: I believe in music as part of the quality of being a human being, not just being -- standing on there and playing. Assuming they realize that strength and what it can mean as an investment of the next 100 years, the better it will be for China.

MACKINNON: What better way to publicize that message than with a reunion concert by three of the students Stern discovered, and an encore performance of the very same Mozart violin concerto that captivated Chinese music lovers 20 years ago, and still does today.

Rebecca MacKinnon, CNN, Beijing.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

HAYNES: Well, every Tuesday in "Chronicle," we examine the 2000 election in our series "Democracy in America." The first U.S. presidential primary is two weeks away in the state of New Hampshire. So who will be voting? Well, according to a new poll, not many Generation Xers. Approximately 23 percent of the U.S. population is between the ages of 18 and 34, and that's about 63 million potential voters. But many Generation Xers are more than apathetic about the year 2000 elections, and campaign strategists are taking notice.

Bill Delaney reports.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

DELANEY (voice-over): On Main Street in Concord, New Hampshire, two weeks from the state's first-in-the-nation primary, inside the Bagel Works, 21-year-old Abby McGonigle sheltered from the 2 degrees above zero outside, while pretty much summing up much of her generation's attitude toward said primary.

ABBY MCGONIGLE, STUDENT: No, I haven't heard anybody even discuss it. Probably don't even know all the people who are running. I'm really not paying attention to it at all.

DELANEY: About right, according to a new poll conducted on behalf of a new Generation X advocacy group by Brent McGoldrick and Russ Freyman. Only 18 percent of 18- to 34-year-olds in New Hampshire say candidates this year are paying a lot of attention to issues young people care about, in contrast to 46 percent of voters 65 or older who feel their issues are being addressed.

RUSS FREYMAN, PROJECT DIRECTOR: Our generation, we've had a very good economy. We haven't had a single type of event that has really forced a generation of young adults to go to the polls and say, I am unhappy with the way things are going.

DELANEY: With seniors three times more likely to vote than the young, guess who campaign strategists worry more about.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP, BUSH CAMPAIGN AD)

GOV. GEORGE W. BUSH (R-TX), PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE: Our greatest generation deserves our greatest respect.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

DELANEY: Guess why so many TV ads up in New Hampshire mention Social Security.

BRENT MCGOLDRICK, PROJECT DIRECTOR: It is a vicious cycle, and it is a chicken-egg, you know, scenario where you have young adults, you know, tuning out because they're not hearing about the issues. Politicians don't address those issues.

DELANEY: It's not even that the young feel government doesn't work: 46 percent do while only 34 percent of seniors think government solves problems well. But the young hear mostly talk of taxes on the Republican side, a lot of talk of health care from the Democrats. And the young say those issues just don't matter as much to them as jobs, education. And so they tune out like millions of others this election cycle of all ages.

(on camera): After the recent blitz of debates, a Harvard study showed the percentage of voters describing themselves as paying quite a bit of attention to the debates rose from an anemic eight percent to a merely pathetic 11 percent. And the young were the least likely to have watched the debates.

(voice-over): One Gen-Xer who did plan to vote said attitudes among the young just mimic what's dished out in the media.

DAVID MAHEU, ENTREPRENEUR: We sort of treat the candidates like they treat us, little sound bits, you know. Someone will say something incredibly stupid and we'll comment on it.

DELANEY: In New Hampshire, two weeks from the first primary, all indications are the old will decide the first winners of the still-so- young millennium.

Bill Delaney, CNN, Concord, New Hampshire.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

BAKHTIAR: Almost 32 years after the death of Martin Luther King Jr., a nation still honors his memory and his legacy. Offices and schools were closed in much of the United States yesterday to pay tribute to the man and the vision -- one that young people in Harlem demonstrated they can still see.

Deborah Feyerick heads to the streets of New York City where young people still struggle and dream.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE) DEBORAH FEYERICK, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Manhattan eighth grader Tommy Williams knows his history. During the Civil Rights Movement, his father marched on Washington and took part in the Mississippi freedom rides. Williams also knows his current events, recent attacks sparked by racism and bigotry.

TOMMY WILLIAMS, STUDENT: In a nation where James Byrd and Matthew Shepard can still be tortured, we still have a long ways to go.

FEYERICK: It's a way blazed by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., a leader honored by Williams and his classmates at the Manhattan Country School.

CAITLIN NAIDOFF, STUDENT: We're not just celebrating Martin Luther King, we're using his values to move forward in the Civil Rights Movement.

FEYERICK: The group braved biting winds and frigid temperatures and marched through Harlem, hoping to call attention to problems like drug abuse, unemployment, racism and police brutality.

STEVE GERMAN, STUDENT: Well, I guess a lot of racism around the world still hasn't gone away. I guess you can try to change that, or at least try to help others change that.

FEYERICK: The eighth graders had spent several days examining the struggle for human rights through writings and plays.

UNIDENTIFIED CHILD: Slavery is the great evil.

UNIDENTIFIED CHILD: Then why do you own slaves?

UNIDENTIFIED CHILD: Everyone does, and I'm very nice to mine.

MILLA LOZANIVA, STUDENT: I think it's really important not just to talk about it, but to go out and do something about it.

FEYERICK (on camera): The marchers stopped at a dozen historic locations throughout Harlem, including Lucky Corner, the site of numerous political rallies. They did this to honor the leaders of the Civil Rights Movement, but also to continue the legacy of anyone who ever fought against racial injustice.

WILLIAMS: We have much to do, especially now that a lot of atrocities are still committed, not only in this nation, but around the world.

FEYERICK (voice-over): And like Martin Luther King Jr., these students also have a dream, and see a better world.

Deborah Feyerick, CNN, New York.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

HAYNES: All right, lots of people honoring the Martin Luther King holiday in the U.S.

BAKHTIAR: Good to see.

HAYNES: That's right. And we will see you tomorrow.

BAKHTIAR: Right here, same place, same time.

HAYNES: Take care.

BAKHTIAR: Bye.

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