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Military Personnel Held in China, Treating the Common Cold, Plight of Youth in West Bank and IsraelAired April 3, 2001 - 4:30 a.m. ET
THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT. THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED.
ANNOUNCER: Seen in classrooms the world over, this is CNN NEWSROOM.
TOM HAYNES, CO-HOST: A busy Tuesday ahead. Thanks for being with us. I'm thy.
SHELLEY WALCOTT, CO-HOST: And I'm Shelley Walcott. Here's a sneak peak at the show.
HAYNES: First, the fate of those U.S. military personnel held in China.
WALCOTT: Then, a report from Health Desk on treating the common cold. Do alternative remedies really work?
HAYNES: World View listens to the beat of Bali as we explore the music and culture of the Pacific islands.
WALCOTT: And our Jason Bellini chronicles Palestinian refugees who say their true home is in Israel.
HAYNES: United States President Bush meets with his top national security advisers in an attempt to get a prompt, safe return of 24 American servicemen. As of Tuesday morning Beijing time, the crew was said to be in Chinese custody.
The 24 crew members aboard the U.S. Navy plane were last heard from immediately after it made an emergency landing on the Chinese island of Hainan Sunday. The Navy spy plane, which contains sophisticated surveillance equipment, collided with a Chinese fighter plane before making the emergency landing. The United States and China each put the other at fault. The U.S. plane belongs to a squadron based on Whidbey Island in Washington State. It was deployed to an air base on Okinawa, Japan.
A Chinese source tells CNN Chinese authorities boarded the plane shortly after it landed. The Chinese are said to have removed the U.S. crew members and put them in separate holding areas. U.S. officials say if it's true that the plane was boarded, the Chinese violated international law.
WALCOTT: The standoff over the 24 American service members is presenting the Bush administration with one of its biggest international challenges yet. Throughout his presidential campaign, Mr. Bush promised to take a tougher line with China than did his predecessor, Bill Clinton.
Mike Chinoy has more on the current and past diplomatic tensions between the United States and China.
MIKE CHINOY, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): China likes to describe the province of Hainan as its version of Hawaii. Now, the island has become the site of a new confrontation between Washington and Beijing.
The sharply conflicting American and Chinese versions of the incident in which a U.S. spy plane ended up in Chinese hands underscore the growing tension between the two countries, tension fueled by differences on a host of other crucial issues.
JOSEPH PRUEHER, U.S. AMBASSADOR TO CHINA: The down side potential if we do not resolve this well is fairly high, because it can bleed over into some other areas.
CHINOY: Chief among them, Taiwan, which wants to buy advanced U.S. weapons systems. Beijing, which sent a high level envoy to Washington two weeks ago and which considers Taiwan a renegade province, has warned of serious consequences if the sale goes ahead. Then, there is the senior Chinese military officer who recently defected to the United States and the two ethnic Chinese academics, one a U.S. green card holder, the other a U.S. citizen, now in detention in mainland China.
More broadly, with Beijing's continuing crackdown on the Falun Gong spiritual movement and other dissidents, there is the general issue of human rights. Plus, the Tiananmen Papers, the Chinese government's top secret account of the suppression of the 1989 student democracy movement, leaked by another Chinese official who fled to the United States.
And now, there's the spy plane. For the Bush administration, this is the first test of its intention to take a tougher line towards China, even as pragmatists and anti-China conservatives battle to control White House China policy.
For China's leaders, too, it's a daunting challenge, as anti- Western hard-liners in the military and security apparatus push a tougher line towards the U.S. at a time of internal division in the run-up to a critical Communist Party congress next year.
(on camera): On both sides, the stakes in how this issue is resolved are enormous, with the future of China's relations with the Bush administration riding on the outcome.
Mike Chinoy, CNN, Hong Kong.
(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE) HAYNES: Have you had a cold yet this year? If so, you are in good company. Most people have an average of two to six colds a year and so far there's no known cure for the common cold.
This has many people turning to alternative therapies for relief. Alternative therapies are treatments not recognized by the medical community as standard or conventional medical approaches. Alternative medications include dietary supplements, special teas or megadose vitamins. Alternative practices include massage therapy, mediation and acupuncture.
Rhonda Rowland looks at whether alternative therapies actually work.
RHONDA ROWLAND, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): This is Devona Baird (ph) on a Thursday, sick with a cold, feeling miserable. Here she is on Monday, four days later, being tested to see if the zinc lozenges she used to fight her cold actually worked.
DEVONA BAIRD: Saturday really no symptoms, some congestion. Sunday no congestion at all. Today, I'm all better.
ROWLAND: Her physician, Dr. Ananda Prasad, published a study in "The Annals of Internal Medicine" that looked at zinc lozenges and the common cold. It included 48 patients.
DR. ANANDA PRASAD, WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY: We showed that by giving zinc lozenges, the duration of cold was almost 50 percent decreased and severity was also decreased.
ROWLAND: This is just one of at least 10 careful studies evaluating zinc lozenges for the common cold. Half the studies showed zinc shortens the duration of cold symptoms. The other half showed it did not. Which studies do consumers trust?
DR. RON TURNER, MEDICAL UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA: In spite of the fact that these studies have been repeated and that the designs have been modified in a way to try to make the studies more valid, we continue to see this disparity in the final results of the study.
ROWLAND: Dr. Turner, a noted cold remedy researcher, says he studied the same types of zinc as other researchers with very similar protocols and found no benefit. He also studied another natural cold treatment, the herb Echinacea. Here again, he found it did not work, though he points out it's still possible that Echinacea works.
TURNER: It's important to realize that Echinacea is not just one thing. So it's impossible to say based on a single study that Echinacea does or doesn't work.
ROWLAND: Herbal industry experts say Americans spend about $400 million per year on zinc and Echinacea cold treatments. Since natural remedies such as these are loosely regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and are on store shelves despite conflicting evidence on whether or not they work, how are consumers to know who to believe?
According to some manufacturers, their products sell because of word of mouth. If it works wonders for one patient, he or she may pass the word. But the fact that a single patient feels better after taking a certain remedy does not prove it had any real effect.
(on camera): Experts say some people may feel better because they believe a treatment will work, a phenomenon called the placebo effect, which has been shown to be very powerful. So some cold patients could be a testament to the power of zinc and other natural remedies, or a testament to the power of belief.
Rhonda Rowland, CNN.
AUSTIN THEODORE, NORCROSS, GEORGIA: Hi, I am Austin Theodore from Norcross, Georgia, and I want to ask CNN why is there no cure for the common cold?
ROWLAND: A cure, or even an effective treatment for the common cold has been elusive, even though researchers have been working on one for years. The common cold is caused by a viral infection in the nose. The difficulty in coming up with an effective treatment is finding something that can attack all the different viruses that cause a cold.
Now, there are several prescription remedies that are being investigated now and in early studies they're showing some effectiveness. They're cutting maybe a day and a half or so off the length of a cold and they're reducing the severity of symptoms. But it will still be several years before researchers know if they really are effective.
However, researchers are confident that one day they will come up with an effective treatment and maybe even a cure for the common cold. But in the meantime, adults can expect to come down with two to three colds per year and children between six and 10 colds a year, and the best way to get relief is to just wait it out or maybe go and pull something off the drugstore shelf.
WALCOTT: "World View" takes us to the battlefields of the U.S. Civil War, to the cold ice of the hockey rink and to the rhythmic world of music. We'll travel to Indonesia, where drums resonate and reverberate in its culture. We'll also journey to the United States to find out how business and history are at odds these days. Plus, gear up for ice hockey.
HAYNES: Have you ever seen a hockey game? Ice hockey is a sport that developed in Canada in the mid-1800s. It's played by two teams competing on a sheet of ice called a rink. Players skate around that rink using long sticks to slam a hard rubber disk called a puck into the goal cage or net.
Hockey is a popular sport in a number of countries, including Canada, Russia, Sweden and the United States. Today, we focus on a program in New York which teaches youngsters more than just skating skills, as Denise Dillon explains.
DENISE DILLON, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): On the ice, these kids know they must work together as a team to win. Cooperation, teamwork, interpersonal skills, just the beginning of what this hockey program in New York City hopes to teach these children. It's called Ice Hockey In Harlem and it's expanding horizons for more than 250 kids ages seven to 17.
It does more than just expose them to a new sport. It helps them in school. Players are required to attend weekly classroom session and skate one night a week.
CRAIG STANTON, TEACHER: We have a contract with them, an agreement between the players and the program or the participants that if you don't go to class, you don't skate. And we are more interested in getting kids out of Harlem into school and getting them an education than we are interested in making the next Wayne Gretzky.
DILLON: The kids are finding out that learning can be fun. They're tutored in math, reading and geography using hockey cities and statistics as teaching tools.
UNIDENTIFIED CHILD: I love the classroom because it teaches you geography. It teaches you math, other games like how many zambonis are made a year and how long it takes to make one.
DILLON: Charity events are held throughout the year to pay for equipment, ice time, trips and scholarships. A New York psychiatrist says the program is good for the children mentally, physically and emotionally.
UNIDENTIFIED PHYSICIAN: Well, I think it's, you know, it's an excellent program. I mean it just speaks to all the motivations of young children to get excited about something and then to use that experience to blend in geography and blend in learning about mathematics or arithmetic in an exciting way.
DILLON: And, of course, scoring a goal is pretty exciting, too.
Denise Dillon, CNN.
WALCOTT: Now, a look back in time to touch upon a war that took more American lives than any war in history. The Civil War, which began in 1861 and lasted until 1865, was between the southern states, known as the Confederate states, and the northern states, known as the Union states. Before the Civil War, the United States consisted of 19 free states in which slavery was prohibited and 15 slave states. Though the actual cause of the war has long been debated, historians believe that it was because the South was trying to preserve slavery and an agricultural way of life while the North was dedicated to ending slavery and moving forward to a more modern way of life.
The modern way of life is having a new impact these days. The cause, urban sprawl. Now, battlegrounds which pay homage to the thousands that died in the Civil War are threatened by development. Kathleen Koch has the story.
JOHN MCKENNA, GETTYSBURG NATIONAL MILITARY PARK: On July 3, 1863, the Union troops were lined and seeing across the field over 10,000 Confederate troops.
KATHLEEN KOCH, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Now aligned and across the field, businesses and restaurants, all sprouting up where soldiers in blue and gray once fought and died by the thousands. In Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, the site of the largest and deadliest Civil War battle, more than half the battlefield is now vulnerable to development.
MCKENNA: There are 35 properties in that area that within one mile historic corridor, that are currently residential area and our concerned is that they may develop into commercial uses.
KOCH: Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, joins Gettysburg on a new list of the 10 most threatened Civil War battlefields.
(on camera): If that is developed what would we see there?
DON CAMPBELL, HARPERS FERRY NATIONAL PARK: What we would see would be 199 homes and a 130-foot water tower.
KOCH (voice-over): Besides the subdivision, about 280 acres are for sale on historic Schoolhouse Ridge. That's where General Stonewall Jackson's forces cut off Union troops, orchestrating the surrender of more than 12,000 men. The Civil War Preservation Trust says Civil War battlefields are disappearing at the rate of one acre every 10 minutes. Reading books, they say, shouldn't be the only way Americans learn about the war.
JIM CAMPI, CIVIL WAR PRESERVATION TRUST: They'll never really get an understanding unless you've actually been there and gotten to see what the men in blue and gray saw at the time of the war. In addition, there is practical reasons. In Virginia, Civil War tourists spend twice as much as your average tourist. KOCH (on camera): Congress has appropriated $2 million for preservation here at Harpers Ferry, but that may not cover both endangered sites. And if not, plans for that subdivision could go forward as soon as this summer.
(voice-over): Those waging the fight to preserve the battlefields insist more than land is in jeopardy. CAMPBELL: I think we lose a part of history and we lose a part of who we are.
KOCH: Kathleen Koch for CNN, Harpers Ferry, West Virginia.
WALCOTT: Next stop, Bali, a volcanic island and province of Indonesia. It's a place famous for its music, dancing and decorative arts, as you'll see in a moment. Our story focuses on its culture and particularly its rhythms. Rhythm is defined as the movement or flow characterized by regular recurrence of beat or accent. Listen for the beat of Bali.
MICKEY HART, PERCUSSIONIST: Something is happening here on this planet. Everybody seems to be playing rhythm in all cultures. Rhythm is certainly something that we share as a species. The rhythm makes you dance, but rhythm also elevates your consciousness and takes you to another place. Its transformative powers are great.
These are trans and ecstatic instruments. These are instruments of great power and they do raise consciousness and when your consciousness is raised, you have the power to heal.
It starts when we -- with concussion sticks and rocks and bones, when we first got together around the fire pit, how we first came together and became human. The sensibilities and the soul of a country is revealed with its rhythm. If a country has soul, it has good rhythm.
Well, this music, what you're hearing right now is music from Bali. It's some of the most exotic and intricate and sacred music on the planet.
This is a gong from Bali. The bottom of the Gamelot Orchestra (ph), a magnificent piece. Look at all the art work and how detailed it is and ask the story about how the instruments were given by the gods. You sit in front of it and you hit it and the wave washes over you and it just makes you feel clean.
Bali and China, all these places are just heavily percussive, tuned percussion where the percussion has a lot of tonal qualities to it. This is called a Daimaru (ph), perhaps one of the rarest drums on the planet, or percussion instruments. It's tucrania (ph), probably from an eight or nine or 10-year-old joined at the crania. The hydra drum has got two heads, hydra drum, and it's made from a single tree. You can see where the trunk is split. And so this is a really unusual piece. It's one piece of wood.
Percussion and culture are linked. Every culture has its own groove, its own rhythm, its own beat. That's how you define the culture. That's how you can tell what the culture is like, by how fast, how intricate, how powerful their rhythms are.
A village without music is a dead place. That's an old saying.
Rhythm seems to represent life itself. I mean we're rhythm animals and when you have a disagreement with someone, you're out of rhythm with them and you've got to get back in rhythm with someone.
The best way to learn is to find a good teacher, but if you're a really sensitive person and sit down with a drum, feel out the voice and listen to the deeper sound of the drum, the drum will tell you what to do.
We know that repetition is the basis of trance, but it has to be a good repetition. We call it a groove. When you see a whole audience beating together and they're all clapping and with the band, and the band is grooving, well, that's rhythmic entrainment and that's one of the most powerful things on the planet. Rhythm, you can't beat it.
HAYNES: In the West Bank, fighting continues between Israeli soldiers and Palestinians. Negotiators have been unable to reach agreement and therefore peace on several issues critical to both sides. The Palestinians' right of return to Israel is one such issue.
Our Jason Bellini speaks with a Palestinian refugee desperate to return to her homeland. But first, he brings us a glimpse into the life of a young Israeli settler.
JASON BELLINI, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): You have one of the nicest views around, it looks like.
SHOSHANNA ROZENZWIG, JEWISH SETTLER: You know, we hear all the shooting. When they shoot, it's a way of living that you get yourself used to in a way because, you know, you believe very strongly in what you're doing.
BELLINI (voice-over): To live in a place like Sego (ph), especially now, you've got to have some pretty strong reasons not to turn tail and move somewhere else. A barbed-wire fence surrounds her entire neighborhood. Soldiers with heavy weaponry protect you. Your family has a pager for alert messages when for bullets are flying and it's not safe to go outdoors.
S. ROZENZWIG: The buses are bulletproof.
BELLINI (on camera): Have they come under attack?
S. ROZENZWIG: No, so far, not.
Have you been shot at?
MATANYA ROZENZWIG, JEWISH SETTLER: One time.
BELLINI: You were shot at one time? M. ROZENZWIG: Yes.
BELLINI: What was that like?
M. ROZENZWIG: What?
BELLINI: What was that like?
M. ROZENZWIG: It was -- they do send me afraid.
BELLINI (voice-over): Shoshanna moved to Sego from the U.S. seven years ago, bringing her four children. By living here on contested land, she feels her family is giving strength to the controversial position that the Jewish settlements in the West Bank and Gaza should never be compromised for peace.
S. ROZENZWIG: We have to protect our country. We have to fight for our country. There's no way out of that. We're Jewish and we're destined to fight for what we believe in.
I love you. Have a great day. Bye.
BELLINI (on camera): Have you ever met any of the kids who live down there?
M. ROZENZWIG: No.
BELLINI: No? Would you want to?
M. ROZENZWIG: No.
BELLINI (voice-over): But Matanya does know just about everyone in Sego. And even those he doesn't, he still trusts.
(on camera): What happens if you miss the bus?
M. ROZENZWIG: I go traveling.
BELLINI: (voice-over): To go traveling means to hitch a ride. All you have to do is wait on the corner. And usually, within minutes, someone passing by will offer you a lift. Mantanya missed the bus today, but it was no reason to panic.
UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I saw them twice.
BELLINI: The previous night, Matanya's neighbor took me out on a typical after-dark shopping run.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: You heard them? You want to see? Come from here. Come. You see all the houses? So they're shooting from there.
BELLINI: Matanya, waiting for his mother to come pick him up, was occupying himself back at the neighbor's house, more interested in a GameBoy than whatever war games were going on outside. The danger, after a while, I'm told, loses its shock value. Matanya even seems proud to show he's not letting it get to him. (on camera): Do you know why there are people who are doing this?
M. ROZENZWIG: Why is they shooting?
BELLINI (on camera): Yes, why are
M. ROZENZWIG: Because they want to live here. They think if they shoot at us, we going to go.
BELLINI (voice-over): He won't let them because, all politics aside, this is the only home he knows.
(on camera): Is this a fun place to live?
M. ROZENZWIG: Yes, it's fun.
BELLINI: It's a fun place to live?
M. ROZENZWIG: Yes, it's far from everybody. It's quiet.
M. ROZENZWIG: Yes.
BELLINI: Except for when you hear...
M. ROZENZWIG: Yes.
BELLINI: Except for when you hear gunshots.
M. ROZENZWIG: Yes. Yes.
BELLINI: Then it's not quiet.
M. ROZENZWIG: Yes.
DIYAN DAOUD, PALESTINIAN REFUGEE: No. I thought this was Acmed (ph)?
BELLINI: Acmed. And where is Acmed?
D. DAOUD: One minute.
BELLINI (voice-over): Try not to bother Diyan when she is chatting on the Internet. But if you have to, try not to ask dumb questions.
(on camera): Did you meet people from other camps on here?
D. DAOUD: Yes.
BELLINI: Yes? What do you talk about?
D. DAOUD: About the life and about school, I think.
BELLINI: Can you find a boyfriend on here?
BELLINI (voice-over): Around 10:00, Diyan and her sister Iman leave the cultural center at the Dehiju (ph) refugee camp and head home.
(on camera): Have you lived here your whole life?
D. DAOUD: Yes.
BELLINI: And your father, he lives here, too?
D. DAOUD: Yes.
BELLINI: His whole life? You grandfather lives here, too?
D. DAOUD: He came here.
BELLINI: Not by choice. Not because he wanted to.
(voice-over): Eleven-thousand people live in the Dehiju refugee camp: Even though it's where they've lived their entire lives, they consider themselves refugees because the land they identify as their real home is in Israeli territory and off-limits to them. Palestinian refugees around the Middle East dream of a return to the villages that they say belonged to their families prior to 1948.
The mystique of grandfather's village has been passed to Diyan and Iman's generation. It fills their imagination, offers them hope, especially now.
(on camera): That's your brother. OK.
D. DAOUD: Yes.
IMAN DAOUD, PALESTINIAN REFUGEE: Yes.
BELLINI: And these are his friends.
UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: Yes.
BELLINI: And what are they doing out tonight?
UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: They play.
BELLINI: Does your brother ever go out there when they do the demonstrations?
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Sometimes when he goes, fight off his mother.
BELLINI (voice-over): Their mother, catching wind of the conversation says: "I don't want him going to the demonstrations. The Israeli soldiers sit up high and could shoot any of them. Diyan and Iman share a bedroom. Their father lets them dream about a bigger house where they each have their own room.
HALET DAOUD, PALESTINIAN REFUGEE (through translator): My father lived comfortably in the Welaga (ph) village. Now I live in a small space just 100 square meeters. I refuse to live in a refugee camp for the rest of my life. I refuse to become the price for a settlement between the Israelis and the Palestinians.
I. DAOUD (through translator): I agree totally with what my father says. And whatever he's teaching me and he taught me, I will treat my children, which, on their side, they will teach their children -- and so on.
BELLINI: In all likelihood, she'll be teaching those values right here. Israel's leadership has said that the right of refugees to return to the land that they claim was theirs before 1948 is simply out of the question. Diyan and Iman don't just sit around waiting for it to happen. They're busy teens involved in dance and dance instructing, involved with their family, their religion, the community they love. But they think life would be so much better on the plot of land that's real on the map and mythical in their minds.
HAYNES: We'll have more from the Middle East tomorrow. Jason profiles two places where Jews and Arabs are learning to coexist peacefully.
WALCOTT: And stay tuned to cnnfyi.com throughout the day for the latest on that U.S. spy plane that went down in China.
HAYNES: And that's it from here. Have a great day. We leave you today with pictures from a parade in Chicago, Illinois that signals the opening of another season of professional baseball, America's pastime sport.
WALCOTT: Have a great day.
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