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Newsroom/World View

NEWSROOM for April 13, 2000

Aired April 13, 2000 - 4:30 a.m. ET

THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT. THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED.

ANNOUNCER: Seen in classrooms the world over, this is CNN NEWSROOM.

TOM HAYNES, CO-HOST: Welcome to Thursday's NEWSROOM. Glad to have you with us. I'm Tom Haynes.

RUDI BAKHTIAR, CO-HOST: And I'm Rudi Bakhtiar. Here's what's coming up.

HAYNES: In today's top story, protesters descend on the U.S. capital, in an attempt to disrupt meetings between the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.

BAKHTIAR: In "Science Desk," first it was Dolly the Sheep, now it's Missy the Dog. The business of cloning your favorite pet.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

LOU HAWTHORNE, GENETICS SAVINGS & CLONE: It started with a dream of a single anonymous billionaire who loved Missy so much that he wanted another dog with the same genetic endowment.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

HAYNES: We head to Cambodia in "Worldview," where some children are forced to work to help their families survive.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

MAR SOPHEA, INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATION: We have to talk about the skill training, we have to talk about the vocational training for those at risk.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

BAKHTIAR: Then in "Chronicle," more on our top story as we focus on student activists joining the protests in Washington, D.C.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

DAMON HALL, STUDENT ACTIVIST: The IMF and the World Bank is just another one of those organizations that is completely aiding the interests of multinational corporations over the interest of human beings. (END VIDEO CLIP)

BAKHTIAR: We're in Washington, D.C., for today's news, ground zero for another round of protests involving world trade. Thousands gathered outside the U.S. Capitol building to rally against a proposed trade agreement involving the United States and China. Their aim is to persuade lawmakers to oppose a pact, they say, would lead to widespread job losses in the U.S.

The agreement would help ease China's entry into the World Trade Organization and grant the communist country permanent normal trade relations. Normal trade relations allow imports to be sold in the U.S. with lower tariffs, which are fees imposed when goods are imported into the United States.

Police in Washington are also on the scene of protests at the World Bank and International Monetary Fund headquarters. Activists there want to disrupt the organizations' spring meetings this weekend. Hundreds were given intense training in non-violent tactics to avoid what happened last year in Seattle, Washington. Tens of thousands gathered there in December to oppose international trade policies at a WTO meeting. The protests escalated into riots and vandalism, prompting Seattle's mayor to declare a state of emergency. And that's exactly what police in Washington want to avoid this time around.

Kate Snow reports on this week's demonstrations and why so many are angry at the World Bank and IMF.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

KATE SNOW, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): World War II was nearing its end, and leading nations wanted to ensure the world economy would recover.

FRED BERGSTEN, INST. FOR INTL. ECONOMICS: One way to do it was to write rules of the game so that countries would cooperate rather than fight each other over the world economy, and to put institutions in place to defend and implement those rules.

SNOW: And so, in 1944, the World Bank and International Monetary Fund were created.

THOMAS DAWSON, INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND: We are, in a sense, a bit like a credit union. Our member countries contribute the funds that we then lend to the countries that need it. The IMF lent more than $40 billion to Asia during the recent economic crisis and about $20 billion to help post-communist Russia.

Protesters in Washington say the IMF puts too many conditions on loans.

NADINE BLOOM, PROTESTS ORGANIZER: They encourage governments to cut back on social spending, health care, education. These things drive poverty through the ceiling.

SNOW: The IMF admits, it does require countries receiving loans to tighten their budgets.

DAWSON: The truth is, when a country gets into difficulty, tough things, tough decisions are needed. And our focus is to try to assist governments to get out of their difficulties as quickly as possible.

SNOW: The World Bank operates differently, providing money for development projects, like eliminating epidemics like river blindness in West Africa.

CALLISTO MADAVO, VICE PRESIDENT, WORLD BANK: I think the real story is the successes that revolve around schools that we build in little places, bridges that we build in little places, roads that connect poor farmers to markets.

SNOW: But critics say the projects often fail. There's little follow-up, and loans are given to the countries that need them the least.

ALLAN MELTZER, CARNEGIE-MELLON UNIVERSITY: They ought to lend to countries not where there are the most poor people, but where there are the most poor people without resources.

SNOW (on camera): The World Bank acknowledges it's made mistakes. But officials here say developing countries would be worse off without their efforts.

Kate Snow, CNN, Washington.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

BAKHTIAR: College students are among the people protesting the IMF and World Bank meetings in Washington. Later, in "Chronicle," CNN Student Bureau looks at a group of young activists as they prepare to join the protest in the U.S. capital.

HAYNES: In today's "Science Desk," we check out cloning. Cloning is the process of copying the genetic blueprint for an organism, and creating a whole new one with the same genetic makeup. In a way, you're regrowing the whole individual from one cell.

Now, outwardly, the clone might be an exact duplication!

HAYNES CLONE: All right, look our clone boy, I'll take it from here. All right, where are we now? Oh, yes, environment, that plays an important role in forming our personalities too, like mine and his.

So the clone isn't really the same as the original. As Rusty Dornin tells us, cloning is becoming a pet project among some researchers.

What are you looking at?

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

RUSTY DORNIN, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): She's beautiful, athletic and super smart. Her owners say Missy is one of a kind, that is until researchers can make a canine copy. Missy's owners are spending more than $2 million in attempts to clone her.

LOU HAWTHORNE, GENETICS SAVINGS & CLONE: It started with a dream of a single anonymous billionaire who loved Missy so much that he wanted another dog with the same genetic endowment.

DORNIN: It's called the "Missiplicity Project," and it's no joke. Sixty-two dogs at Texas A&M University are would-be surrogate moms of Missy II. Missy will be the first. Then any Fido might do.

HAWTHORNE: The type of animal you want to clone is one that's a once-in-a-lifetime masterpiece of Mother Nature. That could be a mutt, it could be a pure bred, but it's an animal that, for whatever reason, you want to capture those genes.

DORNIN: To capture your dog's genes, the Genetic Savings & Clone Corporation will send you a bio-box. A vet will take DNA from your dog. And for $1,000, it will be frozen until the process is perfected. Some worry whether dogs produced by cloning will be as healthy.

HANK GREELY, STANFORD UNIVERSITY: There's a little bit of evidence from cloning from cattle, particularly, that there are some higher rates of some problems with joints and growth in cloned cattle.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE:: She's like an angel. This is sort of the devil dog.

DORNIN: Just try and duplicate that, say some dog owners.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: Yes, I mean, it would be cool if it would come out the same, but it wouldn't be the same dog, you know?

GREELY: I do think it's important though to note that it would be the illusion of sameness. Cloning won't make a pet or a person immortal.

DORNIN: Researchers believe they'll be able to successfully clone 13-year-old Missy within the next year. And while it may cost a few million to try and clone your canine today, soon it could come down to the cost of a new car, a price some would gladly pay to recreate the essence of their four-footed friend.

Rusty Dornin, CNN, San Francisco.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

ANNOUNCER: You're watching CNN NEWSROOM, seen in schools around the world, because learning never stops and neither does the news.

BAKHTIAR: What's it like to be poor and alone, when you're just a kid? Those are some of the problems we'll examine today in "Worldview," as we continue our special series: "Youth 2000." We'll hear about orphans around the world. And we'll head to Cambodia to check out life on the streets. Later, more street kids in Indonesia, where malnutrition is rampant. And on to Mexico, to find out who's in school and who's not. And arts and crafts in Kenya, a creative solution to an African problem. Also, we look at poverty and what it means for young people around the world.

SHELLEY WALCOTT, CO-HOST: There's a big gap between the haves and the have-nots around the globe. The United Nations says 20 percent of the world's population consumes more than 80 percent of all goods and services. And that divide is expected to be even more dramatic over this century.

Kathy Nellis provides a look at the face of poverty.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

KATHY NELLIS, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Poverty knows no geographic borders, no age limits, no ethnic boundaries. And while many people believe it's only a problem in developing countries, the third world nations, experts say that's a huge misconception.

JOHN GATES, TASK FORCE FOR CHILD SURVIVAL AND DEVELOPMENT: It's an enormous problem throughout the world. It's a major problem here in the United States. Significant numbers of youngsters are growing up in poverty.

NELLIS (on camera): While the world's economy has soared over the past 20 years, the number of people living in poverty has grown to 1.2 million people. That's about one in every five people.

(voice-over): And 600 million of those are children.

CHARLES LYONS, PRESIDENT, U.N. FUND FOR UNICEF: As many as half the people in the world are -- that are poor that are in poverty are children. So it's a huge -- it has a disproportionate toll on children and women. And it is a condition that feeds and promotes other negative conditions for children. Poor people have less access to adequate food, poor people have less access to basic social services, including health care, poor people are less prepared -- their children tend to be less prepared to enter school healthy, nourished, capable of learning.

NELLIS: While the problem seems overwhelming, even a little bit of money can make a difference.

LYONS: Iodine deficiency is the leading cause of preventable retardation in the world. The equivalent of a couple of pennies per year is the cost of putting iodine in salt, which we take for granted.

NELLIS: There are plenty of ways for kids to help other kids.

UNIDENTIFIED CHILDREN: Trick or Treat for UNICEF!

LYONS: Two of the most practical kinds of things, actually, that UNICEF uses to raise money were started by children. Trick or Treat for UNICEF started 50 years ago, in the first year raised $17. Kids started that because they heard what UNICEF did, and they wanted to help. Fifty years later, that's raised over $100 million. UNICEF greeting cards over 53 years, I think, have raised close to $1 billion in revenue. The first UNICEF card was a thank you note from a little girl in Czechoslovakia who had been assisted by UNICEF after World War II.

NELLIS: But these activities are just the beginning. There are many ways to help and many organizations to get involved with.

LYONS: Find the area that you are most interested in. Find the kind of organization that you most want to volunteer for, help raise money for. There are lots of ways. Your creativity and initiative are the only things that will limit you.

NELLIS: Kathy Nellis, CNN.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

HAYNES: We turn now to Asia and the country of Cambodia. There are an estimated 600,000 child laborers there. Many of them don't go to school. Still, others struggle to do both -- attend school and work. It's not an easy task, which you know all too well, if you have a part-time job while you're in school. Just imagine if your paycheck was a necessity for survival.

Riz Khan has our report.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

RIZ KHAN, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): This rubbish dump in the Cambodian capital is a place that 12-year-old Kim Rakama (ph) visits nearly every day -- not to throw things away, but to comb through the waste to see what she can salvage to sell on the streets. Kim goes to school in the morning and comes to the dump in the afternoon where she earns a meager reward for her labors. Kim is one of the countless working children in the capital. They clean cars, make bricks, sell vegetables, and even beg for money to help feed their families.

Although there are laws in Cambodia against child labor, they are rarely enforced. The United Nations says the only way to end child labor is to find real employment for the children's parents.

MAR SOPHEA, INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATION: We have to talk about the skill training, we have to talk about vocational training for those at-risk children, or to those at-risk families. After that, we can provide them with income, with alternatives. Then they can -- at least they can start the income-generation activity. Then the income of the family will be increased so they will not sell their children to work. Instead of that, they will send their children to school.

KHAN: That sounds like a good plan, and Cambodia's government is renewing its promise to stamp out child abuse, saying violators will face stiff punishment. But it's unlikely these measures will come soon enough for this generation of Cambodian children.

Riz Khan, CNN.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

(AUDIO GAP)

WALCOTT: ... Cambodia to nearby Indonesia. It contains more than 13,000 islands, but only about 6,000 are inhabited. Indonesia has gone through traumatic and often violent change over the past two years. That's taking a toll on the nation's children.

Maria Ressa has more.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

MARIA RESSA, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): In most of Indonesia's cities, including the capital, Jakarta, children are dropping out of school. The cause: an economic crisis that has doubled the number of Indonesians living below the poverty line, 32 million of them children below the age of 15 -- like Firdaus (ph), who now sings for a living on the streets of Jakarta. His parents are scavengers who rely on the 30 cents Firdaus brings home each day.

"I do this to support my family," he says.

Families aren't getting enough to eat. UNICEF says roughly half of all children below 2 are suffering from malnutrition so severe it can cause permanent brain damage.

STEPHEN WOODHOUSE, UNICEF: We have a real danger of Indonesia having a lost generation -- a generation of children that are malnourished, that have not been able to go to school, and they, therefore, will not be able to compete with their counterparts in neighboring countries.

RESSA: UNICEF adds, Indonesia must act quickly to help its children.

(on camera): Aid workers say this government must listen to the cry of the children, pointing out Indonesia's future will depend on the children of today.

Maria Ressa, CNN, Jakarta.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

BAKHTIAR: Dealing with problems is a part of life. You probably face different challenges and tasks every week. Maybe you get help from your friends or parents or teachers. But some kids face awful conditions all alone. The U.N. says there are about 100 million children around the world who are orphans.

Margaret Lowrie has their story.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

MARGARET LOWRIE, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Growing up alone, orphaned by what the U.N. calls a "trilogy of tragedy": poverty, AIDS and war. In Afghanistan, it is the legacy of 20-some years of civil conflict. LOUIS-GEORGES ARSENAULT, UNICEF: Their parents have been killed, sisters and brothers being killed in front of them, they have seen too many shellings, they are witnesses to horrors we don't want to talk about. And it's going to take a long time to be able to support these children into a way that they will be able to have some kind of a normal life.

LOWRIE: A normal life is something denied to more than 100 million children around the world. They are part of the growing-up- alone "epidemic," according to a new report from UNICEF, the United Nations Children's Fund. The underlying cause, it says, is acute poverty.

CAROL BELLAMY, UNICEF: Well, it's estimated that there are 3 billion people in the world who live on less than $2 a day. Half of those are children, and half of those are living on less than $1 a day. So it affects them in terms of their health status, it affects them in terms of their going to school. Very often, they end up becoming the children who are most exploited.

LOWRIE: In sweatshops or factories, living rough on the streets, displaced in their own countries or refugee in others, some not only orphaned by war, hostage to it as well.

BELLAMY: Three-hundred thousand children already engaged as child soldiers. The children, even when they're not participating as soldiers, are moved or forced from their communities. It has enormous psychological as well as physical impact on children.

LOWRIE: HIV and AIDS also take an enormous toll on childhood, creating a killing field in sub-Saharan Africa. Aids not only claimed a million children there in 1998, this year the U.N. predicts the number of AIDS orphans will rise to 13 million, not only mother- or fatherless, but often ostracized by their own communities.

(on camera): The U.N. says steps must be taken now to combat these problems, that government and international organizations must help poorer countries invest more in health and education so that growing-up-alone children aren't so alone.

Margaret Lowrie, CNN, London.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

HAYNES: Our next stop: Mexico. The government there requires all children to go to school. Of the 90 percent who begin classes, only about half finish elementary school.

But school is only one concern when it comes to Mexico's young people. As Harris Whitbeck explains, many of them are living in poverty.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

HARRIS WHITBECK, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Mexico has 30 million children under the age of 20, almost a third of the population; 12 million of them live in conditions of extreme poverty. Children's advocates say not enough is being done to provide them with access to education, health services and jobs.

RAFAEL ENRIQUEZ, UNICEF (through translator): Survive, but survive with quality. That is the main challenge because we are talking about 30 million children in Mexico that are looking for opportunities to improve their life. Survival, but survive well; survive with quality of life.

WHITBECK: The Mexican Congress is debating new legislation that would centralize children's rights services, making them, in theory, more accessible to those who need them.

MARIA DEL CARMEN MORENO, CHAMBER OF DEPUTIES MEMBER (through translator): We as adults have not been responsible enough. We haven't loved them or educated them. That's why we need to improve programs and toughen sanctions for those who abuse children.

WHITBECK: But advocates say, until Mexico's economy offers more opportunities to the country's poorest, those at the bottom of the economic and social food chain will still be its youngest citizens.

Harris Whitbeck, CNN, Mexico City.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

ANDY JORDAN, CO-HOST: The world of art offers opportunities to young people plagued by poverty and life on the streets. We head to Kenya's capital, Nairobi, to discover how crafts can help build confidence and inspire a troubled generation.

Alphonso Van Marsh has more.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

ALPHONSO VAN MARSH, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): These children begging for handouts from visitors on the streets are a common and unavoidable sight in Kenya's capital city, Nairobi. There are an estimated 160,000 street children in Kenya; 60,000 of them are in the capital. Some are orphaned and abandoned. Many are abused or suffer from diseases like AIDS. Most resort to prostitution and drugs, like sniffing glue. All are poor and consider the streets their home.

RACHEL ALWALA, CHILDLIFE TRUST: The bottom line is poverty. For as long as we are living in this poverty, really, it's not easy to do away with the street children problem.

VAN MARSH: Rachel Alwala's organization, the Childlife Trust, says art is one solution to the street children problem. These children are putting their frustrations and dreams to paper, part of an art exhibition called "The Other Side of the Street." Their finished works are designed to help convince street children that they can get their lives together.

One success story is 16-year-old Jale. He used to live on the streets. Music is his inspiration to start over and continue his education.

JALE, FORMER STREET CHILD: I like to tell even the other children, street children, that they are far from Kenya, to stop using drugs, and they look for any shelter that they can stay there. And when you move out from the street it will be -- change your life and you can start to have a new life.

VAN MARSH: While crafts and dramatic productions won't solve all the issues these youth face, Alwala says it should show that caring means more than a handout.

ALWALA: If a kid gets to know that there is something they can do, there is a skill in them they can exploit it, then it will attract them to leave the streets and go to the centers where they can get help and, at the end of the day, even earn a living out of it.

VAN MARSH: A living where income comes through a paycheck, not through a car window.

Alphonso Van Marsh, CNN, Nairobi.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

HAYNES: The college years: traditionally a time when young people question the world around them and spread their political wings. Well, today, CNN Student Bureau follows a group of young activists at Purdue University in Indiana and their preparations for a rally in Washington, D.C. we told you about in today's news.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

JON SHANER, CNN STUDENT BUREAU (voice-over): Talking with friends, studying for a test: At first glance, Damon Hall seems to be your average college student. But on this cold, windy spring day at Purdue University, Damon and his friends are living in this tent city trying to get their message out.

DAMON HALL, STUDENT ACTIVIST: The IMF and the World Bank is just another one of those organizations that is completely aiding the interests of multinational corporations over the interest of human beings.

SHANER: Damon is just one of a number of students from around the country planning to protest at the International Monetary Fund and World Bank meetings in Washington, D.C. Like many of the demonstrators who will be in Washington, Damon and Jessica Spain were also at the World Trade Organization protests in Seattle.

JESSICA SPAIN, STUDENT ACTIVIST: I was tear-gassed. My friend Fouad (ph) got his finger, like -- I don't know if it was actually broken.

SHANER: But the group has mixed feelings about the dangers of Washington.

SPAIN: Because D.C. is used to these kind of things, used to protests. So I assume that, you know, the cops will have things more under control.

BRANDON THOMAS, STUDENT ACTIVIST: You'd have to be stupid not to be worried about being hurt, right? I mean, unless you're truly a fearless person, but...

HALL: Activists are a category that people love to stereotype -- they dress funny, they are not very conventional sometimes.

SHANER: Spend a day with these students and you'll soon realize they aren't conventional.

HALL: Activism is my schooling, it is my university.

THOMAS: I'm just trying to do what I can to help support positive social change.

SHANER: That's why they've been camping out at Purdue to protest sweatshop labor, with some students going on a hunger strike. Damon says the group is getting a lot of support.

HALL: We've had so many people just stop by and ask questions.

SHANER: But not everyone agrees with their methods.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: You're trying to force Purdue into that by getting public sympathy because of this hunger strike.

THOMAS: I mean, I'm really, you know, a small part of what's going on at Purdue, and that's -- and Purdue is such a small part of what's going on nationally.

SHANER: A small part, maybe, but they know how to get attention, so they'll keep protesting and organizing and waiting for Washington.

Jon Shaner (ph), CNN Student Bureau, West Lafayette, Indiana.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

BAKHTIAR: I think it's really good to see young people participating in politics like that.

HAYNES: It is. And college is a good time to do it.

BAKHTIAR: Yes.

HAYNES: Hey listen, coming up April 4: teenage driving in the United States.

BAKHTIAR: We'll look at the graduated licensing program. And as part of our coverage of teen drivers, we'll also look at an inspiring relationship between a mother and a best friend who are turning their personal loss into a public, lasting memory for the community.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: It's a facility that kids can go and find themselves and find a skill and a talent, whether it be camera work, whether it may be computer work, or just playing.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

BAKHTIAR: That's coming up April 24 right here on NEWSROOM.

HAYNES: That's right, that does it for us, guys. We'll see you back here tomorrow.

BAKHTIAR: Bye.

TO ORDER A VIDEO OF THIS TRANSCRIPT, PLEASE CALL 800-CNN-NEWS OR USE OUR SECURE ONLINE ORDER FORM LOCATED AT www.fdch.com

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