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Newsroom/World View

NEWSROOM for June 20, 2000

Aired June 20, 2000 - 4:30 a.m. ET

THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT. THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED.

ANNOUNCER: Seen in classrooms the world over, this is CNN NEWSROOM.

ANDY JORDAN, CO-HOST: It's Tuesday. This is CNN NEWSROOM. Welcome. I'm Andy Jordan. Here's what's coming up.

In today's top story, suspected illegal immigration leads to human tragedy in Britain.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

NIC ROBERTSON, CNN CORRESPONDENT: In all, 54 men and four women died in what officials describe as a terrible death, sealed in a truck with no air to breathe.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

JORDAN: Next, in our "Health Desk," science fiction as science fact? A camera that could provide human pictures from inside the human body.

From advances for life to the causes of death, "Worldview" examines why Russian men are dying young.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

JILL DOUGHERTY, CNN MOSCOW BUREAU CHIEF: Russian men have the highest mortality rate in Europe, according to a leading expert. Their life expectancy is less than 60 years.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

JORDAN: Then in "Chronicle," "Democracy in America." Today, a look at political ads for the presidential campaign.

Today we head to Great Britain for a startling discovering in the back of a cargo truck. British immigration officials were stunned when they looked in a truck said to be carrying tomatoes. They found 58 bodies and two suspected asylum seekers struggling to breathe. Officials believe they were seeking asylum and were participating in an organized operation to smuggle illegal immigrants. The discovery at the British port city Dover is a reminder of an international trade; one designed to prey on vulnerable nationals seeking an escape from political, economic and social adversity. Nic Robertson picks up today's story.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

NIC ROBERTSON, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Crushed tomatoes are all that remain of the cargo destined for British markets in which the stowaways were hiding on their passage to Britain. In all, 54 men and four women died in what officials describe as a terrible death, sealed in a truck with no air to breathe.

JACK STRAW, BRITAIN'S HOME SECRETARY: Those who tragically died last night are without question the victims of these traffickers. These organized criminal groups do not care about human safety. They care only for profit.

ROBERTSON: Customs officials say they discovered only two survivors when they opened the doors of the refrigerated truck during a routine inspection.

NIGEL KNOTT, BRITISH CUSTOMS SERVICE: When this particular vehicle came into our controls, it was selected for further investigation, taken over to the base. And when it was opened up, the officers obviously found a pretty appalling and traumatic scene inside.

ROBERTSON: They also report that despite the heat wave sweeping northern Europe, the refrigeration unit was switched off. A major criminal investigation is now under way. The driver of the truck has been arrested, and the police expect it is only the beginning of a long process.

MARK PUGESH, KENT POLICE SPOKESMAN: Well, we need to answer many, many questions: Who are these people, where are they from, how did they get in the truck, how long were they in the truck, what did they die from, who else was involved. So these are all the sorts of questions that we have to ask, but we're only a few hours into what is a very large criminal inquiry.

ROBERTSON: Autopsies now under way will likely confirm the cause of death and help police establish the nationality of the victims, whom they so far describe as being Asian.

(on camera): The two survivors are now in police custody for their own protection. The fear is the criminal gangs that tried to bring them into the country may target them for the vital information they have about the tragedy.

Nic Robertson, CNN, Dover, England.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

JORDAN: Now, the immigration crunch in Britain is not typical for Europe right now. In fact, in April, asylum applications for most European countries were down 18 percent from a year earlier. But Britain was getting the bulk of those applicants, taking in almost 22 percent of all of them. Tom Mintier looks at what some desperate people are doing to enter the country illegally.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

TOM MINTIER, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): It has become one of the easiest ways into Britain, a method of travel with historical roots: stowaways, not on ships sailing the ocean, but hidden on trucks that often become death traps.

British immigration authorities estimate as many as 10,000 a month pass through these checkpoints, hidden in the back of trucks; some with the driver's knowledge, some without. On average, more than 200 a week are caught by British inspectors and sent back across the English Channel.

The flood continues despite new tough laws designed to curb illegal immigration to Britain.

CLAUDE MORAES, EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT: What is happening here is that on the one hand we have immigration racketeers, criminal gangs which are operating on a global scale. They are clearly taking money for passage in this way. They're operating on a big scale.

MINTIER: Such a large scale, some trucks have been stopped with more than 100 illegal passengers. The new British laws fine truck drivers thousands of dollars each time they are caught with stowaways, whether the driver knew or not.

ANN WIDDESCOMBE, BRITISH SHADOW HOME SECRETARY: The problems with fines for lorry drivers is that they don't distinguish between the innocent and the guilty.

MINTIER: Asylum seekers in Britain who make it past the border still face a difficult life as they wait for their cases to come to court. The numbers are huge. In 1998, more than 46,000 asylum seekers entered Britain. Last year, more than 71,000.

(on camera): There is currently a backlog of more than 94,000 asylum cases waiting to be heard by judges, the delay for most more than a year. And since asylum seekers are not permitted to work and have no income, it's a wait many see as being as difficult as the journey here.

Tom Mintier, CNN, London.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

SHELLEY WALCOTT, CO-HOST: In the headlines today, the U.S. Supreme Court has ruled praying in public schools must be private, even if the prayer is initiated and led by students. The decision is being met with disappointment and disbelief by some in the small Texas town at the heart of the dispute. Four high school students and their parents sued the Santa Fe Independent School District in 1995. They objected to student-led prayers at football games.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

UNIDENTIFIED REPORTER (voice-over): The U.S. Supreme Court ruled student prayer at school events, even outside the classroom, violates the constitutional separation of church and state.

BARRY LYNN, AMERICANS UNITED FOR SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE: We're not going to see any kind of public assemblies, public football games, basketball games turned into revival meetings -- not after this decision.

MARION WARD, SANTA FE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT Dear heavenly father, I pray your presence in the stadium tonight.

UNIDENTIFIED REPORTER: A question for the Supreme Court was whether prayer should be allowed at school-related functions, even if it's not delivered by a member of the staff or clergy. Before a Santa Fe, Texas High School football game, the prayer came from a student, Marion Ward, who was chosen by other students to speak.

WARD: I'm not here to put down people who don't believe what I do, but I don't think that changes my right, my freedom to exercise my right.

UNIDENTIFIED REPORTER: Opponents say students attending games are forced to hear the prayers.

ANTHONY GRIFFIN, SCHOOL OPPONENTS ATTORNEY: What they are against is having prayer imposed upon their children.

UNIDENTIFIED REPORTER: Proponents say the court ruling has gone too far.

JAY SEKULOW, ATTY. FOR SANTA FE SCHOOL DISTRICT: It ignored the fact that these are students that are speaking and not government actors. And to convert a student into a government speaker is just wrong.

UNIDENTIFIED REPORTER: And the school board contends it never told students what to say. But by a 6-3 margin, the justices ruled students saying prayers at a school-related event is not properly characterized as private speech. Writing for the majority, Judge John Paul Stevens ruled "it would encourage public prayer and make non- Christians feel like outsiders."

(END VIDEOTAPE)

JORDAN: Doctors may soon have a new weapon in the fight against intestinal problems. Believe it or not, it's a pill containing a tiny camera that will give them a close-up view of the digestive tract. The procedure is called "swallow endoscopy." An endoscopy is the procedure that allows doctors to study the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, rectum or colon. Doctors hope this new endoscopy will help the 62 million Americans diagnosed with a digestive disorder each year.

Dr. Steve Salvatore reports. (BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

DR. STEVE SALVATORE, CNN MEDICAL CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): In the movie "Fantastic Voyage," humans were miniaturized and transported inside a human body.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP, "FANTASTIC VOYAGE")

UNIDENTIFIED ACTOR: We can transfer to the inner ear...

UNIDENTIFIED ACTOR: Yes, sir.

UNIDENTIFIED ACTOR: ... and go by way of the endolymphatic duct.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

SALVATORE: That was science fiction, but this is science fact: a tiny capsule about the size of a dime that contains a camera and a light source and a transmitter that can take pictures from inside the body.

DR. PAUL SWAIN, GIVEN IMAGING, INC.: We get pictures of the small bowel, and you get some wonderful images as it moves through the small bowel, which opens and closes and squeezes down. And so you can see inside there.

SALVATORE: Here's how it works: A patient swallows the capsule just like any other pill. The miniature camera then travels through the body naturally, the way food does, taking pictures along the way. Outside the body on the abdomen is a series of antennas that receive signals from the capsule to a wearable recorder, which later downloads the images to a computer -- images of the small intestine that, until now, were never directly seen by doctors.

SWAIN: We can really only reach possibly the first third of the small bowel with conventional endoscopes. So there's a big area which accounts for quite a large distance of bowel, typically perhaps about two meters, that we really can't examine inside the body.

SALVATORE: The idea of wireless "pill" technology was first developed in the 1950s. On his recent trip into space, Senator John Glenn swallowed a similar device to measure his core body temperature. But experts say adding a camera is a major benefit.

DR. THOMAS ULLMAN, MT. SINAI MEDICAL CENTER: If we're talking just about small bowel or small intestine, certainly patients with obscure bleeding sources would benefit. And patients, potentially, with inflammatory bowel disorders such as Crohn's disease would benefit.

SALVATORE: The capsule is excreted naturally and is completely disposable, with a one-time use for each patient. Although rare, the main safety concern is blockage.

SWAINE: There is a small risk that it might get stuck in the bowel if a patient had a stricture, say, or had had an operation which would cause narrowing in the gut.

SALVATORE (on camera): The wireless endoscopy capsule is not yet available for general use. More studies are needed to determine its safety and effectiveness. The company is in the process of applying for FDA approval.

Dr. Steve Salvatore, CNN, New York.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

JORDAN: Health is also our theme in "Worldview" today. We'll explore the pollution problem in India. And we'll examine risk factors in Russia. Find out which behaviors are threatening man. And learn about the brain power of Britain's cabbies. What's the driving force involved.

We begin in Japan where funeral plans are under way for a former prime minister. Noboru Takeshita died yesterday from respiratory failure after a long illness. Over the years, he played a significant role in Japanese politics, not only during his time in office, but also behind the scenes. His funeral is set for Wednesday.

George Bryant looks back at this leader's life.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

GEORGE BRYANT, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): A son of a saki brewer, Noboru Takeshita was first elected to Parliament in 1958. Demure in stature and known for his evasive way of speaking, Takeshita was far from flamboyant, but he managed to rise in the ruling Liberal Democratic ranks, becoming the countries prime minister in 1987.

As prime minister, Takeshita maintained the conservative pro- business and pro-U.S. philosophy of his party. In 1989, less than two years at the job, he was forced from office after admitting to accepting illicit stock and cash donations. He was never charged.

But Takeshita was never able to rid himself of the constant allegations of bribery and other abuses of power. Long after he was driven from office, Takeshita reigned as one of the top king-makers of Japanese politics. He was regarded as one of the "Shadow Shoguns," or behind-the-scene fixers. It's said that he hand-picked the two prime ministers who succeeded him. He was also the mentor of Keizo Obuchi, who was prime minister for almost two years until suffering a stroke in April. Obuchi died May 14.

Takeshita was hospitalized last year after complaining of lower back pain. And just last month, he announced his retirement from politics. On Monday morning, he died of respiratory failure. Noboru Takeshita was 76.

George Bryant, CNN.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

WALCOTT: Our first stop is India, a country in southern Asia. India is the second-largest country in the world in population. Only China has more people. India is also one of the most densely populated countries in the world, and one of the largest in area. New Delhi is the country's capital and Bombay is its largest city.

The people of India belong to a variety of ethnic groups and speak hundreds of dialects and languages. They also practice a number of religions. Many are Hindus and India is home to one of the world's largest Muslim populations.

While the large numbers of people in India add to the spice of life, it's also the source of a problem that could hurt people's health.

Satinder Bindra reports on India's growing problem with pollution.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

SATINDER BINDRA, CNN NEW DELHI BUREAU CHIEF (voice-over): Dust, smog and choking pollution are a way of life in India, home to three of the world's 10 most polluted cities. Every year in India's capital, New Delhi, 44,000 new cars edge onto the city's jammed streets. Rickety three-wheel taxis spew out unburned hydrocarbons, pushing up the level of known carcinogens, like benzene, to eight times above the safety limit.

SUNITA NARAYAN, ENVIRONMENTALIST: One person dies every hour in Delhi because of air pollution. Now that's phenomenal. That's 10,000 people a year because of air pollution.

BINDRA: At several hospitals across Delhi, doctors struggle to treat children suffering from pollution-related illnesses. In the Choudhary home, all three children suffer from wheezing attacks.

MUKUND CHOUDHARY, BUSINESSMAN: They are coughing, they are struggling, they don't have the same kind of energy level, they don't have the same kind of stamina which the kids should have.

BINDRA: Officials in New Delhi have now shut down scores of smoke-belching factories.

(on camera): They've also phased out leaded gas and taken thousands of old trucks and taxis off the road. Still, with no large decrease in pollution levels, officials accompanying President Bill Clinton are expected to push India to invest in more American pollution control equipment.

(voice-over): A leading Indian newspaper, "The Economic Times," estimates this year India needs $2 1/2 billion of environmental technology. Mukund Choudhary says India must buy the equipment immediately.

CHOUDHARY: I don't see any reason why the politicians of this country should delay the implementation for making a better environment. BINDRA: Like other developing countries, India's bursting cities are the engine of economic activity. Many Indians want their country to prosper, but they say growth must be balanced with environmental concern or Indians will not have the strength to continue to build their country.

Satinder Bindra, CNN, New Delhi.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

TOM HAYNES, CO-HOST: Where's the best place to live if you hope to live a long life? Well, apparently not Russia, especially if you're a male. A look at the elderly population shows there are more than twice as many women over 65 years old as men. That's not surprising when you consider the average Russian man only lives to about 59 years, women to about 72 years. By comparison, life expectancy for men in the United States is about 73 years.

So just why is Russia such an unhealthy place for men? Well, as Jill Dougherty explains, lifestyle is a big factor.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

DOUGHERTY (voice-over): It's 7:00 a.m. and Henry Komarov has already run 10 kilometers, just part of the daily workout for this 66- year-old sports fanatic. The number one enemy, he tells me, is rest.

HENRY KOMAROV (through translator): I've been running for 30 years. Running is the most democratic type of sport. Everyone can do it.

DOUGHERTY: Henry ran in the Moscow Marathon. Three years from now, when he's 70, he plans to run a marathon in the U.S.

(on camera): Henry's not your typical 66-year-old in any country, but here in Russia he's part of a small minority of men who take care of their health.

(voice-over): Russian men have the highest mortality rate in Europe, according to a leading expert. Their life expectancy is less than 60 years. Heart disease and circulatory problems are rampant, causing half of all male deaths. Russia's foremost heart surgeon, Renat Akchurin, the man who operated on President Boris Yeltsin, points to several reasons.

DR. RENAT AKCHURIN, CARDIOLOGIST: Probably style of life. Probably the overeating. Probably of stress. Of course, because of the smoking habits.

DOUGHERTY: Alcohol, too, is a culprit. A new study says two- thirds of working age Russian men who die, die drunk. Russian women live at least 12 years longer than men.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE (through translator): All the men are lazy. We're not.

DOUGHERTY: Henry thinks she's right, but he doesn't waste time thinking about it.

KOMAROV (through translator): I want to die on the road running a race. That would be a dream come true.

DOUGHERTY: Jill Dougherty, CNN, Moscow.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

WALCOTT: Next, we travel to Great Britain, the eighth largest island in the world. If you've ever been to England, you know that it's overflowing with great sights: Buckingham Palace, where the royal family lives; the Tower Bridge, which is often mistakenly called the "London Bridge"; and Big Ben, the famous clock tower with a bell weighing more than 13 tons.

Visitors to England often depend on cab drivers to get to these sites. But according to new research by a London university, the cabbies themselves are warranting some of the attention these days.

Neil Connery tells us why.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

NEIL CONNERY, ITN REPORTER (voice-over): Renowned for being good talkers, London cabbies now have something else to boast about. According to experts from University College London, part of a cabbies' brain is streets ahead from the rest of us. The scientists found that the 16 cabbies who had brain scans had a larger hippocampus. That's the area of the brain linked to navigation.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: I'm a professor in cabology. My mother always wanted me to have an "-ology," so I've got one.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: I don't think that's a -- no, I don't think so, no. It's -- just look around at the cab drivers. They're just ordinary people, really.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: When you do the knowledge, you learn more in one year than a medical student does in three.

CONNERY: Cabbies spend on average two years doing the knowledge which tests their grasp of London's geography.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: See what some of the present-day knowledge boys are asked and I wonder, could I do it? I wouldn't like to do it again.

CONNERY: So cabbies are now officially recognized for ranking higher than most in terms of brain power. What better way than to relax at the end of that busy shift navigating through the streets of London, then expanding that knowledge even further with a quick fare to the library.

Neil Connery, ITN.

(END VIDEOTAPE) ANNOUNCER: You're watching CNN NEWSROOM, seen in schools around the world, because learning never stops, and neither does the news.

JORDAN: It's Tuesday, and that means time for our weekly dose of politics in the United States. Today's focus: money, television and advertising in political campaigns.

Political ads have been around for a long time. In 1952, Dwight Eisenhower aggressively used advertising to help get him elected president. Since then, political ads have been an integral part of running a campaign.

Bruce Morton explains.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

BRUCE MORTON, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): From sign-on to sign-off, your television airwaves are deluged with political ads during the election season. In fact, according to a new study in the 75 top media markets, local TV stations took in $114 million -- a record -- for playing 151,000 political ads in the first four months of the year.

Jon Corzine, who won the Democratic Senate primary in New Jersey, is the poster boy of this trend...

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP, JON CORZINE AD)

NARRATOR: Two-hundred-and-eighty-thousand people lost their jobs.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

MORTON: ... thirty-seven-hundred-eleven ads on four New York and Philadelphia stations. You have to buy those markets to campaign in New Jersey. Viewers, the study says, were 10 times more likely to see a Corzine ad than a political report on local news. Corzine, a rich unknown, spent mostly his own money.

As for political coverage, 30 days before the local primary, the Annenberg School of Communication at the University of Southern California surveyed coverage on 19 stations in 11 cities: three, WCVB in Boston and WMUR in Manchester, covering New Hampshire, and WEWS in Cleveland gave more than three minutes coverage a night. The other 16 provided an average of 39 seconds. To be fair, that's a sound bite from the candidates and doesn't count stories about campaign strategy, who's ahead and so forth.

(on camera): Many assignment editors believe and some surveys indicate that a lot of Americans aren't very interested in politics. These new studies should probably be read along with a Pew Foundation report which shows Americans less interested in news and increasingly turning to the Internet for the news they want.

(voice-over): Virtually all news organizations -- newspapers, networks, and so on -- have Web sites; so do virtually all campaigns and a lot of special and public interest groups: labor unions, the NRA, and so on. Television may be doing less and may be watched less in politics. The Internet is certainly doing more.

Bruce Morton, CNN, Washington.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

ANNOUNCER: Teachers, make the most of CNN NEWSROOM with our free daily classroom guide to the program. There you'll find a rundown of each day's show so you choose just the program segments that fit your lesson plan. Plus, there are discussion questions and activities, and the guide highlights key people, places and news terms. Each day, find hot links to other online resources and previews of upcoming desk segments. It's all at this Web address, where you can also sign up to have the guide automatically e-mailed directly to you each day. It's easy, it's free, it's your curriculum connection to the news. After all, the news never stops, and neither does learning.

JORDAN: Well, many of us became familiar with the name Tiger Woods back in 1997 when the golfer won the Masters tournament at age 21. Well, this weekend he demolished the field at the U.S. Open, winning the tournament by a record 15 strokes. His career has fans and fellow pros in awe, and his success is expanding the game's appeal to a new group of players.

Martin Savidge reports.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

MARTIN SAVIDGE, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Across America, getting kids off inner-city streets is more and more just a simple drive. And much of the credit goes to one man: Tiger Woods.

SAM PURYEAR, EAST LAKE GOLF ACADEMY: Before, I was telling parents who had only grown up with football and basketball and baseball. Now I can say, your son or daughter can be a good golfer. And now I can use Tiger Woods as a frame of reference.

SAVIDGE: The East Lake Golf Academy focuses on getting young people out from some of Atlanta's roughest neighborhoods and onto the fairway. Over the years, the program's success has mirrored the pro golfer many participants now aspire to be. Five years ago, only a handful of youths were enrolled. Now, almost 200. The results go far beyond the putting green. Just ask 13-year-old Yasman Davis.

YASMAN DAVIS, GOLFER: At school I had a lot of trouble, suspended four times this year. And if I wasn't in golf, I'd probably be somewhere behind somebody's bars, to tell you the truth.

SAVIDGE: Sam Puryear says golf offers young people a way out of the inner city to college, even into corporate America.

PURYEAR: Most of the CEOs that I know play golf. Well, what better way to get some time to actually talk to a CEO than on a golf course? SAVIDGE (on camera): Success has brought its own kind of problems, though. Since the end of the school year in June, the East Lake Golf Academy has had close to 175 phone calls from parents wanting to get their kids in the game. The program only had room for three.

(voice-over): The Atlanta academy has received attention from other cities wanting to copy its success, a success ultimately tied to a golfer named Tiger.

PURYEAR: So I need -- Tiger, give me 15 years and then you can go into retirement. We have a lot more Tiger Woods coming up.

SAVIDGE: So as Tiger Woods continues to shatter the records of golf's past, he is also forever changing the game's future as well.

Martin Savidge, CNN, Atlanta.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

JORDAN: He's definitely on a roll. We'll see more of him, I'm sure.

That'll do it for us today for your Tuesday show. We'll see you back here tomorrow. Bye.

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