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Newsroom/World View

NEWSROOM for February 1, 2000

Aired February 1, 2000 - 4:30 a.m. ET

THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT. THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED.

ANNOUNCER: Seen in classrooms the world over, this is CNN NEWSROOM.

ANDY JORDAN, CO-HOST: And welcome to NEWSROOM. I'm Andy Jordan.

SHELLEY WALCOTT, CO-HOST: And I'm Shelley Walcott. Thanks for joining us.

Today we're back on the campaign trail with the U.S. presidential hopefuls.

JORDAN: In our top story, the first primary in the U.S. for the 2000 presidential elections. Will New Hampshire choose the next U.S. president?

WALCOTT: We're in outer space for "Health Desk." Could the cure to some very human ailments lie in the stars?

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

DR. MAE JEMISON, THE JEMISON GROUP: When I look toward the future, I think some of the most exciting things actually have to do with using space-based observations to help predict disease patterns here on Earth.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

JORDAN: On to Turkey for "Worldview," where the threat of conflict plagues a region once known as paradise.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

MARY PFLUM, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Some biblical scholars believe it was the Garden of Eden, a region teeming with lush vegetation. But what was lush is now dust.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

WALCOTT: And we continue our "Democracy in America" series in "Chronicle," where the campaign trail takes a turn toward teens.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

LISA SCHUPMANN, AGE 16: I would want him to address the issues of safety in school.

DEVON MARTIN, AGE 17: I'm looking for them to answer the questions that are asked instead of trying to dodge them.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

WALCOTT: We head to New Hampshire today where it's ready, set, vote. Voters there are going to the polls in the first presidential primary of the 2000 election. They're picking who they want to represent the Democratic and Republican Parties in the November general election.

The latest CNN/"USA Today"/Gallup tracking poll of New Hampshire voters is out. It puts Democratic Vice President Al Gore ahead of former Senator Bill Bradley by 12 percentage points.

On the Republican side, Senator John McCain of Arizona has a 12- point lead over Texas Governor George W. Bush. He is followed by Steve Forbes, Alan Keyes and Gary Bauer.

New Hampshire holds only a small percentage of the delegate votes in the nomination process, but its first-in-the-nation status puts this state's primary in the spotlight.

We have two reports on the last full day of campaigning. We begin with John King.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

AL GORE, VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: Tell her it's Al Gore, G-O-R-E.

JOHN KING, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): One last day for the Democrats to spell out their differences and make a final pitch for New Hampshire support.

The acrimony of recent days was absent, the jabs more polite. But Bill Bradley still took issue with the vice president's credibility.

BILL BRADLEY (D), PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE: A candidate who won't trust the people enough to tell them the truth in the campaign, how will the people trust the candidate enough if he's president to tell them the truth?

KING: Bradley also called Gore too timid on gun control.

BRADLEY: I am for licensing, he says, of all new handguns. What he's saying is I'm for licensing of all new handguns -- not the 65 million that are already out there now.

KING: Bradley led here not long ago but trailed in the final polls and is in danger of losing the first two contests of the nominating process.

BRADLEY: And I hope that tomorrow you'll go out and give me a hand.

KING: Much of Gore's day was dedicated to old-fashioned retail politics.

GORE: I need your vote tomorrow. Al Gore, running for president. How do you do?

KING: But he did court the elderly vote by suggesting Bradley's health care plan did nothing to shore up the Medicare program.

GORE: But I support its future solvency with a specific plan to take money from the budget surplus now and put it into the Medicare trust fund.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

GORE: No, I'm not joking you. It really is Al Gore.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

KING: The Gore campaign is calling 150,000 New Hampshire households in the final hours, hoping for a repeat of the organizational advantage it had in Iowa.

A New Hampshire win would make Gore the prohibitive Democratic favorite.

(on camera): But Bradley will have more money in the bank than the vice president as the campaign moves on, so the Gore camp is seeking not only a win here but a significant margin so that it can make the case that rank-and-file Democrats want an early end to the Gore-Bradley fight.

John King, CNN, Manchester, New Hampshire.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

SEN. JOHN MCCAIN (R-AZ), PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE: As you know, we've got a great race. We've got a great race!

CANDY CROWLEY, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): For this moment, New Hampshire has turned the top tier of the Republican Party upside down. John McCain, the scrappy maverick who has defied his party and the odds, is way behind nationally. He leads in New Hampshire.

MCCAIN: When we win tomorrow night, the message is going to be sent from New Hampshire to America and the world.

CROWLEY: George Bush, the national Republican front-runner with an easy campaign style and the platinum Rolodex could lose here.

GOV. GEORGE W. BUSH (R-TX), PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE: I'm upbeat. I like my chances, and I'm going to work all day long to turn out the vote here in New Hampshire. I think we've got a very good opportunity to win.

CROWLEY: Monday, the two men, who call each other friend, rode their buses on a final lap: a restaurant in Derry, Dartmouth College in Hanover, a snowy hillside in Bedford, a town square in picture perfect Keene.

In the final 24 hours of any campaign, they have said all they have come to say. The only thing left is to say it again.

McCain on his signature issue:

MCCAIN: We're going to give the government back to the people of the United States, take it out of the hands of the special interests and the big money people, and give it back to you. And that's what this campaign's been all about from the beginning.

CROWLEY: Bush on his tax cut:

BUSH: The Republican Party doesn't need to nominate somebody who sounds like Al Gore when it comes to cutting taxes. They need somebody who will be able to make a clear case in the general election.

CROWLEY: There is little left to say.

BUSH: You sign it and shake it and smile.

CROWLEY: The final hours before polls open is about getting your voters out to vote.

(on camera): The Bush campaign is counting on turnout from core Republicans they believe are attracted to Bush's tax cuts and his national standing. McCain's fortunes hang on New Hampshire's affection for mavericks and the ability of independents to vote in either party's primary.

Candy Crowley, CNN, Manchester.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

WALCOTT: CNN will have live coverage of the New Hampshire primary throughout the day, and NEWSROOM will have the final numbers on tomorrow's show. You can follow the primary on the Web as well. Just head to allpolitics.com.

We'll have more on the 2000 election coming up in "Chronicle." We'll look at the art of the campaign from the handshakes to the debates.

JORDAN: Ever since astronaut Yuri Gagarin commanded the first manned space flight on April 12, 1961, scientists have been interested in understanding the physiological and psychological impact of space travel on humans.

Aerospace medicine is the branch of medicine that studies such matters. And the discoveries made can help people here on Earth, as well as those who journey into space, as Eileen O'Connor explains.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

MISSION CONTROL: Three, two, one, and liftoff!

EILEEN O'CONNOR, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Just about everything an astronaut does, and even the equipment they wear, benefits patients back on Earth.

DR. DAVE WILLIAMS, DIRECTOR, NASA LIFE SCIENCES: On the neurolab mission, the STS 90 mission that I flew on, we did a whole series of experiments looking at how the sleep patterns of astronauts change when we're out in space.

O'CONNOR: But it's not just the data that turns out to be useful.

WILLIAMS: It is actually a full clinical sleep lab in that head gear.

O'CONNOR: Looking at how Dr. Dave Williams slept required developing a small, portable hospital sleep lab for use in the cramped living quarters of the shuttle. Seventy million Americans have problems sleeping and some may now be able to use similar technology to have their own problems analyzed at home.

WILLIAMS: Hopefully we'll be able to help them understand what it is that's causing their sleep problem and come up with a therapy to be able to work with them to solve their problem.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Mae Jemison will be making her first trip in space today.

O'CONNOR: Dr. Mae Jemison is a former astronaut who now runs a foundation that focuses on improving health care in developing countries. An environmentalist, she says space exploration allows a unique way of looking at how and where climates are changing. That, she says, will help doctors predict where disease-carrying insects, animals and fungus will spread to next.

DR. MAE JEMISON, THE JEMISON GROUP: When I look toward the future, I think some of the most exciting things actually have to do with using space-based observations to help predict disease patterns here on Earth.

O'CONNOR: Both she and Williams point out, the number of lives saved from the money spent in space is incalculable.

(on camera): With the international space station set to be manned as early as next year, scientists are beginning to see a whole new array of possibilities in more long-term experiments in space.

Eileen O'Connor, CNN, at the Johnson Space Center in Houston.

(END VIDEOTAPE) JORDAN: Well, looking ahead to next week's "Health Desk," we'll examine the threats of bioterrorism. Law enforcement officials in the United States are growing concerned about chemical attacks. Next week's "Health Desk" examines whether U.S. hospitals are prepared for biological warfare.

ANNOUNCER: Teachers, make the most of CNN NEWSROOM with our free daily classroom guide to the program. There you'll find a rundown of each day's show so you choose just the program segments that fit your lesson plans. Plus, there are discussion questions and activities. And the guide highlights key people, places, and news terms. Each day, find hot links to other on-line resources and previews of upcoming "desk" segments.

It's all at this Web address, where you can also sign-up to have the guide automatically e-mailed directly to you each day. It's easy. It's free. It's your curriculum connection to the news. After all, the news never stops and neither does learning.

WALCOTT: In "Worldview," we check out the unusual antics of a doctor who hopes to bring harmony as well as healing. That story takes us to Cuba. We'll also visit Turkey, where a new dam and its water supply is the source of controversy. First stop, Afghanistan, where students are clamoring to get an education. Find out why school can be a treat.

RUDI BAKHTIAR, CO-HOST: Afghanistan is a landlocked Islamic country located in Central Asia. Taliban militias captured the capital Kabul in 1996 and have ruled Afghanistan ever since. At first, the Taliban was supported by many Afghans, who welcomed their promise to restore normal life after years of devastating war. But popular enthusiasm soon dwindled when the Taliban turned rockets against civilians in Kabul. The Taliban has since been regularly criticized for their style of Islamic rule. Islamic law is enforced by amputations and public executions. And there are official restrictions on the education and employment of women. At one point, the Taliban even closed down schools for women and girls. But there are signs of change.

CNN's Nic Robertson brings us this report.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

NIC ROBERTSON, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Hidden from unwanted attention, girls begin their daily lessons in a tiny makeshift classroom where they learn writing, mathematics, art and languages. They are among about 50,000 children in Kabul who are being educated in private homes because the Taliban only provides formal schools for boys. The Taliban are aware of these informal facilities, some funded by international aid organizations, but they are choosing to ignore them rather than close them down.

ERIC DONELLI, UNICEF KABUL: You find a lot of girls going to school in Kabul, and this is a trend which has been increased during the all '99. ROBERTSON: Afghans have historically given girls' education a lower priority than boys. The Taliban blame their war-ravaged economy for putting the boys first now and say their education officials would teach girls if they had the resources.

WAKIL AHMED MATTAWAKIL, TALIBAN FOREIGN MINISTER (through translator): They have -- actually they are facing lack of resources at this time. I think if the United Nations or international community helped them tackle the financial problems, this problem would no more exist.

ROBERTSON: At some of the cities' mosques, a traditional place of education here, several thousand girls are also receiving some schooling.

(on camera): And in recent weeks, an international aid organization has been given permission by the Taliban to educate girls as well as boys in a program for youngsters displaced by last summer's fighting.

(voice-over): The first explicit Taliban sanctioning of girls education, an indication, however small, of changes that point to an evolving relationship not only between the Taliban and aid workers, but also between the Taliban and the people they rule.

Nic Robertson, CNN, Kabul, Afghanistan.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

WALCOTT: Now onto Turkey, a country which occupies a unique geographic position, lying partly in Asia and partly in Europe. Through its history, it has acted both as a barrier and a bridge between the two continents. Now, there are signs of hope and conflict in a region once known as paradise. A new dam project is bringing new life into an arid region of Turkey.

But the flood gates of controversy have been opened as well, as Mary Pflum explains.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

MARY PFLUM, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Southeastern Turkey: Thousands of years ago, this parched land was called the Fertile Crescent. Some biblical scholars believe it was the Garden of Eden, a region teeming with lush vegetation. But what was lush is now dust.

ERKAN ALEMDAROGLU, REGIONAL DIRECTOR, GAP PROJECT: We are getting 200 millimeters of rainfall, 12 inches a year. So the water over here is, you know, compulsory. We need it very much.

PFLUM: To become a land of plenty again, the region needs drastic change. That's what government officials are hoping to implement through GAP, the name given to the $32 billion multi-dam project, bringing new social and economic hope to southeastern Turkey and a new source of friction to the Middle East. PFLUM: GAP works something like this: Water from Turkey's Tigris and Euphrates rivers is channeled, using a series of dams and hydroelectric plants. The water is distributed throughout the arid region using gigantic water tunnels.

(on camera): The positive effects of the GAP project here on the Haran region have been cited as nothing short of miraculous, and for good reason. Six years ago, the field I'm standing in now was dry, dusty and barren; today, it's filled with lush crops of cotton, helping Turkey to remain one of the world's leading textile exporters.

(voice-over): But while a source of hope, GAP is not without its flaws or critics. Among them: neighboring countries Iraq and Syria, which argue that GAP is robbing them of critical water sources.

ABDEL AZIZ MASRI, SYRIAN IRRIGATION MINISTRY: Until now, we've sent many message by the diplomatic channels, and until now we never received any answer.

PFLUM: GAP, worry locals, is helping only Turkey's landlords, property owners who control the lives and water supply of their tenants through a series of carefully monitored water pumps.

"I want water in the new millennium," says this woman who lines up several times a day to collect water for her cooking and cleaning needs; water to call her own.

GAP isn't perfect, government authorities admit.

ALEMDAROGLU: It is good; it is good for the next step.

PFLUM: A new beginning, centuries in the making.

Mary Pflum, for CNN, Shanerfa (ph), Turkey.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

TOM HAYNES, CO-HOST: Cuba has a stormy history with the United States, its neighbor to the north. In 1962, 38 years ago this very week, U.S. President John Kennedy ordered a ban on nearly all trade with Cuba. And while the economic embargo is still in effect, there's a new policy of people-to-people contact between the two countries. There have been cultural exchanges and sports competitions between the two.

And despite political tensions, there is even room for humor at times, as Lucia Newman discovered.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

LUCIA NEWMAN, CNN HAVANA BUREAU CHIEF (voice-over): He's a doctor who likes to clown around. Or, as he prefers it, a clown who's also a doctor. Whichever, he's an American in Cuba, here to spread laughter at a time when U.S.-Cuban relations could use some cheer. You may not recognize him, but his name, at least, should sound familiar: Patch Adams, the inspiration for the hit film of the same name about a doctor, played by Robin Williams, who believes in prescribing laughter as medicine.

DR. PATCH ADAMS: Do you have a banana?

UNIDENTIFIED CHILD: No.

NEWMAN: The real Patch Adams spent this day with sick Ukrainian children being treated in Cuba for illnesses provoked by the Chernobyl nuclear disaster, as well as with Cuban children, doctors and nurses.

Why did he come?

ADAMS: To get close to the Cuban culture, offer some of the kinds of things I do in medicine and clowning, and to go back to the states and, again, try to draw attention to the injustices of the embargo.

NEWMAN: He's referring to the nearly four-decades-old U.S. economic embargo against Cuba.

Adams came to Cuba with about 100 other U.S. doctors interested in comparing the health systems of both countries.

ADAMS: My real work is to try to change health care delivery in America away from it being a vulgar, greedy business into being a service and a gift of the people, for the people. The humor and the compassionate part are simply the context for that work.

NEWMAN: A context Adams is spreading around the world, setting up clown workshops in places like Cuba to help not only the sick, he says, but also the healthy to stay that way.

Lucia Newman, CNN, Havana.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

ANNOUNCER: You're watching CNN NEWSROOM, seen in schools around the world, because learning never stops, and neither does the news.

WALCOTT: As journalists on NEWSROOM, one of the biggest challenges we face is communicating effectively with you, our teenage audience. Lets face it: You have a unique take on current events, and that's especially true when it comes to politics. So imagine how difficult it must be for a political candidate to get his message out to young people like you.

NEWSROOM's Mike McManus now on whether U.S. presidential candidates are rising to the challenge.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

MICHAEL MCMANUS, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): One year from now, a new resident will move into 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, and the only way to get there is to do a lot of this:

VICE PRESIDENT AL GORE (D), PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE: I'm asking you for your votes. MCMANUS: Running for president in the United States is an art form. There are debates, handshakes and, of course, campaign stops.

GOV. GEORGE W. BUSH (R-TX), PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE: Thanks, appreciate your help, big boy. You guys ready to turn out the vote here?

SCOTT JONES, AGE 16: If he's talking to an audience that is our age, I don't want him talking about subjects that don't concern us or that we wouldn't be interested in.

MCMANUS: Perhaps none is more important than events at high schools.

BUSH: It's important to vote. Our country is only as good as the willingness of our people to participate in the elections. It's important that you take your responsibility seriously.

MCMANUS (on camera): To presidential candidates, the high school is one of the most important venues. Here, they are speaking to both first-time voters and future party supporters.

WILLIAM SCHNEIDER, CNN SENIOR POLITICAL ANALYST: If a candidate gets through to students in high school and makes a good impression and begins to cultivate their support, they're likely to start out with that candidate and stay with that candidate for a long time.

MCMANUS: Lisa Schupmann is a student in New Hampshire being courted by the presidential contenders.

LISA SCHUPMANN, AGE 16: I would want him to address the issues of safety in school.

MCMANUS: She was part of the student body at Manchester West High School that welcomed Texas Governor George Bush to their gymnasium. On the fence before the speech, she is now leaning toward the right.

SCHUPMANN: I'm still deciding, but, you know, from what I've heard, I guess, more of a Republican.

MCMANUS: Her classmate Devon Martin is looking for honest answers.

DEVON MARTIN, AGE 17: A lot of times, I'm looking for them to answer the questions that are asked, like instead of trying to dodge them like some do.

MCMANUS: Whatever candidates these teenagers favor, the political parties also hope to gain parental support.

SCHNEIDER: Parents take their kids very seriously. And if they know that a candidate has shown up at their school and talked to their kids, then they say that's almost as good as meeting the candidate face to face. MCMANUS: By campaigning in schools, presidential contenders are not only performing an important service for themselves, but for the future of their political party as well.

Michael McManus, CNN NEWSROOM, Manchester, New Hampshire.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

WALCOTT: It's about the electoral process.

JORDAN: Image-making to exit polls.

BAKHTIAR: It's about the political process.

HAYNES: From how you can get involved, to the presidential debates.

WALCOTT: It's about the political parties.

JORDAN: It's about public opinion and the polls.

BAKHTIAR: It's about the power of voting.

HAYNES: It's about "Democracy in America."

JORDAN: Well, as long as we're in that political vein, I have one for you: Who are Socks and Buddy? Well, they call the White House home, for now, at least. They, of course, are the first pets. And if you thought they were pampered, check out how some pets are getting treated in a New York animal hospital.

Frank Buckley takes us there.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

FRANK BUCKLEY, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Who doesn't want to bark when they're in the hospital? It can all be a bit traumatic. A soothing symphony in the recovery room is there for that, all part of the extraordinary care extended to dogs and cats, rabbits and whatever else comes through the door that isn't human, at the Animal Medical Center in New York.

DR. SARAH CHARNEY, ANIMAL MEDICAL CENTER: Hi, Max. Hi, sweetheart.

BUCKLEY: In for an exam right now, Max, the cat: a cancer patient undergoing chemotherapy and radiation. George Mayer's vet bills to cover it exceeded his monthly income, but he didn't think twice.

GEORGE MAYER, CAT OWNER: It can prolong and give him years of good quality life. So, there seemed no choice.

BUCKLEY: Americans, from the president and his dog, to elderly ladies and their snakes, love their pets; and the doctors who treat them when they're sick say their owners really do feel their pain. CHARNEY: It's very, very hard on people to have their pets ill. It's just like having a family member ill. And so it's great to be able to try to ease some of their pets' pain and also their own pain.

BUCKLEY: The 80 veterinarians at the non-profit Animal Medical Center represent 20 different specialties. Health care for pets becoming more sophisticated, using the same technologies used on humans, and facing similar challenges when it comes to paying for it. Few have insurance.

DR. HAROLD ZWEIGHAFT, VETERINARIAN: This owner may not be able to afford a sonogram or endoscopy or hundreds of dollars in blood work to find out what's wrong with their pet. This is a tragedy.

BUCKLEY: Still, some people, like Jane Abbey, are willing to pay whatever the price.

JANE ABBEY, PET OWNER: I've spent tens of thousands of dollars in this hospital over the years. In fact, when they were renovating, all the doctors and the staff would tease me -- I know everyone -- and they would say to me: Jane, they should name a wing after you. You've given more money here than the largest benefactors.

BUCKLEY: And what pet owner wouldn't give whatever they had to save their best friend?

Frank Buckley, CNN, New York.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

HAYNES: Coming up this week on NEWSROOM, we begin our special series, "Drugs: Perceptions, Realities." New information indicates more American teens are turned off by drug use than ever. What's causing the shift in attitudes and why do teens continue to over- estimate drug use? Plus, how popular teen role models are getting in on the anti-drug crusade, and why parents are playing such a critical role.

This is NEWSROOM's Tom Haynes. Be sure to watch "Drugs: Perceptions, Realities," starting this Thursday, February 3, right here on NEWSROOM.

JORDAN: Well, that's it for us here on NEWSROOM. Be sure to join us tomorrow for an update on the space shuttle Endeavour. Its launch from the Kennedy Space Center was scrubbed yesterday because of bad weather.

WALCOTT: And for more information on the shuttle's planned Earth-mapping expedition, be sure to check out yesterday's NEWSROOM program and classroom guide.

JORDAN: Have a great Tuesday.

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