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Encore Presentation: Interview With Walter Cronkite

Aired February 24, 2002 - 21:00   ET


LARRY KING, HOST: Tonight, the most trusted man in America, Walter Cronkite. His take on events present and past is next on LARRY KING WEEKEND.

Thanks for joining us. It's always great having Walter Cronkite on this show. He's been a witness to so many historic events. And even though he's not covering the front lines anymore, he still has powerful opinions about what's going on in the world.

We started our most recent sitdown talking about the dangers of reporting overseas. And I asked him something I'd always wondered about.


KING: Have you ever known a journalist who also worked as a spy?


KING: You did?

CRONKITE: I did. We had one, unfortunately, at CBS many years ago, who worked in the near Middle East and Greece, in that area, Turkey and so forth. And it turned out later that he confessed that he had been working for the government as a spy.

There's -- it's a terrible thing for the government to recruit reporters as spies because it -- when a revelation comes that one is, indeed, a spy, it can create serious problems for all journalists, wherever they're working. The job is dangerous enough in many of these countries without that added burden. The same thing would be certainly true if this -- if this (UNINTELLIGIBLE).

KING: You had to fire that gentlemen, of course?

CRONKITE: Oh, yes. Absolutely.

KING: Yeah. What if his defense to you was, "But I'm first an American. I'm helping my country."

CRONKITE: Sure, sure, "Working for my government and my government asked me to do this, so I did it." Well, that's not a defense. You've got to be a little stronger than that. Your government can ask you to do a lot of things, but you have a conscience and a job to perform that is also of great importance to our democracy. The full reporting from every source of information that we need to vote properly in our democracy is as important as any other function of our government.

And it's up to a reporter to advise the government of that and tell them that his job is -- and the integrity of his job far more important than anything they could assign him to do.

KING: I want to touch a lot of bases, but first, how is your health?

CRONKITE: Very good. Very good. I'm still hobbling along with my torn Achilles tendon. Tennis injury, not gout.

KING: Did you also have the hip surgery?

CRONKITE: No, I didn't have hip surgery. I had a little back surgery, as a cause of some of the therapy I was undergoing for the leg. You know, once you get in the hands of the medical profession, they don't let go easily.

KING: Aging is not fun.

CRONKITE: Somebody said it's not for sissies.

KING: Yeah. But you still sail, right? You're still an active...

CRONKITE: I sail as much as I can. And I'm hoping to get back on the tennis court, for heaven's sakes. And one thing I miss is not being out there on the court. This was a tennis injury, the old torn Achilles tendon, which is -- happens to a lot of players who don't warm up properly, I'm told.

KING: How old are you now, Walter?


KING: Were you mandatorily retired?

CRONKITE: No, I was not.


CRONKITE: And that story just bothers me a great deal, but...

KING: Tell me the situation. How did it -- what -- what were the...

CRONKITE: Well, what happened was that for several years, I'd been telling CBS that I was going to step down from the "Evening News" when I was 65. I began -- became a journalist while I was still in college. Actually, I had a job as a copy boy when I was in high school. And I had been at United Press for 11 years. By that time, about 40 years with CBS, meeting deadlines every day. And I decided that at 65, I wanted a little easier life, not the daily deadline. I wanted to stay with CBS, intended to stay with CBS, doing documentaries, things of that kind, but not daily. I mean, you know, that's -- well, you know what it is, for heaven's sakes. How many years have you been...

KING: Forty-five.

CRONKITE: Well, you know what it is. And it's tough to get off, and particularly in broadcast it's very tough to get away. And so I said 65. Well, they didn't believe me. Nobody steps down from an anchor job on a network. Nobody ever had.

KING: Especially the most famous ever. And you were the most famous ever and...

CRONKITE: Well, I don't know about that, but I was doing pretty well with CBS.

KING: So what happened?

CRONKITE: So they kept just denying me (UNINTELLIGIBLE) pooh- poohed that -- "Oh, come on. You're not -- you're not going to quit." And one day, our president of CBS at the time, Bill Leonard, came to me. It was in December, whatever it was, '80, I guess. And he came to me and he said, "Listen, are you -- are you serious about that business of quitting when you're 65? Because that's coming up in November." And I said, "You're darn right I am." My contract ran till November. I had it running to my birthday, so I could stop on my birthday. I was going to make a celebration out of it.

And I said, "I certainly am." He said, "You're not really serious." I said, "I am really serious. At 65, I'm leaving this room" -- we were in the newsroom at the time -- "and I'm not coming back every day. I'll come back whenever you need me, big story, I want to be back, but not every day." "Well," he said, "we've got a little problem. Dan Rather is threatening to go over to ABC, and we're trying to put a package together that'll keep him with us, and the package will be that he can come aboard in November, then, if you're going to really step out."

I said, "You better grab him right now because I'm leaving." And that's what happened.

KING: I'm glad...

CRONKITE: But I don't -- I can understand why not a -- I don't think a single television reporter for the newspapers believed me because...

KING: Who leaves?

CRONKITE: Nobody does that, you know? Just doesn't make any sense.

KING: Ever sorry you did it?

CRONKITE: Yeah. Yeah, I am. If I'd known my health was going to be as good as it was, and I would have known I wasn't going to be more fun than I had anyway, I -- and knowing what the stories were going to be -- it was just a month after I stepped out that Reagan was shot, for heaven's sakes. My gosh, I was in Moscow already. I was doing a documentary already. I was in Moscow when this story broke.

KING: Do you still miss it?

CRONKITE: Yeah. I still miss it. I don't miss being on the air, Larry. What I miss is -- as far as the daily news goes, I miss being in the newsroom when the stories are breaking, helping make the agenda for the day, deciding what should be covered, which I did.

KING: Yeah.

CRONKITE: I was managing editor of the broadcast. The -- and I also do miss being on the air at times like the tragedy of September 11th. When you've got such a major story as that, you're ready to -- you want to be aboard, you know?

KING: Our guest is Walter Cronkite. What can we say? We'll be back with more right after this.


CRONKITE: This is my last broadcast as the anchorman of the "CBS Evening News." For me it's a moment for which I long have planned, but which nevertheless comes with some sadness. For almost two decades, after all, we've been meeting like this in the evenings, and I'll miss that.

But those who have made anything of this departure I'm afraid have made too much. This is but a transition, a passing of the baton. A great broadcaster and gentlemen, Doug Edwards, preceded me in this job, and another, Dan Rather, will follow. And in any way, the person who sits here is but the most conspicuous member of a superb team of journalists -- writers, reporters, editors, producers -- and none of that will change. Furthermore, I'm not even going away. I'll be back from time to time with special news reports and documentaries, and beginning in June every week with our science program "Universe."

Old anchormen, you see, don't fade away, they just keep coming back for more. And that's the way it is Friday, March 6, 1981.




CRONKITE: Hello, everyone, here we are again in Studio A, our CBS television control point for the (UNINTELLIGIBLE) coverage this time of the Democratic National Convention.

More than 200,000 of them came to Washington this morning in a kind of climax to a historic spring and summer in the struggle for equal rights. This is Walter Cronkite, on the Greenland ice cap. Beyond the horizon lies the North Pole.

Walter Cronkite reporting from London. Queen Elizabeth II to be crowned (UNINTELLIGIBLE).

This is Walter Cronkite back at our CBS News booth, overlooking the platform on the east cortical of the U.S. Capitol, where now in a very few moments John Fitzgerald Kennedy, age 43, from the state of Massachusetts, becomes the president of the United States.


KING: What do you make of the latest terrorist warning, the idea of issuing a terrorist warning, showing pictures and telling people "Be on guard." Good idea?

CRONKITE: Well, sure. I would think so. We ought to be told whatever they know that can help us be on guard. I must say, I thought the fellow they pictured looked like an average tourist from that part of the world. And as a matter of fact, coming over here to your studio tonight, we passed a guy on the street who almost ran into the car, and it looked just like him, I thought. Didn't know -- what do you do? Do you turn around and say, "Hey, that's the guy"?

KING: Have you gotten more nervous since? Are you more aware of your surroundings since September 11?

CRONKITE: Oh, I suppose, to a certain degree, yeah. I'm not frightened. I'm not scared. I'm not shaking all the time with alarm or the possibility that the guy going into the theater behind me has got a bomb in his shoe. But I -- sure. Sure. We know that we've got these people out in the world now that are looking for us, looking for an opportunity, whatever their plans or plots may be. I worry just as much, however, about the kooks out there who think that now is the time to plant a bomb. You know, they read the papers, and they're copycat terrorists.

KING: You were out of the country, weren't you, on September 11th?

CRONKITE: Yeah, I was in Italy.

KING: Trouble getting back, as I remember.

CRONKITE: Took five days. We got on the first plane out of Italy, after the -- which was the Sunday following. Actually, it's -- you know, sometimes you got to use that old reportorial cachet, whatever it is. We were on a Delta flight that was -- we were scheduled to be on the flight on that Sunday morning. As it turned out to be, the first one out of the country. However, when we got to the airport or we checked by phone about the flight, they said, "Well, yes, you're scheduled to fly with us, of course, but we're taking people in priority of the time of when they would have flown, if we'd been flying these last five days. And therefore, you're going to come back on September 28th," or something like that. I mean, it was way off. And I'm afraid we had to use a little...

KING: A little clout.

CRONKITE: A little clout to get aboard that first plane.

KING: Was it strange flying back in?

CRONKITE: Oh, it was strange at the airport, of course, with the masses of people, not only waiting to check in through security, but also those hoping to get on some plane or another. The airport in Milan was actually jammed. But aboard the aircraft, I didn't feel that there was any real difference up in the aircraft. I didn't sense that my fellow passengers were frightened.

KING: Am I remembering right? Didn't you live within proximity of the World Trade Center? Didn't you have a good view of it?

CRONKITE: We had a view of it, not a particularly good one. We're on the Upper East Side. We look down the river, and I could see a corner of the buildings. I miss them now. We would have had a view, certainly, of the clouds of smoke, if not the collapse itself. And I do miss it now. That picture out of our window down the East River is missing something over there on the right-hand side.

KING: Did you ever think -- we all feared terrorism coming to this country. Did you ever think it would come the way it did?

CRONKITE: Oh, no. Not in the slightest. Not in the slightest. I have -- I've thought a lot about nuclear, biologic terror. I've thought that would be the way it would come, if we had it. I had no idea of the diabolic cleverness of sending a heavily-fueled airplane into a major building. That, unfortunately, was brilliant.

KING: Have you -- you've gone to wars. You've covered wars. We'll never forget your reporting from Vietnam. Being a journalist and taking risks, is that part of the story?

CRONKITE: Absolutely. Absolutely. And Larry, that can't be hammered home strongly enough with an administration and a military that is trying every possible way to conduct their business in the dark from the American people. I think we should abhor this. I should think the newspapers and television outlets should be hammering home the fact we are not able to put our reporters with the troops, where they should be.

The excuse is that it's too dangerous. That's one excuse. We got to protect the correspondents from their -- from themselves, in essence. Not so. The correspondents -- in World War II, we were out there with troops. Vietnam, our correspondents were out there with the troops, when it was pretty darn tough going into the jungles with a small unit of then, not much different than the kind of almost guerrilla warfare in Afghanistan.

And the business of not being able to -- not having trained people who are going along with these highly-trained secret units -- we can understand the problem there. Just a few men going in, it's hard to take a cameraman and somebody else along. However, they have taken their own cameramen along, so that's not a problem.

And training the people is not a problem. In World War II, they trained us to go on high-altitude flights, the bombers, over Germany in a week. We went to a training center for gunnery, not that we were supposed to man a gun, under the Geneva convention, but gunnery and high-altitude first aid and that kind of thing. We -- they gave us parachute training, so you'd go in with the airborne. And a little -- two days on a standing parachute drop.


CRONKITE: ... in a parachute or with a glider, whatever. Now, this can be done if they wanted it to be done. They don't want it to be done.

KING: Because?

CRONKITE: Because it is -- war is a very messy business. It is bound to be messy. There are going to be mistakes. We've seen some, probably, in Afghanistan already. The -- they don't want those reported. They feel that to maintain wartime morale, we've got to be a cheering section for the military. We should be reporting what we see and can see.

The people have a right to know, not only a right, but a duty to know what the Army is doing in their name. We call them "our boys" and "our girls." We've got a right to know what our boys and our girls are doing in our name.

KING: As we got to break with Walter Cronkite, here's a little sample of his work during World War II.


CRONKITE: I'm just back from the biggest assignment that any American reporter could have so far in this war. And when we were permitted to write, there was plenty to report.




CRONKITE: From Dallas, Texas, the flash, apparently official, President Kennedy died at 1:00 p.m. Central Standard Time, 2:00 Eastern Standard Time, some 38 minutes ago.

Vice President Johnson has left the hospital in Dallas, but we do not know to where he has proceeded. Presumably, he will be taking the oath of office shortly and become the 36th president of the United States.


KING: We're back with Walter Cronkite. What do you make of this, as they call it, fog of war in Afghanistan?

CRONKITE: Well, it's something we had to do. I think there's no question about that. I think we've got every right to believe that we've done it quite well up until now. The problem, really, is setting in now, in trying to bring permanent peace to that country that has been through a war for three decades anyway.

The warlord problem, competing warlords in one little community have already thrown us off pace, as it were. The -- as you know, was recognized by the provincial president at the moment, was thrown out by another warlord in the same town, and apparently everyone agreed he was the one who should be in there anyway. It's going to be messy and it's going to be very tough for us.

KING: Is it definitely our role to be involved all the way through?

CRONKITE: It's our role to be involved, but I should think our role should be subjugated to the United Nations. We should be very important to the United Nations role, we are the strong military power that has to be a lead power in this respect. But we should be working under the ideas of the United Nations for heaven's sake.

KING: What do you make of the allegations of this country mistreating prisoners?

CRONKITE: I am disappointed if it's so, but not terribly surprised. The -- we don't know the extent of that, really. We've got a few quotes from a few people that maintain they were mistreated. But it -- again, it's wartime. It's a difficult period. The police mistreat people, and we don't condemn them too seriously for that, if it's in the distress of a riot situation. Nearly always in riots where they are picking up civilians and throwing them in the back of a bus or something to take them to jail, there are always going to be complaints that they were mistreated by the police. If you are trying to handcuff a recalcitrant individual, you might turn -- twist his shoulder a little bit or something of the kind.

KING: War is hell?

CRONKITE: War is hell. And arresting people, particularly if you have made a mistake and they are innocent civilians, can be pretty tough.

KING: We know about friendly fire in Vietnam. We hear about it a lot in subsequent altercations. Was there a lot of it in World War II?

CRONKITE: Sure there was. I don't think we had, perhaps, quite as much in World War II as we seem to have today, with smart weapons. We've got so much technology going into these weapons today that one little chip goes awry and the whole package of explosives goes somewhere it's not supposed to go. I think that's maybe the problem we're having in some ways.

KING: What's your assessment thus far, of President Bush? CRONKITE: My assessment is that he has done an extraordinarily good job in bringing us all together and taking the first immediate emergency steps after 9/11, and therefore we should be grateful that we got him doing the job for us.

On the other hand, I'm concerned about some of the domestic policy and foreign policy, which I think we should have the right to examine and criticize, and not feel we are being disloyal to the war effort. The war efforts over here on one side. And we've got to be critical of that as well because the war effort is piercing the governments of many, many countries, that, as we are getting very intimately involved in what they are up to and what they are doing, that we've got to, somehow or other, be sure we are respecting their rights, whatever they are at the moment.

KING: Do you think he'll have a lot of clout in the November elections?

CRONKITE: You're speaking November this year, the congressional election?

KING: yes.

CRONKITE: Well, that -- I don't know. That would depend on circumstances. We're a long way off from that, still. I think this thing...

KING: They lose seats in the first two years, right? Usually the incumbent president loses seats?

CRONKITE: Yes. Well, they certainly will hope not to lose. They've got a very narrow -- Democrats have a very narrow balance there now and hope the Republicans, clearly, to unseat them in both the leadership of the Senate and in the narrow -- narrow minority position they have in the house.

But, you know, there are so many things that are going to be at stake. If the Democrats are organized well enough to put together the package of things that the Republican administration is doing, almost by fiat today, I think the main thing the Democrats have to look at is the fact that the administration is trying to bypass Congress on so much that Congress feels is their bailiwick, and I think the people should feel Congress should have a say. And if that continues, the Democrats are going to have a pretty good argument to put forth.

KING: When you've seen it all, as you've seen it all. All the political figures you've seen, the presidents you've known, does it ever get old hat to you?

CRONKITE: No, no. It can't.

KING: Goes around, goes around. You never get that kind of jaded feeling?

CRONKITE: Well, that was Sam Rayburn's line, and it was a good one. But that -- that's true in a sense. You've seen similar situations before, but the personalities are different. Interplayer personalities are different. You've always got just a little different balance of power in there somehow or other. Today you've got McCain on here, here you've got a very strong Republican who made a very good showing in the primaries a couple of years ago, and here he is, really, he's probably as pointed a thorn in the side of the administration as any Democrat is today.

KING: And we are hardpressed to find a similar situation in recent years to McCain and Bush?

We'll be right back with more of Walter Cronkite. We'll ask him his thoughts about Enron right after this.


CRONKITE: The Tet offensive still had its hotspots. And one of them was that once beautiful old city of (UNINTELLIGIBLE).

But the communist's intention was to take and seize the cities. They came closer here at (UNINTELLIGIBLE) than anywhere else. It was a tough fight. It was house to house, door to door, room to room.



KING: We're back. Before I ask Walter about Enron, he wanted to add something about military and the way of doing things, where you can cover things but do it similar to World War II, where there is censorship, right?

CRONKITE: Sure. In World War II, there were very few places we couldn't go. I can't remember really being turned down to go anywhere. Each of the armies had its own press camp with it of independent reporters.

KING: Did you interview generals and stuff, you had access, didn't you?

CRONKITE: Sure. They'd brief us and we could see them and we could see them in action at their headquarters, drop in almost any time. I mean, it was that kind of thing. You want to go somewhere, you got a Jeep and you went. You spent many a night in a foxhole up there where the action was.

But the point was that we understood that there had to be censorship of our material that we sent out. When we wrote it or it was photographed or filmed for news reels in those days, that material went into the censors at that Army headquarters and the unit headquarters, then up on up to the Army and beyond. And they held that material if they felt that it was in any way endangering the troops. If we were talking about losses, they didn't want your enemy to know the losses when you are still on the frontline and material (UNINTELLIGIBLE), all these things.

We understood it had to be secret, but you wrote it. You wrote it that day so history, our history was preserved. They held it to the censors until they could release it. And that might be a week later, might be a month later, might be six months later, might be years later. But the material was there to show the history of our troops in action that we could see at some point to balance what we might have been able to hear through the censorship. And it was terribly important and we don't have that history anymore.

KING: Makes too much sense. What do you make of Enron?

CRONKITE: Well, apparently there's something going on there.

KING: I think so. You think there's a story here?

CRONKITE: I think there's a story there.

KING: What do you make of a thing like this and all of these nontestimonies?

CRONKITE: The terrible part of it, of course is that it's creating a very severe case of doubt upon the part of the investing public in the honesty and integrity of the companies that are asking people to invest. I think it's a -- I think it's a dangerous situation right now.

You know, here, Enron seemed to be such a profitable and fast- growing, powerful organization, seventh largest in the world or something of the kind. And to have this going on there, and now we've got another company coming along with that kind of a problem, the accounting industry not performing its job, which we had depended upon. Even a law firm, a very dignified, important law firm, possibly being involved. My gosh, where does this stop?

And isn't it -- isn't it proof, again, Larry, that greed is simply overwhelmed our civilization. I mean, it's not just them, not just the officials at Enron. It's a lot of people invested in Enron and expected immediate dividends, huge dividends to pour out. That's not the way I should think you normally invest in a growing company.

KING: What is the government's response? Does it owe a responsibility to those who lost monies in the 401(k)? Does the vice president owe it to release the names of those who discussed energy policy? What does the government, assuming they are not involved in any chicanery, what do they owe us?

CRONKITE: Well, I think what they owe us now is some real knowledge as we go through these, what are there, nine committees or something now studying the matter in Congress. They've got to come up with legislation that protects us. And that should be perfectly possible. It ought to be almost easy if, of course, if the special interests do not dictate that legislation and that's the danger.

Right now, we've got this very important matter before the House, representatives of the finance -- campaign finance bill. There are all sorts of special interests in there right now. I understand the Hill is just crowded with lobbyists trying to get their own version of that bill, mostly intending to kill it, trying to get such provisions in it that cannot be accepted by Congress.

KING: The puzzling thing is no public official says they are against campaign finance reform.

CRONKITE: No, they can't, of course. And that should indicate -- that should be the indication right there that they can't come out against it, that the people want it. People overwhelmingly want it. And they know darn good and well they are going to be fighting a campaign issue themselves if they go out and have voted against campaign reform. But they are going to crowd up the issue so badly that it can't make sense as a working piece of legislation and we won't have campaign reform and they won't have anything on their description (ph) that will defeat them next November.

KING: We'll be back with our remaining moments with Walter Cronkite. Dominic Dunne tomorrow night. Don't go away.



UNIDENTIFIED MALE: (UNINTELLIGIBLE), engine command override off.

CRONKITE: Man on the moon.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Houston, tranquility base here. The eagle has landed. We're going to be busy for a minute.



KING: We're back with our remaining moments with Walter Cronkite. One of the problems, of course, on the other hand is you need money.

CRONKITE: Indeed you do.

KING: And so the other side says I got to raise the money to run for the office if I can't buy advertising, so what do I do? I got to spend media money. What?

CRONKITE: Indeed, and indeed they spent more than a billion dollars in the last election on some television advertising, the candidates did. The -- this -- that's all the candidates. This has got to be cut down. And there's no reason why a television station should not give free time to the candidates. Not a lot of free time, but some free time. They still make their money on some more advertising probably. But --

KING: They said they'd do it in debates, interviews. Won't charge for that.

CRONKITE: They say they do, but you and I know there wasn't that much time spent. As a matter of fact, on the network evening news programs, the sound bites of candidates on the air averaged 7.8 seconds last time. You and I haven't said a sentence that was 7.8 seconds today.

KING: Couldn't do it.

CRONKITE: You couldn't get a noun and a pronoun and an adverb out in that time. It's ridiculous and there's no reason, we're not asking anybody to go broke doing this, but the Alliance for a Better Campaign is the thing that Paul Taylor has put together. And Washington is very strong and he's going very strongly after the networks and the stations to give free times this next time.

KING: Walter, you have never really retired, have you? I mean, you do documentaries and you write books.


KING: Do you ever think of just saying okay, I'm 85, I'm going to just going to watch the dancers, as Adlai Stevenson once said?

CRONKITE: That's about every morning as I'm shaving. But by the time I've finished shaving and got the newspaper in hand, I want to go after the next story.

KING: Are you still doing active work?

CRONKITE: I get an opportunity in some of the documentaries we do. I do quite a lot of speaking around the country. And that's all extemporaneous, answer questions, "Conversation With Walter Cronkite, " very popular forum I think we invented a couple -- two or three years ago. People are beginning to copy and it works now...

KING: You go out and do what?

CRONKITE: ... when we get an interchange. It makes it really interesting.

KING: You take Q&A? You speak at colleges?

CRONKITE: Well, colleges and speaker bureaus type things, lecture bureaus and conventions.

KING: Still enjoy the travel?

CRONKITE: No. Travel has gotten so miserable with the airport problem, the getting there in advance, and the crowds, which we have to have, I agree -- and the security. I want my airplane just as secure as they can make it. But it has taken a little bit of the comfort out of travel anyway.

KING: Do you still have a strong optimistic view about this country?

CRONKITE: Oh, sure. And I think that maybe we have got our focus a little better now on what we need to do in this country. Thanks to nine -- September 11 and the Enron situation. I think that Enron thing has awakened us to this matter of greed. I think 9/11 introduced us to the fact that maybe we had the wrong priorities in life to live. Putting those two things together, we just might be -- find ourselves moving ahead in this century in a way that I really hadn't expected us to.

I was a little depressed for a while, and I may be still somewhat depressed about the one thing that we can't seem to get a handle on and that's war. And armaments, we are going to spend now billions upon billions more for armaments when we can't have enough money for schools and education, health and all of those points. And all of this is in order to better be able to kill masses of people. Now, what the devil is civilization about after all these thousands of years that man has been walking upright? That we still believe that that's the way to settle an argument? Not only a personal argument so that everybody can have a gun in their pocket, but also countries spend their fortunes on their military. If we couldn't -- we spent some portion of that, in fact a large portion of that on ways to achieve peace.

For instance, right now, we ought to be putting billions of dollars into a Marshall Plan for the Middle East, particularly in the Arab nations that we were going to prevent future attacks, terrorist attacks and enmity of those nations is to help them come into the 21st century. And they need a lot of funds and money to do that. We can do that. We did the Marshall plan. We rebuilt Europe after World War II.

KING: A lot of people were against it.

CRONKITE: I know they were. But look what happened, we turned Europe into a viable organization and indeed, by so doing, fostered the European Union even now. Elimination, almost, of a danger war in that area. But we've got to do this now in the Middle East.

KING: We've never answered the question of why go to war? We never know, why do we kill each other? Why?


KING: Land?

CRONKITE: Well, envy. In the case of the Arabs, and understandable envy. Television has had its part to play, they see the pictures now. They all have television, maybe only one set to a village, but they all watch television. And as they do, they see the riches of the West constantly portrayed before them. And they are living in these hollows without food, clothing, shelter, jobs, education and they say, why can't we have that? And there's no answer to that. Their governments can't answer it.

KING: Did you ever think of running for president? Those rumors were around you. Did you ever give it a thought?

CRONKITE: No, no. Thank you.

KING: Thank you, Walter, as always. CRONKITE: I'm glad.


KING: When we come back, take a sneak peak at some Grammy nominees. Stay with us.


CRONKITE: Good evening from Paris. Tonight, this broadcast originates from outside the United States for the first time.

This war was began 2,300 years ago. Now, the first 10 years, the labor of 300,000 men went into it.

His mission to Moscow, a week-long meeting in the Kremlin with the leaders of the only nation whose power rivals that of the United States.

This is Walter Cronkite, reporting from Vien Chan (ph), in Laos.



KING: Welcome back. Wednesday night, they're going to roll out the red carpet. It's going to be unfurled as the music industry honors its best. If you want to take an early look at the Grammy nominees, here's your front seat. We leave you tonight with some of the nominated songs and performances, a highlight reel from their appearances on this show.

Thanks for joining us. See you tomorrow. Good night.





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