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Newsroom/World View

NEWSROOM for March 30, 2001

Aired March 30, 2001 - 4:30 a.m. ET

THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT. THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED.

ANNOUNCER: Seen in classrooms the world over, this is CNN NEWSROOM.

RUDI BAKHTIAR, CO-HOST: Welcome to your Friday show. I'm Rudi Bakhtiar. Glad to have you with us today.

Lots ahead, and we start with a look at the rundown. In "Today's News," foot-and-mouth disease: how meat eaters in Russia are reacting to the outbreak in Europe. Next, in our "Editor's Desk": Could 40 million people be wrong? A look at why so many folks are into the soaps. And from drama on the tube to groundbreaking television, "Worldview" checks out the first English-language channel in China. Then in "Chronicle," Condoleezza Rice: a profile of the U.S. national security adviser.

The ongoing spread of foot-and-mouth disease prompts British Prime Minister Tony Blair to consider a strategy once rejected. Mr. Blair met with farm leaders Thursday to discuss plans for a possible animal-vaccination program. The move would be in addition to, not in place of, the existing program of slaughter.

European Union veterinary experts have endorsed a vaccination plan for British dairy cattle. The plan allows for up to 180,000 cows to be vaccinated against foot-and-mouth disease. The epidemic has affected about 750 British farms in the last five weeks. Hundreds of thousands of animals have been slaughtered to stop its spread.

European governments have restricted vaccination, because inoculated animals carry similar antibodies as infected ones. Therefore, countries that vaccinate would lose their disease-free trading status on world markets. That could prove very costly to any agricultural industry. Mr. Blair says the decision on whether to go forward with the vaccinations must be made by this weekend.

The foot-and-mouth crisis has also stepped up debate over the date of national elections in Britain. Blair is expected to call them for May 3.

While the battle against foot-and-mouth disease is waged in Britain, other countries are taking action, too. Russia is banning all animal products from the European Union, Central Europe and the Baltic states.

As Steve Harrigan reports, Russia has dealt with this disease before.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

STEVE HARRIGAN, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): They pick through the meat, the sound of a steady chop, fearless of mad cow or foot-and-mouth disease that plaques the rest of Europe.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE (through translator): People in Russia aren't afraid of anything. Meat is all I eat.

HARRIGAN: Until this month, Russia imported about one-third of its meat. Now the government has banned all imports from Europe, not only meat, but poultry, dairy products, even fish. Despite the restrictions, scientists say it's only a matter of time before the arrival of foot-and-mouth disease.

MELS TURYANOV, RUSSIAN HEALTH MINISTRY (through translator): It's not the season yet in Russia. It's warm in Europe. That's when the epidemic spreads. Come summer, we'll have it.

HARRIGAN: The disease is no stranger to Russia. But outbreaks in 1990, '93, '95 and 2000 were eliminated almost immediately, thanks, according to specialists, at the Foot-and-Mouth Research Center, to preventive vaccinations, vaccinations that were discontinued in Western Europe a decade ago because of a ban on exporting vaccinated animals.

VALERY ZAKHARO, INST. FOR ANIMAL PROTECTION (through translator): It's all measured by money. It is proven that if we did things the British way, it would have cost us 108 times more than what we spent on vaccinations.

HARRIGAN: The scientific debate has yet to grab the attention of Russian consumers, many of whom have more pressing concerns.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE (through translator): Foot-and-mouth disease. I'm more worried about a bomb falling on my head.

HARRIGAN (on camera): What they will feel soon is a price increase of at least 15 percent on Russian meat, and more if the ban is extended beyond 21 days.

Steve Harrigan, CNN, Moscow.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

BAKHTIAR: The spread of foot-and-mouth disease in Europe has stirred worldwide alarm. The United States hasn't had an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease since the 1920s. California is the site of the last U.S. outbreak. According to a 1999 risk-assessment report, the disease poses more of a threat to the $13.5 billion agricultural community than ever.

Frank Buckley explains.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE) FRANK BUCKLEY, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): At the Casberg (ph) Dairy Farm in California's Chino Valley, they know that if only one cow is diagnosed with foot-and-mouth disease, the entire herd of 1,700 cows would likely be lost. And worse...

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: We are one cow away from a national disaster.

BUCKLEY: Neil Casberg (ph) and Case Devries have seen it before in their native Netherlands, where as young boys they had to hand feed milk cows suffering from foot-and-mouth disease.

CASE DEVRIES, RANCHER: We made feedballs, because a cow, he couldn't eat and didn't give any milk anymore. And it was a lot of work.

BUCKLEY: Now they worry about their herds in California, where an outbreak could create an economic catastrophe.

(on camera): An outbreak here in California could cause billions of dollars in damage. California is the nation's largest milk producer. There are more than 2,100 dairy farms, a million-and-a-half dairy cows. It is a $4 billion-a-year industry.

(voice-over): And it has happened here before. The nation's last outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease occurred in southern California. It was 1929; 3,500 cows, pigs and goats were herded into mass graves and shot. Four years earlier, an even larger outbreak led to the destruction of 110,000 farm animals, 22,000 deer.

The cost of lost livestock alone, more than $4 million in 1924. The cost to eradicate an outbreak today, according to one study, upwards of $14 billion.

Stopping the spread of the disease would require intensive efforts, like those seen in the current outbreak affecting parts of Europe, made more difficult because of the layout of some livestock and dairy areas in some parts of California.

NATHAN DEBOOM, CALIF. MILK PRODUCERS COUNCIL: They are very contiguous. They are right next to each other. So when you get one outbreak, there is the very good possibility that the next dairy and the dairy down the line. So if we have one outbreak in this valley, you are looking at the whole valley potentially being affected.

BUCKLEY: Quarantines could affect travel in California. Food and milk prices nationwide could be affected.

But precautions have been stepped up at California's international airports to try to prevent the disease from coming in.

And if there is an outbreak, agricultural officials in academics believe their increased knowledge of the disease would help to limit its spread.

TILAHUN YILMA, U.C. DAVIS VETERINARY SCHOOL: We are much more capable in dealing with an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease now, than we were in 1929.

BUCKLEY: A theory farmers hope they won't have to test in 2001.

Frank Buckley, CNN, Ontario, California.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

BAKHTIAR: More and more people seem to be confusing foot-and- mouth disease, which is harmless to people, with the rarer mad cow disease, which has been linked to a fatal human illness.

Now Patty Davis examines the difference between these illnesses and looks at whether the outbreaks have influenced consumer confidence when it comes to buying meat.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

PATTY DAVIS, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Bill Glasco (ph), a butcher in Washington, says his business isn't being affected by the foot-and-mouth outbreak in Europe, but he says customers are asking about it.

BILL GLASCO, BUTCHER: From what I understand, it hasn't been in the country since 1929. So I guess that's all the reassurance you can give them.

DAVIS: The foot-and-mouth outbreak comes not long after publicity about mad-cow disease. Some Americans are confused.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I really, honestly, don't know the difference.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: One is, what, communicable to humans. The other one isn't.

DAVIS: He's right. While foot-and-mouth affects only animals, mad cow disease has been linked to a deadly human brain disease. No one has contracted it in the United States, but it's killed 95 people in Britain.

Which disease has affected more animals? Mad cow disease, by far: 178,000 cases reported worldwide since 1986. Since then, Britain has destroyed nearly 5 million head of cattle. In the most recent outbreak of foot-and-mouth, more than 700 cases have been reported in Britain, where 441,000 cows, sheep, and pigs have been destroyed.

Which one is more contagious? Foot-and-mouth disease.

ALFONSO TORRES, U.S. AGRICULTURE DEPT.: If we have one cow with foot-and-mouth disease in our herd, within 24 hours, 48 hours, all animals on the farm are going to be affected.

DAVIS: The foot-and-mouth virus can be spread by air or be carried on a person's shoes, which is why U.S. customs officials disinfect the shoes of passengers who have been to the European countryside. Mad cow disease is believed to have spread to cattle through feed containing ground-up, infected animal parts.

(on camera): The U.S. hasn't seen either disease, and is trying to keep it that way, banning animals, animal feed, and some meat products from certain countries and Europe.

Patty Davis, CNN, Washington.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

BAKHTIAR: Well, for decades, television viewers have followed and been fascinated by the lives of soap opera characters. Why the interest? Well, perhaps in part because the soaps can reflect issues in society. That would explain the success of other current TV hits like "Survivor."

Anne McDermott looks at modern-day viewers and the soap opera phenomenon.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

ANNE MCDERMOTT, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): So a soap opera actress is replacing a real-life soap opera star. Who cares? Well, an estimated 40 million people dote on the soaps. And a million a week like to read about them. Why?

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I think that soap operas attract the kind of person who hates when the book ends.

MCDERMOTT: Soap stories never end. Ask the people who watch them at universities.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I guess it's part of being nosy.

MCDERMOTT: People watch them at the gym too, though sometimes it's hard to admit it.

UNIDENTIFIED: Well, sure, yes. Occasionally.

MCDERMOTT: You like soaps?

UNIDENTIFIED: Oh, they're OK.

MCDERMOTT: OK? Why, some get downright addicted. Plenty of us found that out with the advent of prime-time soaps like "Dallas." Remember who shot J.R.? Daytime soaps, meanwhile, began launching their own stars. OK, maybe you couldn't tell Erica Kane from Michael Caine, but you knew Susan Lucci would eventually get that Emmy.

In recent years, though, the audiences for soaps have dropped: so much competition. And there are now only 10 daytime drams on TV, about half as many as there were in the heydays of the '70s. And maybe that's partly because of an increase in reality soaps like "Survivor" or that other long-running daytime drama.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: The clerk will now read the first article of impeachment.

MCDERMOTT: Anne McDermott, CNN, Los Angeles.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

BAKHTIAR: "Worldview" runs the gamut from secret agents to political sanctions to TV stations. In Iraq, we focus on oil production and a country struggling to endure; in China, a behind-the- scenes look at TV production, something we deal with every day here at CNN. And in the Caribbean, tropical beaches are the setting for books and movies. SHELLEY WALCOTT, CO-HOST: Now, for some action, espionage and daring escapes, we head to a seemingly unlikely place: Jamaica. An island nation in the Caribbean Sea, Jamaica is known for its beautiful beaches and pleasant climate. Until 1962, the island was a British colony. And it's here that inspiration came to Ian Fleming, a British novelist whose mind hatched the famous suspense fiction character James Bond.

A stylish Secret Service agent known as 007, Bond became a literary hero during the 1950s and 60s. His adventures span 12 novels, all of which were made into movies.

Now Stephanie Oswald takes us back to the site where it all began.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

STEPHANIE OSWALD, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): The indulgence of "Goldfinger," the international espionage of "Dr. No," and the intrigue of "From Russia With Love": They are all James Bond movie classics. But before Moneypenny and Q crossed that secret agent's path, there was Ian Fleming.

In the late 1940s, the accomplished writer chose the island of Jamaica to build his winter retreat. Little did he know it would be the birthplace of 007.

ROGER BROWN, DIR. OF DEVELOPMENT, ISLAND OUTPOST: All you have to do is gaze and dream. And your imagination will be inspired.

OSWALD: Amidst whitewashed walls and a sun-kissed bay, Ian Fleming took solace from his native England's winters at Goldeneye and created James Bond.

BROWN: This is one thing that Fleming loved, you know, the forests and the beaches. And we've tried to preserve and enhance.

OSWALD: The three-bedroom house sits on the Oracabessa Bay. It's now known as James Bond Beach. And why not? Fourteen of the James Bond novels were written here.

Ramsey Eacosta worked for Fleming.

RAMSEY EACOSTA, GOLDENEYE EMPLOYEE: Well, he was a very -- he was a very friendly person. But generally, in those days, when he have guests here from the Goldeneye, we only see these people coming in and going out.

OSWALD: Today it's an all-inclusive luxury resort just 15 minutes from Ocho Rios and two hours from the Montego Bay Airport. Guests stay in a villa or reserve the entire property and, in true James Bond style, expect the unexpected.

The desk where it all began still rests at Goldeneye, perhaps waiting to offer a vacationer inspiration to weave a story as intricate and detailed as the furnishings surrounding it. Also keeping with Fleming's desire to maintain the native flavor of Jamaica and haute cuisine palate of 007, elaborate meals are prepared for guests by the on-site, yet nearly invisible staff.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: It's our national (UNINTELLIGIBLE) Jamaica.

OSWALD: Otherwise known as akee, a bread, fruit and fish mixture, as well as Jerk chicken, fish and more. These recipes have been handed down from generation to generation, often unwritten, unlike Fleming's books, on hand for anyone to read.

But blended with the cloak and dagger of the spy novel world is also the ambiance and whimsy of the Caribbean. Gauzy white curtains billow in the breeze. And private outdoor sun showers and tubs provide a setting even Bond himself found relaxing.

EACOSTA: He has men who work with him, like Roger Moore and Sean Connery, to visit him here.

OSWALD: And if all this secret agent talk gets you excited for your own covert vacation, you can check out the beaches of Goldeneye from your VCR. "Dr. No" was shot here in 1961.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

TOM HAYNES, CO-HOST: Next stop: China, where we're going to watch some TV. Well, actually, we're going to go behind the scenes to watch a new channel get up and running. It hit the airways last fall. And it's still going strong despite initial reservations by some.

Rebecca MacKinnon takes us to witness the birth of a television station and China's attempts to get its story told.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

REBECCA MACKINNON, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): A gala celebration as China opens a new window to the outside world.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: We have a new medium through which we can talk to our friends around the world in English.

MACKINNON: Tension builds in the newsroom at CCTV Channel 9. Editors, writers and reporters getting ready to broadcast live in a language not their own. YANG FUQING, TV ANCHOR: We have the responsibility to present China to the outside world through our own eyes and from our firsthand knowledge.

Hello, and welcome to CCTV News.

MACKINNON: Live newscasts every hour on the hour are intermixed with feature shows on Chinese cooking, martial arts and culture, all of it beamed by satellite around the world, courtesy of the government-controlled China Central Television, known as CCTV.

(on camera): Turning a profit has not been the main concern for China's first 24-hour English language news channel. The goal is to expose more people around the world to China's point of view, which many people here feel is not adequately reported in the international news media.

ZHAO YUHUI, DIRECTOR GENERAL: Different media institutions have different editorial policies. And we will report in our own way, of course. We will not do anything against the party, against the government because CCTV is a national TV, which is a state-run television, just like some foreign TV companies.

MACKINNON: Experts from English-speaking countries recruited to help edit scripts agree there are a lot of things people back home don't understand about China.

SUSAN LEE SMITH, ENGLISH EDITOR: They picture rice fields and people with cone-shaped hats. And it just isn't that way.

MACKINNON: Now China is telling its own story to the world and hoping the world will want to watch.

Rebecca MacKinnon, CNN, Beijing.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

BAKHTIAR: Now we make our way to the Middle East to a country that's been making a lot of headlines these past few years. Iraq is strategically located at the head of the Persian Gulf. It's an Arab country that's economy relies heavily on the export of oil, like many of other countries in that region.

You've probably heard of the Persian Gulf War, which was the result of Iraq's invasion of neighboring Kuwait in 1990. The move was condemned by the United Nations and resulted in a severe trade embargo on Iraq. Iraq was defeated in 1991 after a coalition of 39 nations, including the United States and Canada, sent armed forces to the region.

Now Jane Arraf reports on the unhealed scars of sanctions in Iraq.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

JANE ARRAF, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Ten years on, it remains a powerful symbol of the war: a monument to some 400 civilians killed when the U.S. obliterated the Amariyah shelter, claiming the bunker was a military command-and-control center. A decade later, the pain and the controversy endure.

He, too, endures: more than a symbol, a powerful force who has survived three major U.S.-led attacks since the Gulf War, bombings and plots to depose him. At 63, the president mocks rumors he is ill. Not just standing tall, but still building up: As soon as the dust settled from the Gulf War, Iraq began rebuilding. Almost every building was repaired, every bridge restored and more. Today, despite the longest-lasting U.N. sanctions ever imposed, Iraq is once again one of the world's biggest oil producers.

AMER MOHAMMED RASHEED, IRAQI OIL MINISTER: Our people, particularly the Christians and the (UNINTELLIGIBLE) have done a magnificent job, which was really impossible that we would have believed it could be done before the war.

ARRAF (on camera): There's a saying: What can't be changed must be endured.

And Iraqis, heirs to the oldest civilization in the world, are masters of endurance.

(voice-over): They've endured by recycling and recreating. Many have endured by turning to religion. On Alma Tunaby Street (ph), some have endured by selling almost everything precious to them. But there's been a cost. UNICEF says the infant mortality rate has doubled in a decade. There's talk of a lost generation, as children drop out of school. Many students supplement their parents income by working.

"I work at a vegetable shop after school in the morning," says Anwar Siad Rashed (ph). He takes home 25 cents for six hours work.

Iraq has become a nation where doctors earn more money driving taxis than practicing medicine, where optimism is just one of the many things in short supply. For the Iraqi government, the tradeoff is worth it. The last U.N. weapons inspectors left two years ago and haven't been back since. No one ever expected sanctions to last this long. But no matter what comes next, Iraqis have little choice but to endure.

Jane Arraf, CNN, Baghdad.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

ANNOUNCER: Teachers, make the most of CNN NEWSROOM with our free daily classroom guide to the program. There you'll find a rundown of each day's show so you choose just the program segment that fits your lesson plan. Plus, there are discussion questions and activities. And the guide highlights key people, places and news terms.

Each day, find hot links to other online resources and previews of upcoming "Desk" segments. It's all at this Web address, where you can also sign up to have the guide automatically e-mailed directly to you each day. It's easy. It's free. It's your curriculum connection to the news. After all, the news never stops -- and neither does learning.

BAKHTIAR: March is Women's History Month. And as a tribute to that, we've been profiling remarkable women. Today, we look at another such woman. She was a piano prodigy at age 3, has an oil tanker named after her and is now the national security adviser for U.S. President Bush. She is Condoleezza Rice.

And NEWSROOM's Michael McManus has her story.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

GEORGE W. BUSH, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: Good afternoon. Thank you all for coming.

MICHAEL MCMANUS, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): It was a moment Condoleezza Rice will cherish for a long time.

BUSH: Dr. Rice is not only a brilliant person. She is an experienced person. She is a good manager. I trust her judgment. America will find that she is a wise person.

MCMANUS: That moment was the day newly-elected President Bush nominated the first female to take the reins as the President's national security adviser, a position that helps the president set foreign policy.

CONDOLEEZZA RICE, NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISER: Thank you very much, Mr. president-elect. I am absolutely delighted and, indeed, honored -- in fact, humbled -- that president-elect Bush has asked me to serve as his National Security Adviser.

MCMANUS: Rice had barely moved into her new office when the first policy test played out over Baghdad. In February, the U.S. launched new missiles strikes against Iraq.

RICE: We do whatever we can to make certain that our pilots are going to be safe. These were assets that were threatening to American and coalition partners.

MCMANUS: Friends call her a strong person. And it was this strength she put to good use on the campaign trail. Rice came up with the nickname Vulcans for Bush campaign advisers.

RICE: At one point I said: Oh, we need a team name. And Vulcan is, of course, the Roman god of fire. And still, he is the statue on Red Mountain in Birmingham, Alabama, which happens to be my hometown.

MCMANUS: It was her parents' will that guided Condi Rice through a segregated Alabama growing up. It was here she learned a good education was the most important thing one could posses. She became fluent in Russian. She has both a Master's degree and a doctorate, as well as a musical talent for playing piano, a stress reliever for Ms. Rice. Rice's first experience with the Bush family was during the senior Bush's term in office. She served as an adviser during the collapse of the Soviet Union, somewhat of a surprise to her at the time.

RICE: To my great surprise, and, indeed, my great honor, I had a chance instead to participate in the unraveling of the Cold War, a largely peaceful unraveling of the Cold War that came about because of great statesmanship on all sides.

MCMANUS: Rice echoed those statesmanlike beliefs on the day she was nominated.

RICE: If I may close with just a personal note, this is an extraordinary time for America because our values are being affirmed. And it's important to always remember what those values are at home.

MCMANUS (on camera): Washington is a long way from Birmingham. But Rice says it's the lessons learned growing up in a Southern town that help her in the international challenges she must now face every day.

Michael McManus, CNN NEWSROOM, the White House.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

BAKHTIAR: A final note: Coming your way next week, we cover the middle ground of the high-stakes debate between the Israeli and Palestinian leadership. "Jason's Journal: A Region in Turmoil" looks at the hopes of the young people caught in the middle. That's next week right here on NEWSROOM.

I'm Rudi Bakhtiar. See you Monday.

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