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Newsroom/World View

NEWSROOM for January 27, 2000

Aired January 27, 2000 - 4:30 a.m. ET

THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT. THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED.

ANNOUNCER: Seen in classrooms the world over, this is CNN NEWSROOM.

RUDI BAKHTIAR, CO-HOST: Hi, everyone, we're on the air with another edition of NEWSROOM. I'm Rudi Bakhtiar.

TOM HAYNES, CO-HOST: And I'm Tom Haynes. We have lots to get to today, and we will begin it on the U.S. campaign trail.

BAKHTIAR: In "Today's News," they're at it again. Candidates vying for the presidency square off in New Hampshire debates.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

GOV. GEORGE W. BUSH (R-TX), PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES: We must welcome people from different persuasions into our party or different points of view into our party.

SEN. JOHN MCCAIN (R-AZ), PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE: I am fully qualified, I am the best prepared to lead this nation.

BILL BRADLEY (D), PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE: Why should we believe you will tell the truth as president, if you don't tell the truth as a candidate?

VICE PRESIDENT AL GORE (D), PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE: There has never been a time in this campaign when I have said something that I know to be untrue.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

HAYNES: As always Thursday's "Daily Desk: is all about science. Today: man and machine. How well can they get to know each other?

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

MARSHA WALTON, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Imagine a computer that knows what you want to look at almost before you do.

JIM SPOHRER, IBM USER RESEARCH GROUP: It's tailored to me. It is customized for me.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

BAKHTIAR: In "Worldview," the future of nuclear weapons in a post cold-war era.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

WILLIAM COHEN, DEFENSE SECRETARY: The nuclear capability and deterrent will remain a core element of security both for the United States and for Europe.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

HAYNES: Then, the sport of gambling on sports.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

JEFFREY WOLINSKY, COLLEGE STUDENT: If you came here on a given night and knew enough people, you could talk your way into finding someone to bet with the next day on a college or professional sports game pretty easily.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

HAYNES: We "Chronicle" the efforts of some U.S. lawmakers to stop sports gambling by young people.

BAKHTIAR: In today's top story, a party of five and a party of two.

HAYNES: Republicans and Democrats are whittling down their choices to front their parties in the 2000 U.S. presidential election.

BAKHTIAR: The campaigning takes us to New Hampshire, site of the first primary election of the campaign.

HAYNES: That is right. Outside the TV buildings where the candidates debated, there were fewer campaign signs yesterday, because Senator Orrin Hatch dropped out of the race.

BAKHTIAR: That left a field of five Republican hopefuls who took questions from moderators and each other. The topics were typical: taxes, education, international policy and an inevitable Republican issue: abortion.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

ALAN KEYES (R), PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE: Well, it is God's choice that that child is in the womb. And for us to usurp that choice in contradiction of our declaration principles is just as wrong. Therefore, how can you take the position that you would subject such a choice to a family conference or any other human choice? Isn't it God's choice that protects the life of that child in the womb?

MCCAIN: I am proud of my pro-life record in public life. I'm the only one here who's gone to the floor of the Senate and voted in the preservation of the life of the unborn. I have worked very hard for the ban of partial birth abortion. I have sought for approval and legislation requiring parental consent and parental notification. STEVE FORBES (R), PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE: Texas is one of the few states where minority scores have gone down not up. Standards have been dumbed down. Eighth grade science tests in Texas show a picture of four insects and says pick out the fly. So that's why the test scores have been not going up.

Now again, how are you going to improve education nationally when in Texas, it's gone down?

BUSH: The test scores in my state on the NAPE test, which compares state to state, showed dramatic improvement. And that's objective analysis after objective analysis has ranked Texas as one of the best education states in the country. It's not just because of me, it's because of teachers and principals and parents. One reason our SAT scores -- our SAT scores have improved since I've been the governor, you need to get your research to do a better job. But unlike many states...

FORBES: Your ranking went down.

BUSH: ... unlike many states, we make sure as many kids can take the SAT as possible.

GARY BAUER (R), PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE: I was a little surprised this week to see you fall into a mosh pit while a band called The Machine Rages On or Rage Against the Machine played. That band is anti-family, it's pro-cop killer, and it's pro-terrorist. It's the kind of music that the killers at Columbine high school were immersed in. I don't know, don't you think you owe an apology to parents and policemen on that one?

KEYES: Actually, I don't because I was in no -- Accusing me of having some complicity in that music would be like accusing me of -- I don't know -- for being responsible for the color of my skin. When you can't control things, Gary, you're not morally responsible for them. And I was not morally responsible for the music that was playing as I stepped out of my rally and faced Michael Moore -- whatever his name was -- doing whatever he was doing. That's his concern, not mine, and until you told me this fact, I had no idea what that music was.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

HAYNES: Now, Democrats were also on the debate floor in New Hampshire. Polls indicate Vice President Al Gore and former Senator Bill Bradley are virtually neck and neck among New Hampshire voters. The two spent much of their debate trying to distinguish their views on a number of topics, and found some points of contention.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

BRADLEY: I have offered a health care plan that provides access to universal, affordable quality health care.

You have done nothing in this campaign but attack this bill, this suggestion, this idea. In fact, The "Keene Sentinel" said "Gore persists in mischaracterizing Bill Bradley's health care plan." The question is: Why?

GORE: Well, I was the first candidate in this race, in either party to put out a comprehensive health care reform bill, and it's based on the principle that we can best get to universal health care for all Americans in a step by step way that's been endorsed Mr. Health Care in the U.S. Senate, Ted Kennedy; Governor Howard Dean, the leading expert among the Democratic governors, and all governors in this country. My plan provides health care for every single child in this country.

As college becomes more crucial to working families, a lot of students are worried about the debt that they're going to incur, and a lot of families are worried about how they can help them pay the tuition. I put out a comprehensive education reform plan that will give new help to families with college tuition.

I looked at your proposals on education, and with the exception of giving some equipment to community colleges, there's nothing to help pay college tuition. Why not?

BRADLEY: Well, indeed, you focused on an important aspect of the proposal, which is the community college proposal. Fifty percent of the kids in higher education in America go to community colleges. And yet it only gets five percent of the federal education dollar. I think that it's critical that we help community colleges because that is the place where most kids begin the process of higher education going on to four year education institutions.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

HAYNES: All right, now, the New Hampshire primary goes down in less than a week, February 1. That's a Tuesday.

BAKHTIAR: That is right. You can expect to see the candidates hitting the pavement throughout the state until then.

HAYNES: You betcha, and NEWSROOM will have coverage of the campaigning and the primary next week.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

SHELLEY WALCOTT, CO-HOST: It's about the electoral process.

ANDY JORDAN, CO-HOST: Image-making to exit polls.

BAKHTIAR: It's about the political process.

HAYNES: From how you can get involved to the presidential debates.

WALCOTT: It's about the political parties.

JORDAN: It's about public opinion and the polls.

BAKHTIAR: It's about the power of voting.

HAYNES: It's about "Democracy in America."

(END VIDEO CLIP)

HAYNES: Round two of stormy weather is making its way toward the eastern United States. That region is still recovering from a paralyzing winter storm just a few days ago. Forecasters predict more nasty weather will arrive by week's end. And that's the last thing residents of North Carolina need. The state is still digging out from Tuesday's snow storm, characterized as the worst in decades.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

ERIC HORNG, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): A rare sight of beauty after an ugly week. The tranquil scene, however, lost on the tens of thousands who remain without power throughout North Carolina, as well as those stranded at Raleigh Durham Airport, closed for a second day.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I've been waiting a long time for a good snow, but I wanted to be home for it, not sitting here in an airport.

HORNG: Few businesses in Raleigh stayed open. Those that did were busy, many people venturing from their homes on foot to stock up on supplies, despite appeals from the governor to stay indoors.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: I didn't know how much longer things were going to take to get back going again, so I just wanted to get some food, definitely have something to eat the next couple of days.

HORNG: Kimberly Burke (ph) strolled out to her car, stuck in a snow drift since Monday. Just a quick check, and then back on her way. She didn't seem to miss her car too much.

(on camera): How have you liked walking around the past few days?

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: It's been fun, actually. Most people have been very friendly and outgoing, and offering bits of advice. So it's a good way to get out and meet your neighbors.

HORNG (voice-over): As the sun sets on a another snow-drenched day, many people in Raleigh, some appropriately along Snow Avenue, trudged home to wait. Wait for a thaw, or another steep hill, but most of all a return to normalcy.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

BAKHTIAR: If you're anything like us, you often find yourself sitting in front of a computer. Whether it's surfing the Net or sending e-mail, computers are becoming an integral part of our lives. In today's "Science Desk," we get a sneak peak at the future of how you and your computer will interact. That's right, the ability for your computer to know how you feel at any given time.

Marsha Walton looks at a whole new dimension of personal computing. (BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

JIM SPOHRER, IBM USER RESEARCH GROUP: It's tailored to me; it's customized for me.

MARSHA WALTON, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Imagine a computer that knows what you want to look at almost before you do. By shining two harmless infrared lights into a user's eye, this computer can make precise measurements of pupil movement. This gaze-tracking determines exactly where on the screen the person is looking.

SPOHRER: There's no delay, no. So wherever your eyes are looking, the computer knows.

WALTON: Developed at IBM's Almaden Research Lab, the technology can detect what words and images the user is drawn to, then search for and instantly deliver more, similar information.

MYRON FLICKNER, IBM SENIOR ENGINEER: A headline crossed the lower thing about a new trial result from a leukemia study on the cancer world. And I read it, and immediately the system just took over. And I quit becoming -- I was no longer the experimenter, I was just interested in that particular topic, and I was just basically drilling down into all sorts of information about leukemia.

WALTON: Researchers built this creature, Pong (ph), to illustrate how the small camera and lights are actually tracking the user's moves.

FLICKNER: This here indicates that he's found my face, and he's looking at my face there. So as I move around, this follows me. And, basically, the little frame here just identifies where my face is, and then the second little frame here identifies where my eye is.

WALTON: But just as it is with humans, sometimes being aware of a person's actions alone is not enough; it's also important to recognize emotions.

FLICKNER: We can determine things like whether, you know, for example, whether the person is happy, sad, fearful, disgusted, anxious.

WALTON: This emotion mouse has sensors to measure a user's galvanic skin response, or hand perspiration. Other sensors measure pulse, temperature and muscle twitching. There are potential medical benefits: Users could monitor heart or other body functions the whole time they're logged on. And this concept may be useful beyond a computer at a desk.

SPOHRER: Also, you can imagine building an emotion mouse into the steering wheel of your car. So as you're driving down the road and you're starting to fall asleep, we can sense that you're going to sleep and an alarm could sound, or something like that.

WALTON (on camera): A professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology says the best emotion sensing computer would respond like your dog. If it picked up vibes that you were in a good mood, it would do everything possible to motivate you even more. But if it sensed that you were cranky or confused, it would back off but still be your best friend.

(voice-over): And like your dog, a computer that knows all your secrets better not share them with just anyone.

SPOHRER: As we get more and more information about people, obviously we can target the marketing better to people. But there will be organizations and people, I'm sure -- it's been throughout history -- who will try to exploit that.

WALTON: Computers won't soon pick up on all the cues and subtleties that a friend can, but adding perception to the brains of these machines could help humans and computers work together much better as partners.

Marsha Walton, CNN.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

ANNOUNCER: You're watching CNN NEWSROOM, seen in schools around the world, because learning never stops, and neither does the news.

HAYNES: The U.S. Energy Department's head of security says he's 99 percent confident America's nuclear secrets are safe from cyber- espionage. He says lax security which allowed a Los Alamos scientist to transfer and copy hundreds of nuclear weapons codes has been corrected. Meantime, a team of U.N. inspectors carried out routine checks of nuclear and research plants in Iraq. The team says this week's mission went well. Now in "Worldview," we examine other nuclear concerns as we spotlight nuclear weapons around the world.

WALCOTT: The Cold War was one of the most significant political events of the 20th century. For nearly 40 years, the world was under the constant threat of nuclear war, caught between the arsenals of the United States, Great Britain and France on one side, and the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China on the other.

The world heaved a sigh of relief when the Cold War ended in the 1990s, but the potential for nuclear war lives on, as nuclear disarmament seems more elusive than ever.

Jamie McIntyre takes a closer look at nuclear weapons in the new millennium.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

JAMIE MCINTYRE, CNN MILITARY AFFAIRS CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): A changing of the guard of sorts at the U.S. Navy's super-secure sub- base at King's Bay, Georgia. The ballistic missile submarine USS Pennsylvania returns from a lonely 11-week vigil in the Atlantic while, out of sight, an identical submarine, the USS Wyoming, readies to take its place.

The Cold War may be over, but not for 18 U.S. submarines armed with nuclear-tipped missiles.

CMDR. JACK NICHOLSON, USS WYOMING: The mission of the ballistic missile submarine is still nuclear deterrence.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Alert one, alert one.

MCINTYRE: When the USS Wyoming takes to sea, its primary mission is to be ready for a chilling doomsday scenario: the launch of long- range nuclear missiles.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Weapons con, you have permission to fire.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Permission to fire, permission to fire.

MCINTYRE: It's a sobering drill that the crew knows by heart and demonstrated for CNN's cameras.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Man battle stations missile for strategic launch. Spin up all missiles.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: XL, ready to report message one.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Report message one.

NICHOLSON: The officer of the deck informs me, the captain, that this message is on board, and the teams that process the message present it to me.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Put message one on. Captain, message one is a valid and authentic launch order.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: I concur, Captain.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: I concur, Captain.

NICHOLSON: I concur. Action directed.

Those two members of that team, as well as myself and the executive officer, verify that the message is valid and authentic, and then we -- if necessary, we make preparations to launch the missiles.

Spin up all missiles.

We need to be ready to carry out that mission if so tasked, but I don't lose sleep over it.

MCINTYRE (on camera): And you're convinced, obviously, that were the circumstances ever to arise where you were to receive those kinds of orders, that you'd be able to carry them out?

NICHOLSON: There's no doubt in my mind.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Thirteen, away.

MCINTYRE: A ballistic missile submarine like the USS Wyoming, packs an awesome amount of firepower. Each of the 24 vertical tubes is loaded with a Trident II missile. Each missile can carry up to eight warheads, and each warhead can create a blast more than 25 times as powerful as the bomb dropped on Hiroshima. Add that all up, and that's more firepower on this single ship than all the munitions expended during World War II.

(voice-over): Even with the Cold War over, the United States still pours billions of dollars -- 20 billion a year by one congressional estimate -- into maintaining its nuclear arsenal. Besides 18 ballistic missile submarines, the United States also has more than 500 buried missile silos housing land-based ICBMs, missiles that, despite de-targeting in 1994, are just a few computer keystrokes away from being ready to launch.

The third leg of the nuclear triad, long-range B-52 bombers, were taken off alert in 1991 by President Bush but are still available for nuclear war.

WILLIAM COHEN, DEFENSE SECRETARY: I think for the foreseeable future, a nuclear capability and deterrent will remain a core element of security, both for the United States and for Europe.

MCINTYRE: Cohen argues nuclear weapons deter not just nuclear threats, but also germ and chemical warfare. It is, he argues, a grave new world, in many ways more dangerous than the superpower standoff of the Cold War.

GARY MILHOLLIN, DIR., WISCONSIN PROJECT ON NUCLEAR ARMS CONTROL: During the Cold War, we had a lot of predictability. That is, there were only two countries, we were used to dealing with each other. Today, we have -- we're seeing nuclear weapons spreading to any number of countries, and Russia's just another country.

MCINTYRE: With underground tests in 1998, both India and Pakistan elbowed their way into a once-elite club, joining the United States, Russia, China, Britain and France as declared nuclear powers. Israel is also widely believed to have developed nuclear weapons, but so far hasn't tested them.

India and Pakistan are bitter adversaries with a common border and a history of wars.

ADM. STANSFIELD TURNER, FORMER CIA DIRECTOR: Last July, for the first time in history, we had two nations with nuclear weapons capabilities at war with each other, at war in Kashmir, a terribly dangerous situation.

MCINTYRE: Stansfield Turner was CIA director in the Carter administration and has written a book on disarmament, "Caging the Nuclear Genie." He sees dangers from current and aspiring nuclear powers, such as Iran, Iraq and North Korea.

TURNER: And they will be rather less inhibited than would we or the Russians. Why? Because the rival they would want to attack -- Iraq, let's say, attack either Iran or Israel -- might or might not be a nuclear power, and they might be willing to take that risk of retaliation. MCINTYRE: North Korea's launch of a three-stage missile in August of 1998, along with its excavation of an area believed by the U.S. to be intended as a site for a nuclear facility, has Washington worried that the famine-stricken country may soon obtain nuclear weapons.

And China's small nuclear arsenal of about 400 warheads continues to grow, the U.S. suspects with the help of secrets stolen from a U.S. weapons laboratory.

MILHOLLIN: The average person in America thinks that the nuclear threat is pretty much gone, and that's wrong. The chance that we'll all be incinerated in a big nuclear exchange with the Soviet Union, which was the fear during the Cold War, that's gone, but the chance that one or two or three or four cities may go up in America because some rogue country decides that it's had enough of the United States and it has a few bombs, that risk is increasing.

MCINTYRE: But despite the growing threats, many arms control experts say, paradoxically, that the dawn of the new millennium may be the best time for deep cuts in the U.S. nuclear arsenal, which still contains between 7,000 and 12,000 warheads.

TURNER: We don't need these numbers. We don't need them on alert.

MILHOLLIN: We don't need nuclear weapons, really, for any purpose other than to deter the use of those weapons against us. It's hard to say what number of nuclear weapons we really need for our security. I would say if we had a couple of thousand that we could use, that would be adequate.

TURNER: I think we should get down to 100 to 200 to 300, something in that range. There is a point at which you do so much damage to a country that it'll never recover.

MCINTYRE: The START 2 treaty between the United States and Russia would take both sides down to between 3,000 and 3,500 warheads and set the stage for a third round of reductions. But START 2 has languished unratified by Russia's lower house of Parliament, which has been dominated by nationalists wary of Washington's motives and outraged by NATO expansion. What's needed, argue disarmament advocates, is bold unilateral action.

TURNER: Tomorrow morning, President Clinton could call up the commander of our strategic command and say, General, I want you to take 1,000 warheads off of their missiles and move them, let's say, 300 miles away so they're not easily returned, put them in storage, and I'm going to ask to send Russian observers who will be there at the storage site. They'll count what goes in, they'll count if anything comes out.

Don't need a treaty. You just have to have a calculator and add.

MCINTYRE: Still, the United States remains committed to some number of nuclear weapons, a fact underscored last year when the U.S. Senate voted down a global test ban for fear it might render U.S. stockpiles unreliable and do nothing to stop other countries from getting the bomb.

SEN. JOHN WARNER (R-VA), ARMED SERVICES CHAIRMAN: Now, the only successful way to deter a nuclear weapons is say, don't you use it because we've got one or two better than yours. And that, thus far, has been a successful policy of this nation in deterring any use of a nuclear weapon.

MCINTYRE: Jamie McIntyre, CNN, the Pentagon.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

HAYNES: Now, Admiral Stansfield Turner, the former CIA director interviewed in our story, is in the hospital recovering from a plane crash in Costa Rica which killed his wife and several others. He's in fair and stable condition.

ANNOUNCER: Teachers, make the most of CNN NEWSROOM with our free daily classroom guide to the program. There, you'll find a rundown of each day's show so you choose just the program segments that fit your lesson plan. Plus, there are discussion questions and activities, and the guide highlights key people, places and news terms. Each day, find hot links to other on-line resources and previews of upcoming desk segments. It's all at this Web address where you can also sign up to have the guide automatically e-mailed directly to you each day. It's easy, it's free, it's your curriculum connection to the news. After all, the news never stops, and neither does learning.

BAKHTIAR: OK, when was the last time you played a game of Poker and wagered a couple of dollars on it, or your parents bought a lottery ticket? Did you know that's considered gambling? Gambling refers to any game of chance or skill that involves a financial risk. It attracts kids of all ethnicities, religions and socioeconomic backgrounds. Researchers say teenagers experiment with and get hooked on gambling at an earlier age today, even before they experiment with drugs and alcohol, and that has the attention of the U.S. Senate.

Kate Snow reports.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

JEFFREY WOLINSKY, COLLEGE STUDENT: In one semester I lost about $2,000.

KATE SNOW, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Jeffrey Wolinsky is a University of Maryland senior. He says he and his housemates have bet more in a week than they pay in rent.

WOLINSKY: If you came here on a given night and knew enough people, you could talk your way into finding somebody to bet with the next day on a college or professional sports game pretty easily.

SNOW: Valerie Lorenz, who treats compulsive gamblers, says they often start with college sports. VALERIE LORENZ, GAMBLING COUNSELOR: It is not at all unusual for a college student, for instance, to be $10,000 in debt and be a sophomore and be absolutely terrified and feel this is the end of the world for...

SNOW: And athletes can be part of the problem. There were more gambling scandals involving players in the 1990s than every other decade combined.

Senators Sam Brownback and Patrick Leahy want to stop gambling from corrupting college sports and young people. Their bill would ban betting on college and other amateur sports, betting that's only legal now in Nevada. The NCAA supports the legislation. In testimony before a national commission studying gambling, the NCAA's director said there's evidence "more money is spent on gambling on college campuses than on alcohol."

(on camera): And most of that money is being gambled illegally. No one knows how much. The gambling commission estimates anywhere from 80 to $380 billion a year.

(voice-over): Critics of the Brownback-Leahy bill call it a band-aid.

FRANK FAHRENKOPF, AMERICAN GAMING ASSN.: What you have is illegal student bookies on every major college campus in this country taking illegal bets from students on those campuses on NCAA-sanctioned events. Now, that's the problem. It's not the few bets that are placed out in the state of Nevada.

SNOW: The Senate sponsors admit their ban will not end the illegal sports betting market, but they say it's a first step.

Kate Snow, CNN, College Park, Maryland.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

BAKHTIAR: Well, that does it for us, guys. We'll see you back here tomorrow.

HAYNES: Right back here tomorrow. Take care.

BAKHTIAR: Bye.

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