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NEWSROOM for March 30, 2000Aired March 30, 2000 - 4:30 a.m. ET
THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT. THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED.
ANNOUNCER: Seen in classrooms the world over, this is CNN NEWSROOM.
SHELLEY WALCOTT, CNN ANCHOR: NEWSROOM is on the air for Thursday, March 30th.
Welcome. I'm Shelley Walcott.
ANDY JORDAN, CNN ANCHOR: And I'm Andy Jordan. Thanks for making us part of your school day.
Here's today's lineup.
WALCOTT: The issue in today's news is student-led prayer in the United States. Should it be legal at school-sponsored athletic events?
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: Dear heavenly father, I pray your presence in the stadium tonight.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
JORDAN: We head for the scene of the crime in "Science Desk" to learn what new tricks investigators are using to solve those unsolved mysteries.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: You've captured the world just as if you were there. So an investigator in D.C. at the FBI can be viewing a crime scene in L.A. in minutes.
WALCOTT: Then it's our daily trek around the world in "Worldview." Today we head to the Vatican for a history lesson on the pope.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: The papacy has survived not just one, but now nearly 2,000 years, at times just barely and at times very well.
(END VIDEO CLIP) JORDAN: In "Chronicle," not getting enough of this? Lack of sleep: It could leave you lacking in other areas too.
WALCOTT: Our top story takes us to the football field, where debate over school prayer heads into a new quarter.
The U.S. Supreme Court is deciding whether students should be allowed to say amen before quarterbacks yell hike. Supreme Court justices are hearing arguments on whether students should lead stadium crowds in invocations prior to high school football games. The debate is rife with constitutional as well political ramifications. Republican presidential candidate and Texas Governor George W. Bush has filed a brief supporting student-led prayer. the case centers around a Santa Fe, Texas, school, which has suspended a policy that allowed this kind of prayer.
The issue goes to the core of the separation of church and state debate. The U.S. Constitution provides for that separation in the First Amendment where it says, in part, "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press."
Charles Bierbauer was in court to hear the case, which questions where the Constitution draws the separation line when it comes to high school yard lines.
CHARLES BIERBAUER, CNN SENIOR WASHINGTON CORRESPONDENT (voice- over): Santa Fe, Texas, kicked off its high school football season last fall with a prayer.
MARIAN WARD, SANTA FE STUDENT: Dear heavenly father, I pray your presence in the stadium tonight.
BIERBAUER: Eighteen-year-old Marian Ward was at the Supreme Court to learn if she had a constitutional right to do that.
WARD: I'm not here to put down people who don't believe what I do, but I don't think that changes my right, my freedom to exercise my right.
BIERBAUER: The court has ruled schools and clergy may not initiate prayer, but the policy allowing students to choose a speaker and the speaker to choose to pray is in question.
Justice Kennedy: "What I'm concerned about is the school becoming a forum for religious debates."
Kennedy's vote on a divided court may decide the issue dividing the small Texas town.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: We're standing for freedom from religion.
BIERBAUER: Opponents say the policy forces those students who must attend games to hear the prayers. Justice Scalia was skeptical: "Is anybody forced to be a band member, cheerleader, football player?"
Lawyer Anthony Griffin: "When you're a teenager, yes!"
ANTHONY GRIFFIN, SCHOOL OPPONENTS' ATTY.: Yes, I think it is a big deal. My clients are Catholic and Mormon and they're not against prayer, but what they are against is having prayer imposed upon their children.
BIERBAUER: The school district argues it does not tell students what to say.
JAY SEKULOW, SCHOOL DISTRICT ATTORNEY: Religious speech, if a student makes that determination, is protected under the Constitution. To require that a school district affirmatively censor only a religious message is censorship.
BIERBAUER: Justice Souter scoffed at the school's claim of neutrality: "I don't think there is going to be a speech at those football games saying, 'Religion is bunk.'"
Justice Souter says the school district wants the court to close its eyes to the district's history of encouraging school prayer.
(on camera): The justices' opinion is due by summer. Though only addressing prayer at football games, it could open or close the door to prayer at other school functions.
Charles Bierbauer, CNN, the Supreme Court.
WALCOTT: In the headlines today, new developments in the impasse over Elian Gonzalez. Cuban President Fidel Castro says the 6-year- old's father is ready to travel to the United States to claim his son. In a public address to his nation yesterday, Mr. Castro said Juan Miguel Gonzalez will travel with family, friends and child specialists. Lawyers for the family in Florida and the Immigration and Naturalization Service say they'll resume talks about the boy's immigration status today. INS officials say the family now has until tomorrow to promise in writing they'll hand over Elian if they lose their court battle to keep him, or the government will revoke his temporary status to stay in the United States.
With more on yesterday's events, here's Lucia Newman in Havana, Cuba And Mark Potter in Miami, Florida.
MARK POTTER, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Tonight, a candlelight vigil is being held outside the home in Miami's Little Havana neighborhood, where Elian has been staying with his relatives.
But continuing with the statement made by Miami Dade County Mayor Alex Penelas, he said that federal officials can expect no help from county police and local police if they try to remove Elian Gonzalez from that house before the appeals process is completed.
LUCIA NEWMAN, CNN HAVANA BUREAU CHIEF (voice-over): President Fidel Castro announced on national television what he called "the ideal solution" to end the impasse, the chaos, as he calls it, in the Elian Gonzalez case.
First, he says that Elian's father, Juan Miguel Gonzalez, is willing to travel to the United States at a moment's notice, accompanied by his wife, Elian's six-month old brother Jani (ph), Elian's closest first cousin, his first grade teacher, 12 of his closest classmates, his kindergarten teacher, a team of psychologists, psychiatrists, the boy's pediatrician, and a legal adviser for the father.
Now they would all remain in the United States for as long as necessary, says Castro, while the appeal process lodged by the boy's Miami relatives runs its course in an Atlanta federal appeals court.
JORDAN: Well, today's "Science Desk" puts the field of forensics under the microscope. Forensics is the branch of medicine that gathers evidence for civil or criminal law cases. Under the U.S. justice system, everyone is innocent until proven guilty. But proving guilt can be difficult, especially if there were no witnesses at the scene of a crime. And that's where forensic medicine comes in.
Doctors, dentists and chemists are often called upon to gather evidence at crime scenes, things such as scraps of clothing or blood particles. Now, new tools are available to help them in what can be difficult work.
Marsha Walton reports.
MARSHA WALTON, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Forensic scientists rely on everything from DNA to dental records to gather clues and identify victims. It can be a gruesome job, but it has its rewards.
DR. DAVID SWEET, BUREAU OF LEGAL DENTISTRY: The thing that's very gratifying for me is to be able to positively identify a victim, to give them back that identity, and to let the living family members respond in an appropriate way and then get on with their lives.
WALTON: These medical and legal experts surveyed tools to make their jobs safer and easier, from the low tech, like body bags...
JANE EVERSON, CENTENNIAL PRODUCTS: The inner bag is totally heat sealed so that if they're coming down off a mountain or something this outer layer, if it by chance gets a tear, the inner layer stays totally intact and the body fluids will stay in the inside bag.
WALTON: ... to complex, like laser-induced fluorescence imaging.
JOHN DI BENEDETTO, U.S. DEPT. OF ENERGY: What we have here is a high-powered pulse laser, and it's illuminating a sample on a white piece of terry cloth.
WALTON: This laser, still in the testing phase, detects sweat, semen or saliva, invisible to the human eye, and it works in daylight. Lasers used now only work in the dark, complicating efforts at a crime scene.
DI BENEDETTO: Where are the chairs, where are the -- where is the knife laying, where is the rest of the information, and not having to do that in the dark is what this technology is really about.
GEORGE SETOLA, SPEX FORENSICS GROUP: If you have a red surface, you'll pick maybe a blue or a yellow, just to get a contrast.
WALTON: Fibers, fingerprints and other evidence can also be detected with lights and filters. That technology still requires darkness, but it's available and affordable.
(on camera): Any fan of mystery novels knows it's possible to uncover a clue from what looks like a blank pad of paper by rubbing it with a pencil, revealing impressions from a previous page. Electronic image processing has improved on that same basic concept.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: This was a charred document from a body that was found next to the freeway. Using this system and an alternative light source, they were able to bring out this information that was within this charred wallet.
WALTON (voice-over): Even when they're not set on fire, crime scenes and the clues within them deteriorate quickly. But a 360- degree virtual view can preserve an exact picture for police, lawyers and juries.
ED LEWIS, IPIX CORP.: You take a picture one direction, and it captures 180 degrees, then you turn the camera, take the picture a second direction, and you've captured the world just as if you were there. So an investigator in Washington at the FBI can be viewing a crime scene in L.A. in minutes because someone has taken an IPIX and sent that over the Internet to them.
WALTON: Digital imaging streamlines the examination of hundreds of pieces of evidence.
MELVIN CAVANAUGH, LOS ANGELES CO. SHERIFF'S DEPT.: It saves casework time and provides documentation that they were having to do by hand.
WALTON: While this procedure is effective inside a lab...
JOHN REFFER, SENSIR TECHNOLOGIES: We want to be able to move the technology from the laboratory out into the field.
WALTON: Time is precious in solving crimes. Could a new, portable, infrared spectrometer have helped investigators find a mystery car in the crash that killed Princess Diana?
REFFER: If you had a hit and run accident, you could take the spectrometer into the field, analyze transfers of paint, identify the type of vehicle and narrow the search down.
WALTON: The horrors and homicides may never let up, but better and faster answers for victims' families may give them peace of mind.
Marsha Walton, CNN, Reno, Nevada.
JORDAN: Is there life beyond Earth? We may never know. But if there are aliens out there, astronomers are one step closer to discovering where they live.
Ann Kellan reports in today's "Science Desk Extra."
ANN KELLAN, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Researchers Geoff Marcy and Paul Butler have detected more than 20 so-called extra-solar planets since 1994, all of them huge, the size of the planet Jupiter or larger. Now they say they've found two that are much smaller.
GEOFFREY MARCY, UNIV. OF CALIF.-BERKELEY: We have discovered the first Saturn-sized planets ever found outside our solar system.
HEIDI B. HAMMEL, SPACE SCIENCE INSTITUTE: The discovery of Saturn-sized objects is an extremely critical step toward finding terrestrial-type planets.
KELLAN: So far, Marcy and Butler haven't been able to see any planets, rather they use the wobble method to find them. As a planet orbits a star, its gravity tugs on it, making it wobble. They say the speed at which they are finding extra-solar planets suggests there are a lot of them.
PAUL BUTLER, CARNEGIE INST. OF WASHINGTON: We're finding planets around about 5 percent to 10 percent of the stars right now, and what's going with the other 90 percent to 95 percent of the stars simply isn't known at this point.
KELLAN: None of the planets found so far is much like our own. Even a planet the size of Saturn is 100 times the mass of Earth. And these extra-solar planets are either so close to the sun that they are called hot-roasters, or have an oblong orbit that's nothing like what we see in our solar system.
MARCY: The early suggestion is that the orbits of planets around other stars are more eccentric than those in our own solar system, and this may have something to do with the fact that biology and life has flourished here.
KELLAN: Even though Marcy and Butler are getting better at detecting smaller planets, they won't be able to find Earth-sized planets using current methods. That will have to wait for a new generation of Earth-orbiting telescopes, including one called Terrestrial Planet Finder. That won't launch for another 10 years.
Ann Kellan, CNN.
ANNOUNCER: You're watching CNN NEWSROOM, seen in schools around the world, because learning never stops -- and neither does the news.
Pope John Paul II, the head of the Roman Catholic Church, spoke out yesterday about his recent trip to the Holy Land. The 79-year-old made his first public appearance since his week-long visit to the Middle East. He's back in Vatican City, the seat of the church. And that's our destination today in "Worldview," as we look back at popes through the centuries.
JORDAN: For the millions of Catholics around the world, it is the center of the universe. Vatican City, a 110-acre enclave within Rome, is the smallest independent country in the world. It's home to about 850 people. The most famous resident, of course, is the pope, the spiritual leader of the Roman Catholic Church. He holds a position of esteem and authority that has been around for nearly two millennia.
CNN's Jim Bittermann reports, while the title of pope is enduring, those who've held it haven't always been endearing.
JIM BITTERMANN, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): It is a spiritual monarchy older than most any other institution in human history that has brought kings to their knees, outlasted governments and always exerted influence far beyond its power. And while men and their ideologies have come and gone over the past millennium, the papacy has survived not just one, but now nearly 2,000 years, at times just barely and at times very well.
JIM BOWDITCH, JOHN CABOT UNIVERSITY: I mean it's no accident that St. Peter's is the largest church in Christendom.
BITTERMANN: Papal power, according to historians like Jim Bowditch, reached a peak during the Middle Ages.
BOWDITCH: For most of the thousand years after the fall of Rome, Christianity was the dominant religion. The church was the dominant institution. It was the best controlled. It was the best financed. It was the best ordered. It was certainly the richest single institution in the West and it had that indescribable thing called faith. People believed.
BITTERMANN: But it took both faith and reform for the papacy to survive. Back before procedures were established for selecting the pope, all manner of men held the job. There was a lawyer, a banker and a judge. Over the centuries, there were popes who led troops into battle, who were put on trial, who sired children or were themselves born out of wedlock. Pope Felix III was the great grandfather of Pope Gregory I.
LEWIS: From the beginning, the church has been made up of saints and sinners. I'm always sort of fond of the Renaissance popes simply because of their sinfulness. They had a lot of nice parties. On the other hand, in the same period you had a lot of very, very sincere Christians who sought changes and were able to get the church to change from outside.
BITTERMANN: It was at the Council of Trent in the 16th century that the serious Christians prevailed and any papal partying came to an end. The bishops of the Roman church, faced with the competition and threat of the rapidly spreading Protestant Reformation launched counter reforms.
BOWDITCH: They tightened up their finances. They eliminated a good deal of the corruption and nepotism and selling of offices. And so in some ways the Catholic Church came out of that Reformation or the papacy also came out of that Reformation smaller, less grand, but in many ways stronger.
WILTON WYNN, AUTHOR, "KEEPERS OF THE KEYS": I would say that they have been much more flexible than one would have imagined, that is in meeting the demands of a new situation.
BITTERMANN: Long time papal observer Wilton Wynn credits the church's adaptability for much of its survivability, tracing that capacity to adapt and move on right up to 1962, when Pope John XXIII gathered his bishops for their council during what became known as Vatican II, an event meant to bring the church up to date.
WYNN: I think the pope just felt that there was a general malaise in the church, that it was declining under its own weight, more or less, and not keeping up with the modern world.
BITTERMANN (on camera): But for some Catholic faithful, the promise of Vatican II outstripped the reality. The suggestion that bringing things up to date might mean more democracy in the church was clearly rejected by popes after the Vatican II meetings came to a close.
(voice-over): There was Paul VI with highly controversial decrees on subjects like birth control and then John Paul II with his ongoing effort to bring discipline to his churchmen and make his bishops directly accountable to the Vatican.
WYNN: I have reason to believe that he is afraid if you don't keep that powerful papacy here the church may become fragmented and it would lose its role as a universal church.
BITTERMANN: Maintaining that role has been John Paul II's unending concern as he has tirelessly traveled the world as papal evangelist. No pope has ever used transportation and communication the way John Paul has, modern methods but a message that he will not change to suit the times.
LEWIS: Technology doesn't replace the old ways. The challenge is to adapt to the reality of the lifestyles of the Christians who are living today.
BITTERMANN: But for now, the Catholic Church shows no sign of adapting its doctrine and dogma to those modern realities If anything, the present pope demands more of his flock than ever before.
LEWIS: I've always liked the quotation of G.K. Chesterton (ph) that Christianity hasn't been tried and found wanting, but it's been found difficult and not tried.
BITTERMANN: Still, not all modern Catholics are challenged by the difficulties of faith. John Paul II rules a church of a billion people who identify themselves as Catholic but who increasingly do not follow his teachings. It's almost a contradiction in terms that while the pope has demonstrated time and again how powerful his moral force can be in world affairs, he and his advisers are said to be most concerned about the indifference of their own flock to his theological message.
In his effort to find and hold believers, John Paul has broadened the church's missionary work outside its traditional territory and committed himself to naming more saints to provide believers with a wider range of spiritual examples. So far, he's added more than 280 to church rolls, some not without controversy, John Paul's interest in sainthood for his predecessor Pious XII, for example. Pious, who reigned during W.W.II, is accused of having sympathized with the Nazis and been indifferent to the plight of the Jews, charges some Vatican officials deny.
UNIDENTIFIED VATICAN OFFICIAL: This is an ideological opposition not based on historical evidence but on ideological preconceived ideas to attack the church.
BITTERMANN: But the Vatican has come under attack before. Just as recently when churchmen celebrated the cleaning and restoration of St. Peter's, they have lived to see their spiritual institutions emerge renewed. Still, the world is changing. The Catholic faithful are being enticed by the secular. The secular are being attracted to religions other than Catholicism, which are growing at a faster rate.
BOWDITCH: The church has had to be an ever smaller minority, it seems to me, in the next few centuries if this trend continues, plus the danger of secularization inside their own traditional areas, I think you could, you could be pessimistic.
BITTERMANN: It is a rainy Wednesday near the end of the century, the end of the millennium and the long end of the papacy of John Paul II. The faithful by the thousands are gathering for his weekly audience to honor the office but also the man. John Paul, now aged and suffering, brought innovation and new humanity to the papacy, revived some of its temporal power with his skilled diplomacy and never wavered from his traditional theology.
It is the 264th and latest adaptation of the role first filled by the apostle Peter, to whom Catholics believe Christ entrusted the keys to heaven, a role 2,000 years later that is far different but no less demanding. Jim Bittermann, CNN, Vatican City.
JORDAN: Coming soon on "Worldview," a special series which looks at young people around the world. It's called "Youth 2000," and it's all about you. During the week-long series, we'll explore the dreams and dilemmas of kids around the world, your health and welfare, your rights, your roles. What impact does poverty have? How important is your education? All that and more beginning April 10th and running all that week, right here on CNN NEWSROOM.
WALCOTT: Well, it's happened to me, my mom yelling at me to get out of bed on Saturday morning. Twelve hours, she'd say, is enough. Well, no offense, Mom, but here's what the experts are saying. Toddlers need 11 hours with a two-hour nap -- oh, to be a toddler -- preschoolers 11 to 12 hours, school-age children 10 hours. And if your age ends in the word "teen," you should be getting nine and a quarter hours of shut-eye every night, eight hours for adults. But as we all know, many of us never hit those targets.
Pat Etheridge looks at one possible cause.
PAT ETHERIDGE, CNN PARENTING CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Fourteen-year-old Jacob Brown is getting wired.
UNIDENTIFIED SLEEP TECHNICIAN: It's going to tell us whether you're asleep or awake, and it's going to tell us what sleep stage you're in.
ETHERIDGE: Tonight, doctors will determine if he has a sleep disorder. The tangle of electrodes map Jacob's brain waves, breathing, and snoring.
High-tech readouts show that Jacob has obstructed nighttime breathing, or apnea, a chronic condition that interrupts his sleep at night and leaves him drowsy during the day.
JACOB BROWN: Feeling exhausted, like I'm sleepy, you know.
JACOB'S MOTHER: He's always been a tough kid to put to sleep, to fall asleep, to wake up.
ETHERIDGE: Some doctors now believe many children who've been labeled with attention deficit disorder or other learning disabilities may have sleep apnea instead. The symptoms, including an inability to sit still or stay on task, are strikingly similar.
DR. GARY MONTGOMERY, DIRECTOR, CENTER FOR AIRWAY AND SLEEP DISORDERS: Very often when children are tired, they think of mechanisms to try to keep themselves awake, and therefore they get more wound up, more active.
ETHERIDGE: And the solution may be removing the tonsils and adenoids to clear the breathing passage and allow a good night's sleep.
(on camera): Recent sleep studies from Tulane University School of Medicine and Brown University both show that students with poor grades were more likely to have sleep apnea. But those who went on to have their adenoids and tonsils removed soon showed significant improvement in school.
MONTGOMERY: Yes, very dramatically, the kids do much better in school. They don't have these behavioral problems with difficulty concentrating, hyperactivity, et cetera. And then they're not labeled as attention deficit any more, and they don't need medication.
ETHERIDGE: Sleep apnea often goes undetected because parents and children sleep in different beds. Five-year-old Christopher Butcher (ph) was diagnosed last fall. After surgery, his mother says, he's already a different kid.
CHRISTOPHER BUTCHER'S MOTHER: It was amazing. The next day after the surgery, he was a silent sleeper. There's usually a reason for just the waking. And, you know, don't ignore it. I think it's worth asking questions about.
ETHERIDGE: The message to parents, if your children are having trouble during the day, pay closer attention to how they sleep at night.
Pat Etheridge, CNN, Atlanta.
ANNOUNCER: Teachers, make the most of CNN NEWSROOM with our free daily classroom guide to the program. There you'll find a rundown of each day's show, so you choose just the program segments that fit your lesson plans. Plus, there are discussion questions and activities. And the guide highlights key people, places and news terms. Each day, find hot links to other online resources and previews of upcoming desk segments.
It's all at this Web address, where you can also sign-up to have the guide automatically e-mailed directly to you each day. It's easy, it's free, it's your curriculum connection to the news. After all, the news never stops -- and neither does learning.
WALCOTT: A team of scientists in Arizona is hoping to uncover some answers about a mysterious Native American tribe that vanished centuries ago. The Anastazi Indians disappeared sometime around the 14th century. Scientists say the tribe was one of the most compelling peoples in the ancient Southwest.
At their peak, the Anastazi built four- and five-story buildings, really, the first apartment buildings in the Western world. The ruins of these structures are still perched on cliffs in remote canyons.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
JOHN FOX, SCIENTIST: The Anastazi are arguably one of the great civilizations in America.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
WALCOTT: The search team is comprised of archaeologists, biologists and explorers. Besides the dig in Utah, they will also comb will steep canyons in Colorado and New Mexico to search for clues. It's all part of America Quest. A live, interactive expedition directed by five million students in 80,000 classrooms across the United States. The students vote online to decide where the America Quest team should go and what evidence they should try to gather. The team also gets daily search advice from some of the top archaeologists in the U,S.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
FOX: And the big mystery is what happened to the Anastazi? We know that some time around 1300, this great civilization basically disappeared or at least abandoned most of the Four Corners area. And we also know their descendants live here today.
WALCOTT: The searchers hope legends and stories from modern native communities will provide additional clues to help them solve one of America's oldest mysteries.
JORDAN: Well, maybe one of these days we'll find out.
WALCOTT: Maybe we will.
JORDAN: We'll see you tomorrow, bye.
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