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Oklahoma City Marks Bombing Anniversary

Aired April 19, 2005 - 09:50   ET


SOLEDAD O'BRIEN, CNN ANCHOR: Welcome back, everybody, on this tenth anniversary of the bombing in Oklahoma City. We go back to Bill Hemmer in Oklahoma City. Bill, you know, you talk a lot this morning about the history. You've shown us a lot about the people's emotions ten years later. But can you walk us through what happens today in the ceremony?
BILL HEMMER, CNN ANCHOR: Yes, the ceremony will begin right about the top of the hour, Soledad, just a few short moments away here in Oklahoma City. There's the cathedral across the street essentially from the memorial. That's where the dignitaries will gather, that's where the family members will gather today.

And right around 9:02 a.m. local time, central time, 10:02 back there in New York, you'll get about 168 seconds of silence for each of those who were killed on this day, ten years ago. Then the families' names will be read, and then the families who have gathered will get up from the church, walk across the street and go to the chair that now commemorates the life of the 168 people on the lawn behind me here at the memorial.

You'll also going to hear some very touching things throughout this service, Soledad, that really speak to the future and they speak to the survivors. There's a new exhibit that opened up just this week and it's titled "Forever Changed and Changing Forever," and that salutes the people who have gone on with their lives, now ten years later.

And there will be children who survived the daycare center bombing that day, who will read a mission statement out loud during the service and that mission statement, by the way, is planted all over this memorial and all over the museum. It goes like this: "We come here to remember those who were killed, those who survived and those changed forever. May all who leave here know the impact of violence. May this memorial offer comfort, strength, peace, hope, and serenity." Part of the program today -- Soledad.

O'BRIEN: Can I ask you a couple of questions? You've had an opportunity to talk to so many parents. And I have to tell you, from our vantage point here, when we see the pictures, especially of the little ones, the little babies who died, I'd like to know -- the parents, after you interviewed them, or before they come to talk to you, are they crying on this memorial day? Are they holding it together? How are they outside of the interview that you do?

HEMMER: You know, one of the ladies we talked to today, she was the grandmother of her two grandsons who were killed. She says, you know, we're kind of like ornaments on a tree, as human beings. Each one of us is different. And you get a variance of reactions, too. Throughout the past several days, Soledad, some people said it's getting easier as time goes by, so that as they approach the ten-year anniversary, they are further separated by time from that moment ten years ago.

But others will tell you, too, that as time goes on, it continues to be very difficult for them, as well. Several hours ago, we were talking with a gentleman who lost his daughter. Her name was Karen (ph) and she was age 27 at the time. And while he was speaking during the interview, tears started to roll down his face and after the interview, he got up and he said, you know, Bill, I've only done that twice in ten years and that was the second time.

And we get so many reactions and such a different way, too. Many people have embraced the memorial here and they come here quite often. Others say they do not like to come here and do not like to be reminded of that moment ten years ago.

But you'll hear three common things in Oklahoma City. We will not be defined by our past. We have hope for something in the future, and hope for something here consistently out here, and we have an obligation to make the world a better place. I think that third aspect is very important, because that's what this memorial is all about here in Oklahoma City.

Many people believe that the attention of this country was focused on terrorism in this country for the first time ten years ago. It started in Oklahoma City and continued again with 9/11 in New York City and Schwenksville, Pennsylvania, and the Pentagon in Washington D.C. But many believe that the process started here and now everyone is coming to Oklahoma City to try to learn how the healing process goes on and how the healing process continues. ] Oklahoma City started -- they feel an awful lot of responsibility, they feel a duty and an obligation, to teach people how to do it right. And that goes with the whole idea of respecting the survivors today, too, to making sure they are taken care of as they continue in their own lives.

O'BRIEN: Bill, I know that today -- and we've been watching pictures of people as they gather for the start of the ceremonies -- and I know today a lot of officials are going to show up and lots of dignitaries, obviously. But what's the feeling like in Oklahoma City? Is it a -- would you say it's sort of overcast, with kind of a depressed feeling, or is it a hopeful feeling?

HEMMER: I don't get the sense of depression here. I get more the sense of what you mentioned there about hope. I can also tell you, there is an enormous amount of strength in this city. And I mentioned earlier that they would not be defined by this moment. And you hear that from so many people, too, about the hope they have for the future and how ten years ago, it was an awful day in this town and it continued for months and even years after that. But they have not stopped as a result of that. And they have lives that continue from this day forward and the friendships, too, that were born out of the day.Just extraordinary to sit down with these people and talk and think about -- OK, yes, they were living in the same town, but that moment brought them together for a lifetime.

168 killed that day, including 19 children, 500 injured. There were some staggering figures here, too. 219 children lost at least one parent. Close to 400,000 in Oklahoma City knew someone who was killed or injured in that bombing. That's a third of the population in this town. More than 300 buildings either destroyed or damaged, of which 16 have been torn down. In the months after April 19th, 200,000 went to the funerals for bombing victims.

This is the ceremony, underway in Southie (ph) Cathedral across the street now, from the memorial.


HEMMER: We were waiting and watching the ceremony here. At about 9:02 a.m. Central time, 10:02 East Coast time, we will listen for 168 seconds of silence to honor those killed ten years ago today. And in one of the more poignant moments you will see the family members, who have gathered inside the church, walk across the street and take some sort of memento or flowers or some sort of to each individual chair, aligned now and set up in rows of nine that represent the nine floors of the federal building blown apart at that very moment ten years ago today.

We will hear from the vice president, Dick Cheney; the former president, Bill Clinton; the former governor, too, Frank Keating, will all make special speeches during this ceremony. But as we come back outside and we look at the memorial here in Oklahoma City, there are points throughout this memorial that are truly poignant.

The survivor tree, which is this enormous American elm that withstood the blast and stands today as a symbol of resilience. It's more than 80 years old. The reflecting pool, where visitors can see their own reflection, which represents how each one of us have changed as a result of the bombing. And the survivors' wall, too, with 800 names listed in granite. It is a remarkable sight here at Oklahoma City.

O'BRIEN: Bill, may I ask a question about the number of people that they are expecting, again, outside of the dignitaries who come in especially for this? I would imagine that many other people who are not from Oklahoma City would come in, as well. Can you talk about that?

HEMMER: Yes, we expect several hundred people inside the church today, Soledad. And even outside, the memorial's already starting to fill up. There are not massive amounts of people here, but again, this was a memorial that was open 24 hours a day, seven days a week. And you can hear in the background now, we're getting ready for that 168 seconds of silence in Oklahoma City.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: 10 years ago, April the 19th, 1995.

(168 SECONDS OF SILENCE) UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Thank you. Please remain standing.


Almighty and merciful God, on this day of remembrance, we remember one thing: we could never have made it without you.

We have been afflicted, but never abandoned. We have been perplexed, but never confounded. We have been distraught, but never destroyed. We have been heartbroken, but never spirit forsaken. We are lanterns of clay, fragile but filled with the oil of hope. All of this because of you, oh God, our sustainer and redeemer, our safe harbor, and our safe home.

Be with us this day, oh merciful Lord. Fill this place with your holy presence, for in your peace, our sorrow will find its comfort. For we know the loved ones we miss so dearly are with you. It is thus in your nearness we gratefully find them near.

In the name of Jesus we pray, amen.

Please remain standing, and join us in the singing of our national anthem, led by Master Sergeant Steven Theuland (ph) of the United States Air Force band of mid America.


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: Let's join for the Pledge of Allegiance.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, and to the republic for which it stands, one nation, under God, indivisible, with liberty, and justice for all.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, and to the republic for which it stands, one nation, under God, indivisible, with liberty, and justice for all.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, and to the republic for which it stands, one nation, under God, indivisible, with liberty, and justice for all.

FRANK HILL, CHAIRMAN, OKLAHOMA CITY NATIONAL MEMORIAL FOUNDATION: Please be seated. Thank you very much, Brooke and Savannah.

Good morning. My name is Frank Hill, and I am the chairman of the Oklahoma City National Memorial Foundation.

Welcome to this remembrance ceremony, as we commemorate the first decade. Today, we gather to mark a promise kept and a decade of hope. We gather to honor the 168 people who were killed, the hundreds of survivors, and the thousands who came from near and far to help in the rescue efforts.

I would like to welcome so many special guests, a few of whom are seated in the choir loft behind me right here. Thank you for joining us today. We are most grateful for your work along the way and for helping us get to this important day, the tenth anniversary.

I would also like to welcome the group of over 40 survivors of 9/11 who are with us here today.

We do want to thank Pastor Stan Cosby for the hospitality of this wonderful church, itself a survivor of the bombing. They have great neighbors and we certainly appreciate it. Please join P.J. Allen, Brandon Denny, Rebecca Denny and Christopher Wynn (ph), survivors of the America Kids Day Care for the reading of our memorial mission statement.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: We come here to remember those who were killed, those who survived, and those changed forever. May all who leave here know the impact of violence. May this memorial offer comfort, strength, peace, hope, and serenity.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: We come here to remember those who were killed, those who survived, and those changed forever. May all who leave here know the impact of violence. May this memorial offer comfort, strength, peace, hope, and serenity.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: We come here to remember those who were killed, those who survived, and those changed forever. May all who leave here know the impact of violence. May this memorial offer comfort, strength, peace, hope, and serenity.


ERNESTINE CLARK, DOWNTOWN WORKER: We are in a room full of friends today, people that we didn't even know 10 years ago. The last thing that anyone in this room thought of 10 years ago was that we would go through not just deep grieving with all the sharp nuances that that emotional cycle batters you through, none of us could have fathomed experiencing a memorial process or yearly commemorations that would eventually create friendships between people who, before 1995, were strangers or only nodding acquaintances. And yet that very thing happened.

Despite being a widely diverse group in terms of age, education, religion, politics, life stages, you name it, friendships began to spring up over a period of time. Those friendships grew in richness, as we grew in understanding, and wholeness, and compassion for one another's viewpoints and experiences.

One of those friendships for me was with Priscilla Salyers (ph). Priscilla and I discovered over the years that we could say anything, anything at all to each other and receive absolute, unconditional acceptance, a rare and valuable gift.

As spring rolled around each year, and nightmares and uneasiness returned in March and April, one of us would call the other one and say, "I can't sleep. Tonight's not a good night." The listener on the other end of the line would become supportive, and we'd talk until the anxiety calmed down.

Priscilla and I finally made a pact. No matter what the time of night or day, we could call the other one if we needed to, and we could say, "I've got to go down there," down there being the site of the bombing and later the memorial.

Close to anniversary time, we preferred being there late at night, when it was deserted, quiet. There were no visitors to observe us in our sometimes fragile moments. We were comforted by the perimeter of teddy bears and other memorabilia.

Five years ago, just prior to the fifth anniversary, we made one of those infamous drives downtown, but we discovered we weren't the only ones down there. We ran into Tom Kite, who had lost his daughter in the bombing. We talked quietly for awhile, a trio of people changed by the bombing, but after five years beginning to share strength and hope. At the end, we three very different but forever linked people embraced and returned to our homes.

I was feeling much gratitude for the privilege of knowing Priscilla and Tom. I put those feelings into words and phrases, and somehow Tom Kite held onto them, I don't know how, for five years. The memorial committee, through Tom, asked if I would update those thoughts to reflect the tenth anniversary and read them today, and I am honored to do so.

For the beauty of this Oklahoma day, whether calm or windy, cool or warm, clear or cloudy, noisy or strangely quiet, we feel gratitude. For the memories of those deeply soul-searing events of April 19, 1995, we acknowledge again those we shall never forget. We express gratitude that we have connected as families, survivors, rescuers and community to provide each other hope.

For all those gathered here today or linked with us spiritually on these hallowed grounds, we say thanks to God for your lives, for your own inner courage, and for the lifetime that lies ahead for all of us to continue to shape.

On April 19, we remember those who died in the bombing, and we remember also those who have died in the years since 1995. Their memory will be in our hearts forever, and we are so fortunate to have known them.

On April 19, we remember those whose hearts, souls and bodies were injured. We pray for continued healing and express gratitude for their lives. They have blessed us and continued to teach us about courage.

On April 19, we remember our rescuers, the courageous men and women from here locally and also from far away, who searched under the most dangerous and fearsome of circumstances, who faced experiences and challenges of unthinkable magnitude that changed their lives along with ours.

We remember also our counselors, our clergy and other comforters. We are connected to all of you, and forever grateful.

To all the citizens of our beloved United States of America and beyond that, to all the peoples of the world, we say thank you. We shall always remember the extraordinary compassion, kindness, and support extended to us without measure.

To those in other states and countries, to those at Columbine, New York City, Pennsylvania, Washington, those in Africa, and many other places where we Oklahomans have been able to extend our hearts and hands in comfort and hope, you are in our thoughts and prayers even today.

To those unknown to us now that Oklahoma will help in the future we are indeed, our brothers' and sisters' keeper, and we pay our debt forward with gratitude.

May all those gathered here today truly experience again the deep meaning of this statement, carved on the memorial's Gates of Time, and leave this place remembering Oklahoma has not only survived but is thriving. We will be forever grateful to the world that helped us heal, and so today, we say from our heart of hearts, thank you.

HILL: Thank you, Ernestine, wonderful words.

When this memorial was in the infancy of its planning and just a dream to many, and the foundation had begun to raise money for its construction, then Governor Frank Keating convinced Mr. Dick Cheney, a private citizen at the time, to join together with survivor Polly Nichols, and former mayor Ron Norek (ph) in our national fund-raising efforts.

Mr. Cheney agreed and went to work immediately to help bring national dollars for this national memorial. Mr. Cheney came to Oklahoma City on several occasions to help us complete this project. Then he became the vice president of the United States. A year and a half ago, as vice president, Mr. Cheney returned to see the completed memorial and museum. Vice President Cheney has also helped us clarify and strengthen our relationship with the national park service.

Today, we are honored to have him back in Oklahoma City, to commemorate this special day as we mark the decade of hope. Vice President Dick Cheney.

DICK CHENEY, VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: Thank you, Frank. Governor Henry, President Clinton, Governor Keating, Congressman Istook, Mayor Cornett, Pastor Cosby, distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen: I want to thank you very much for the welcome, and for the invitation to join all of you this morning.

I especially want to recognize the survivors and family members who are with us today. All of us respect you for the way you have borne tragedy over the last decade, and for your great devotion to the memory of those who died here on Wednesday, April 19, 1995. I am honored to be in your presence, and I bring personal regards to all of you from our President, George W. Bush.

This morning we recall an event that changed this community forever and profoundly touched our entire nation. We recall, as well, the legacy of courage and hope that has characterized Oklahoma City from that day to this. The United States has known times of sadness, both before and after the Murrah Federal Building was attacked. Yet that spring morning 10 years ago is still deeply etched in our memories.

Across the nation, Americans were going forth to start the new day. And just steps away from where we gather now, federal offices were opening; men and women were sitting down to work; and children were sitting down to their breakfast. To some who heard it, the sound of the blast seemed like a clap of thunder over Oklahoma City. Others, as many as 30 miles away could feel the tremor in the ground.

Within a few minutes, the news from Oklahoma was received by a nation that listened and watched in disbelief. I remember hearing the coverage on a car radio, and trying to picture in my mind all that the announcer was describing, then later seeing that it was far worse than anything I had imagined. All that was left was a remnant of a building, unstable and towering over the heads of survivors and rescuers.

Our nation, and much of the world, looked on as emergency teams and recovery workers ignored their own grief and labored into the night. Volunteers assembled by the thousands; citizens of all ages stood in line for six hours to give blood. Many professionals arrived from across the country to aid in disaster relief. Among them were nine members of New York Task Force One, men whose own lives would end on another day of terror in 2001.

As this community came together, the nation shared in the sorrow and the outrage over the violence directed at innocent and unsuspecting men, women, and children. One hundred and sixty-eight had been killed, more than 800 injured. Two hundred and nineteen children lost at least one parent, and 30 were orphaned. And a few days after the attack, a minister of the Gospel officiated at the funeral of his own grandsons.

Among the images from those desperate early hours, Americans remember the skill and the fearlessness of the rescue and recovery workers. We also remember the calm strength and firmness of Oklahoma's Governor, Frank Keating. And on a day of mourning shared by all citizens, we were comforted by a leader who gave compassionate and eloquent voice to the nation's grief, President Bill Clinton.

To gather at this time of reflection is to feel once again the impact of April 19, and to admire once again the resolve that came through almost immediately in Oklahoma City. As Judge Fred Daugherty said -- the U.S. District Court, "We're a strong and simple folk. We'll rebuild and roll with this thing."

Oklahoma City did rebuild, but it was not easy. More than one in every three persons in this community knew someone who had been killed or injured. In sadness you've looked after each other, cared for each other, and become like family. And you have raised up a beautiful and dignified memorial, marking a moment in time, and affirming the truth that there is far more good than bad in this world. All humanity can see that you experienced bottomless cruelty and responded with heroism. Your strength was challenged, and you held firm. Your faith was tested, and it has not wavered.

I was struck by the words of one survivor, who said, "We cannot ever forget. We don't even want to forget." That's the spirit of the Oklahoma City National Memorial, and it so perfectly reflects the character of the United States. This nation is decent and just, fair- minded and good-hearted. When sadness comes, when fellow citizens know suffering and loss, we do not want to forget what happened, or to whom it happened. We uphold the value of innocent life by pursuing justice until justice is done. We find comfort in the knowledge that our created universe has a moral design, and the forces of darkness will not have the final say.

We want to remember April 19, 1995, not merely because great evil appeared that day, but because goodness overcame evil that day. We want to remember not only a single act of malice, but also ten thousand acts of kindness, and mercy, and bravery. And we want to remember because of the innocent lives that ended here and all the families that were harmed by strangers who had no right to harm them.

President Clinton, Governor Keating, and so many others here today were also present 10 years ago, when in the aftermath of violence the Reverend Billy Graham came to this city. Dr. Graham declared, with great confidence, that "The wounds of this tragedy are deep, but the courage and the faith and the determination of the people of Oklahoma City are even deeper." These 10 years have proven him right. For your unbending strength, your unity, and the great love you have shown one another throughout a decade of hope, the entire nation feels enduring pride and respect for the people of Oklahoma City.

HILL: Thank you, Mr. Vice President. Thank you for being with us today.

Since his term as governor began, Brad Henry, first lady Kim Henry and his administration have been wonderful friends to the memorial. Governor Henry has been very helpful in spreading the memorial mission throughout Oklahoma and across the United States. It is my privilege and pleasure to introduce to you Governor Brad Henry.

GOV. BRAD HENRY, OKLAHOMA: Thank you. Thank you, Frank. And thank you very much, Mr. Vice President, for those wonderful words of inspiration and comfort. You have done so much to help us establish the Oklahoma City National Memorial, but more importantly, to ensure that we appropriately honor and that we never forget those who were lost and those whose lives were changed forever. Mr. Vice President, we sincerely and deeply appreciate you.

In Psalms 46:5, we're told that "God is in the midst of the city. It shall not be moved. God will help it when the morning dawns." When the Reverend Billy Graham came to Oklahoma City 10 years ago to comfort us in the wake of the Murrah Building bombing, he told us that we could do one of two things. Either we could become hard and embittered and angry at God or we could let our hearts become tender and open to trust and divine faith. We Oklahomans chose the latter.

Such resilience is inspirational but not surprising. From the hard scrabble beginnings of our pioneers to the tornadoes that sometimes disrupt the arrival of spring, our state has faced and conquered many challenges. But while we have learned to face the occasional cruelties of nature, nothing prepared us for the man-made cruelty that unfolded on a sunny morning 10 years ago this very day. One hundred sixty-eight people, including 19 children and babies, were killed, hundreds of others seriously wounded for the sole transgression of going about their daily lives.

The perpetrators of that crime were motivated by blinding hatred. By their twisted actions, they intended to incite discontent and destroy the rule of law. They intended to spread fear and paranoia. They intended, in fact, nothing short of a revolution. The reality of what followed, however, proved to be much different.

The grief that flowed from that day was not the legacy of the Murrah bombing. The collective family of Oklahoma demonstrated strength and compassion, courage and love. Firefighters, police and rescuers embodied true heroism under the most tragic of circumstances.

Our medical community performed miracles. Oklahomans line up to donate anything and everything that was needed, and the world saw the goodness and compassion that became known as the Oklahoma standard. That kindness was not limited to Oklahoma. Our country united in an outpouring of support and resolve that proved the character of America, and foretold the astonishing response of the nation six years later, when it would weather an even deadlier attack of terrorism. We will always remember the very real agony and loss unleashed 10 years ago. Lives were lost, and lives were changed forever.

The physical and psychological scars of that time remain very much in evidence. Indeed, one of the most resonant images from that awful morning was that of a precious baby girl, her lifeless body cradled in the arms of an Oklahoma City firefighter. That photograph starkly conveyed the tragedy of that terrifying morning, but it revealed the compassion, too. For it was in the image of firefighter Chris Fields that America and the rest of the world saw the kindness and love of the Oklahoma family.

Despite the murderous plot of the conspirators, there was no revolution to follow the Oklahoma City Bombing, but there was revelation. That revelation was the goodness of humanity across the dark abyss of pain and grief, where the Murrah building once stood, came light, a reflection of hope, a powerful illumination cast off by a people of boundless spirit and relentless resolve.

As we reflect on the events and legacy of that horrific day, let us honor the memory of those who died, those who survived, and those whose lives were forever changed. But let us also honor those victims by looking to the future. Let us honor them by living lives of joy, of meaning, of love, and fulfillment, the kind of lives that they would want us to lead.

May God bless the lost and the injured and their families. May God bless the victims of violence everywhere, and those who helped them during times of need. By the grace of God, Oklahomans conquered evil with good. We conquered despair with hope. We will continue to build a better community and state, and honor those so untimely taken from us. The Oklahoma standard, Mr. President, is not a past event. It is part of the character of the people of this city and state. The morning, indeed, has dawned. The brightness of day is before us.

God is in the midst of the this city. Thank you, and God bless you.


BLITZER: In the days and weeks that followed the April 19th tragedy, Oklahoma received the support and compassion of many around the world. Among our greatest friends during that dark time was President Bill Clinton. On April 23rd of that year, just four days after the bombing,

President Clinton came to Oklahoma City for a statewide prayer service, where he invoked the words of St. Paul, "Let us not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good." A year later, he returned to Oklahoma City to help raise college scholarship funds for children whose parents had died in the bombing. And in 2000, President Clinton joined the people of Oklahoma to dedicate the Oklahoma City National Memorial. We are honored and privileged as President Clinton joins us yet again today for this 10th anniversary of that tragedy.

Ladies and gentlemen, please help me welcome president Bill Clinton.

WILLIAM J. CLINTON, FMR. PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: Governor, thank you for the introduction and your leadership.

Mr. Vice President, thank you for coming and for what you did before you were vice president for the magnificent memorial. Mr. Hill (ph), thank you.

Pastor Cosby (ph), thank you for bringing us into this church, itself a symbol of the rebuilding of Oklahoma City.

Mr. Welch (ph), the other family members that are here, for the children who led the pledge and those who read the memorial mission statement and all those they represent.

To Ernestine Clark (ph) and the other survivors, Congressman Istook, Mr. Mayor.

Let me say I'm especially glad to see Frank and Cathy (ph) Keating here.

And I haven't seen former Mayor Norik (ph), but I thank them for leadership in this difficult time.

I came back a few years later and I said, "You know, when Frank Keating and I were classmates at Georgetown, we were in different parties even then."


But I was very proud of him and his wonderful wife, and proud of how Oklahoma City made us all Americans again.

When the vice president was up here talking, I reminded myself that he was kind enough to call me when I had my heart trouble, because he's had some. And I was talking to him on the phone and thinking, "You know, our respective supporters don't think the other one has a heart."


"And here we are, talking about -- two old politicians with their heart problems."

Oklahoma City gave us our heart back as a country.

CLINTON: For those who lived through it, as Hillary and I were talking last night, it seems almost impossible that it's been a decade, doesn't it? The memories are still so clear.

I remember coming down here, meeting with the victims, families, knowing that six people who worked for the Secret Service, including Al Whicher, who just left my presidential detail because he wanted to come to Oklahoma City and asked for this duty, had perished.

I remember Billy Graham I remember telling you that you had lost a lot but you had not lost America.

I remember saying that if people thought that love and caring and compassion had gone out of our country, they should come to Oklahoma, just like it was yesterday.

And even after 10 years, the scars remain on bodies that we can see and in hearts that we cannot, but we can feel.

We can see it in the lives of the survivors, the family members of those who were lost, the friends, the coworkers, the fellow citizens and the brave people who came here from all over America to help in the rescue work.

Yet by the grace of God, time takes its toll not only on youth and beauty, but also on tragedy.

The tomorrows come almost against our will and they bring healing and hope, new responsibilities and new possibilities.

So Oklahoma City mourned its losses, embraced its survivors, built a magnificent monument to honor and remember, and then built a new federal building to serve its citizens and show that a terrorist act could not prevail.

And, Pastor, you all rebuilt this sanctuary to show that God is a god of love and not destruction.

CLINTON: Ten years later, we still grieve and remember. But we should be very proud that Oklahoma City was not paralyzed by its pain or hardened by its hatred.

This is a triumph of the human spirit, symbolized by your survivor tree.

Boy, that tree was ugly when I first saw it.


But survive it did.

And then you sent the branches to other communities who lost people here, so they will have their survivor tree.

And you planted those loblolly pines in the memorial.

We planted a dogwood for you -- Hillary and I did -- on April the 23rd, just before we flew down here 10 years ago. It now flourishes on the White House lawn, and I imagine President Bush and Vice President Cheney can see it when they meet, blooming.

Trees are good symbols for what you did. You can't forget the past of the tree. It's in the roots. And if you lose the roots, you lose the tree.

But the nature of the tree is to always reach for tomorrow -- it's in the branches -- and to always find regenerative power from season to season.

The Book of Job talks about a tree and says, "Even if you cut its limbs, it will return. The shoots will grow again. The branches will come again."

We owe it to the 168 people who perished, to their family members, to all who lost here never to forget them, never to stop mourning, never to stop missing, but to be like a tree: to keep our roots and to reach for tomorrow, to let time heal the tragedy so that we can honor their lives through living, to defeat terror, to take good care of our children who remain, to honor those in public service and never demonize them, to build bridges across the lines that divide us.

Because as important and interesting as our differences are, we have shown again today that our common humanity matters more.

CLINTON: St. Paul once said -- speaking of our ultimate destination that those who worship in this church believe in -- "I will tell you a secret: We will not all sleep, but we will all be changed."

In this life, Oklahoma City changed us all. It broke our hearts and lifted our spirits and brought us together and reminded us of what is truly important in life.

Because of how you responded and what you did, you changed us all and gave us a great and enduring gift.

God bless you.

(APPLAUSE) HEMMER: Here in Oklahoma City, they consider this sacred ground. As we listen to the speeches, we will remember the images being created again today, the flowers already being draped on the chairs across the street from the cathedral, families spending time around those chairs, that represent what was stolen away from them ten years ago today.

Part of that message, we are afflicted in Oklahoma City, but we are never abandoned, as the reflection pool in the memorial reflects the lives of all of us and how we have all changed since ten years ago today. They call this a decade of hope in Oklahoma City, and as the service continues here in Oklahoma, we do want to bring you back up to speed here on what we're watching also from overseas.

You may have noticed there is a camera there on the chimney in the Vatican, high above the Sistine Chapel. About 45 minutes ago, we understand, the cardinals went back into the conclave for the afternoon session in Rome, and that's where we find Jim Bittermann standing by, who can give us more information on what he is learning from the Vatican.

Jim, good afternoon there.

JIM BITTERMANN, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Good afternoon, Bill. The fact that we are assuming they went back into session because that is just our program. They were supposed to restart the voting session around 4:00 local time. That would have been about 45 minutes ago. We've seen nothing out of the chimney. It actually would be a little bit too soon for that, because the fact is, it takes, we calculate, about an hour and 15, hour and 20 minutes for them to vote and to count the votes.

So if it were to be a conclusive vote, we would be seeing white smoke in about a half hour to 45 minutes from now. However, as you may mention that this morning, we had two rounds of voting this morning, black smoke came up around the noon hour because neither round was conclusive. So we're just going to have to stick with this and see when we get some white smoke -- Bill.

HEMMER: All right, Jim, thanks. Jim Bittermann watching things from the Vatican. As the memorial service continues here in Oklahoma City, as we recall the decade of hope today, let's get a quick break here. Back to Oklahoma City and back to the memorial right after this.


HEMMER: It is day two of the conclave in Vatican City. We will not leave this story for long. Watching the chimney hoisted high above the Sistine Chapel. There was smoke earlier today, but it was black smoke, meaning no pope at this point.

Back here in Oklahoma City, we continue to watch the memorial here and we understand now 40 survivors of the events in New York City back on September 11th have come to Oklahoma City lending their support, too. These two cities are forever linked in that tragedy. And it's very important for the people in Oklahoma City that the country can look to this town to learn from their experience as they recover and so many other parts of the country as well, Schwenksville, Pennsylvania and the Pentagon in Washington D.C., and the Columbine in Colorado. You hear that talked about so often here as the memorial service continues today.

Gary Tuchman is also with me. He is down among those who have gathered in an area that is known as "the chairs." They have taken nine rows of chairs, 168 total, that represent the nine floors of the federal building and the 168 people who died that day, 19 of whom were children. The chairs are aligned in different sizes. The adults have higher chairs and the 19 children are represented with a shorter chair.

And Gary Tuchman was on the scene here in Oklahoma City 10 years ago today. He's back with us this morning.

Gary, good morning.

GARY TUCHMAN, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Bill, good morning to you.

And being here is just an incredible feeling, because 10 years ago, at this very moment, we are standing on a spot that was hell, and now it is really one of the most peaceful places you'd ever hope to see.

Right now, as the ceremony goes on in the church right next to us, many of the family members have come to the chairs that you see here, 168 chairs, as you've been saying, Bill, and they're lined up, the chairs to your right, are the people who were on the second floor of the Murrah building, and then each floor goes up, the third, the fourth, through the ninth over here. We can tell you, as people stand, they commemorate the best way they can.

There's a family who just came here.

Can I ask your name?


TUCHMAN: Tell me who your loved one was, who's chair this is?

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: It's my husband's aunt, Terry Rees (ph).

TUCHMAN: And is this your husband right here?

And what's your name?

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Steven Curo (ph).

TUCHMAN: Steven, tell me how you feel being here on the 10-year anniversary. Is there any way you come to a point where it's easy to cope with this?

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Yes, when you come here and you see as many people as you do. Every year, it seems to grow, and this is the most I think i've seen here in a long time. I see a lot of the same people here every year, and so it feels pretty good to come out and remember with everybody.

TUCHMAN: Who is this young lady?

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: This is my daughter, Avery (ph).

TUCHMAN: Hi, Avery, how are you?

Avery, do you know whose chair that is right over?

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: My aunt Terry's (ph).

TUCHMAN: She was probably a real great lady, right? You didn't know her because you're not 10 years old yet, right?


TUCHMAN: Thank you very much for talking with us. One of the things we want to tell you about the chairs here, if you haven't heard this before, but this is a very important thing. Down here, where the second floor of the building was, these chairs are the smaller chairs, and they're smaller chairs because these were the children who were in the building, 19 children were inside the Murrah federal building, 15 of them were in the day care center. They were the ones who were (INAUDIBLE) day care center. So you can see the parents have come to the chairs. They've put stuffed animals down, put stuffed animals here, and obviously the most (INAUDIBLE) parts for (INAUDIBLE) us, those of us who here (INAUDIBLE) when we found out (INAUDIBLE) of the 168 people who were killed.

Bill, back to you.

HEMMER: Gary, thanks for that.

The memorial service does continue inside the cathedral across the church. We will get you back inside there in a moment, too.

And one thing you hear consistently from the people here in Oklahoma City, they tell you they will not be defined by the past, the past meaning 10 years ago. And today is so critical for their own survival, their own strength, and the hope that they hold for the future for those children you just saw with Gary Tuchman.

Our coverage continues in a moment, as the memorial service continues as well. The former governor, Frank Keating, will speak at any moment. '

We'll be back after this.


HEMMER: Welcome back to Oklahoma City. I'm Bill Hemmer, as the memorial service continues across the street inside of the cathedral.

The former governor, Frank Keating, a critical component in the story going back over the past 10 years, will speak at any moment. And we'll bring you that speech when it starts inside the church here.

Earlier, though, very touching and moving moment when four young children who were inside the federal building that day, inside the day care center, survived. They read the mission statement that is part of the memorial and the museum here, and so many people here in Oklahoma City want to know just how they have survived, and they've done it with such great pride, too. They want America to know that their city is thriving today. And here in the downtown area alone, they've built a new arena, a new stadium. They have shops, and bars and restaurants, and their property values, so many people are proud to say, have gone through the roof. And they clearly do not want America to have the image that they were frozen in time that day. Although a lot of pain continues today, Oklahoma City is the city that is still growing here.

And that's evident, too. In the memorial behind me, the survivors tree, this 80-year-old American oak that was standing there that day and literally had the branches and the leaves blown off it, is still thriving today. Many people come here to take shade underneath its branches, and that survivor's tree is just another sign of what the people in Oklahoma say is their strength, and their -- also across from there is the reflecting pool where visitor can say see their own reflection, representing how each one of us is changed because of the bombing.

And just to the far eastern edge of the memorial is a survivor's wall, 800 names listed in granite there, and the survivors are the people who are remembered by so many today, how they are going forward in their own future.

Earlier today, Jannie Coverdale, a woman who has been on this story for the past decade, she lost two of her grandsons in the bombing that day. She says at one point over the past 10 years she wanted to take her own life. She held back and spoke to me earlier today about that.


JANNIE COVERDALE, LOST TWO GRANDSONS IN OKC BOMBING: By the time Terry Nichols' trial was over, I had more questions. And after Terry Nichols didn't get the death penalty in the state trial, I decided to write him for the simple reason, who else can I get the truth from, other than Terry Nichols and Michael Fortier.

HEMMER: So what do you ask Terry Nichols, and what does he tell you?

COVERDALE: The first letter I wrote Terry, I said, God saw fit to save your life again. Now, it's time for you to tell the truth about what really happened. You owe the family members and survivors, and you also owe your family, because we are all victims.

HEMMER: Two questions there. Does he say that this whole plot ends with Terry Nichols and Tim McVeigh?

COVERDALE: Terry has never said that. Terry has never said that there were nobody else involved in the bombing. Terry has never said, I don't have anything to tell.

HEMMER: Has he ever said he's sorry?

COVERDALE: Not exactly. He will sort of beat around the bush and say something like, the bombing should never have happened. Or I know you are still hurting from the loss of your grandchildren. But he never said I'm sorry, I help murder your grandchildren.


HEMMER: Jenny Coverdale remembering those soul-searing events of April 19, 1995. The former governor now, Frank Keating is speaking at the memorial service.


FRANK KEATING, FMR. GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA: ... officers, the medical personnel who came to us in our moment of need. Who, with enormous courage risked limb and life to save us and take a building apart five-gallon buckets at a time so we could be joined with our loved ones and those who were injured. I'm grateful to them.

I'm grateful for those who came from all over the country, from California, Arizona, and from New York, Maryland and from Virginia, from Washington state, from Florida, who risked their lives to help us.

The bond between us and New York is very, very strong. I'm grateful for the lives of Mike Kurtin (ph) and Tommy Langone (ph), Mike Esposito, (ph) my friend, the deputy chief, Ray Downey, four members of the fire department and New York Police Department, who came here to help us and who were lost on 9/11. I'm grateful for them.

I'm grateful for leadership. I'm grateful for President Clinton. Yes, we did go to school together. He has an excellent student, I was a mediocre student. I had to catch up, that's why I became a Republican.

He called me after the bombing and asked what I need, and he provided it all. The efficiency of FEMA, the FEMA teams, the materials, the resources we need, he provided. And we, in Oklahoma, provided the rest. I'm grateful for that.

I'm grateful for Vice President Cheney, who at the time was a chair of an Oklahoma founded company who would with no equivocation or hesitancy said, yes. I will help you to raise the money to become whole, to rebuild. To be able to get us off our knees. I'm very grateful to him for that.

I'm grateful to all the professionals, the leaders, like Ron Norick (ph), who joined together to make "The Oklahoma Standard" possible. I remember when the FEMA team from Prince George's County was leaving, and one of them took out a dollar bill, actually, several of them said, "Hey, Governor, would you sign my dollar bill?" I said, "What do you want me to sign a dollar bill for?" One guy said, well, this is the dollar I brought with me, it's the dollar I'm leaving with. It's an Oklahoma dollar, I never had to spend nickel here. The generosity, the kindness, the goodness, the compassion of the people in Oklahoma know no bounds. I'm grateful for that.

I'm particularly, today, grateful for the future, for the wonderful young men and women, some of whom are behind me, who are going to college, young Oklahomans, who lost one or both of their parents, or were badly injured. As noted earlier, we lost the parents of 30 children, both parents were killed.

One of parents of 170 kids, scores of children injured and some badly injured, still showing the scars of those injuries today. But Cathy (ph) and I were able to organize a fund for scholarships to put everyone of these kids through college, the college of their choice. Sixty have already received their college degree, some 150 are in the pipeline, we're blessed today to have a number of those young people who will share with us the names of our special neighbors and friends who were lost, that will never be forgotten.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: We respectfully ask everyone remain seated through the reading of the 168 names.

We remember our friends in the Oklahoma Water Resources Board building, Trudy Jean Rigney, Robert N. Chipman. We remember our friends in the Athenian Building, Job Corp.: Catherine Elizabeth Ridley, Anita Christine Hightower. We remember rescue worker Rebecca Needham Anderson.

In the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, we remember our friends and family in the U.S. Secret Service, Ninth Floor: Alan G. Whicher, Kathy Lynn Seidl, Linda G. McKinny, Micky B. Maroney, Cynthia L. Brown, my father, Donald Ray Leonard.

We remember our friends and family in Drug Enforcement Administration, Ninth Floor, Kenneth Glenn McCollough, Carrie Ann Lenz, and Baby Michael James Lenz III, Rona Linn Kuehner-Chafey, Carrol June "Chip" Fields, and my mom, Shelly Turner Bland.

We remember our friends and family in Department of Housing and Urban Development, on the Eighth Floor, Clarence Eugene Wilson, Sr., Frances "Fran" Ann Williams, Michael D. Weaver, David Jack Walker, Jules A.Valdez, Leora Lee Sells, Lanny Lee David Scroggins, Antonio "Tony" C. Reyes, Dr. George Michael Howard, DVM, Susan Jane Ferrell, Kimberly Kay Clark, Donald Earl Burns, Sr., David Neil Burkett, my stepdad, Peter R. Avillanoza, Ted L. Allen, Jo Ann Whittenberg, John Karl Van Ess, John Thomas Stewart, Terry Smith Rees, Patricia Ann Nix, Betsy J. McGonnell, Theresa Lea Taylor Lauderdale, Ann Kreymborgh, Thompson Eugene "Gene" Hodges, Jr., J. Colleen Guiles, Linda Luis Florence, Judy J. (Froh) Fisher, Castine Brooks Hearn Deveroux, Diana Lynne Day, Kim R. Cousins, Andrea Yvette Blanton, Diane E. Hollingsworth Althouse, and on the Fifth Floor, Paul Gregory Beatty Broxterman.

We remember our friends and family in the United States Marine Corp recruiting office on the Sixth Floor, Captain Randolf A. Guzman, United States Marine Corp, Sergeant Benjamin LaRanzo Davis, United States Marine Corp.

We remember our friends and family and U.S. Customs on the Fifth Floor, Claude Arthur Medearis, S.S. A., Paul D. Ice. We remember our friends and family in the Department of Agriculture on the Fifth Floor, Rheta Bender Long, Carol Sue Kahul. Doris "Adele" Higginbottom, Richard (Dick) Cummins, Dr. Margaret L. (Peggy) Clark, James E. Boles, Olen Burl Bloomer. We remember our friends and family and United States Army Recruiting Battalion, on the Fourth Floor, Wanda Lee Watkins, Kayla Marie Titsworth, Dolores (Dee) Stratton, Victor (Vickey) L. Sohn, John C. Moss, III., Peggy Louis Holland, Karen Gist Carr, Sergeant First Class Lola Bolden, United States Army.

We remember our friends and family in Department of Transport, Federal Highway, Fourth Floor, John A. Youngblood, Johny Allen Wade, Rick L. Tomlin. Michelle A. Reeder, Jerry Lee Parker, Ronota Ann Newbery-Woodbridge, James K. Martin, Larry James Jones, Michael Carrillo, Mark Allen Bolte, Lucio Aleman, Jr.

We remember our friends and family in Federal Employees Credit Union, Third Floor. Tresia Jo "Mathes" Worton, Virginia M. Thompson, Victoria Jeanett Texter, Karen Howell Shepherd, Sonya Lynn Sanders, Christy Rosas, Claudine Ritter, Jill Diane Randolph, Frankie Ann Merrell, Claudette (Duke) Meek, Kathy Cagle Leinen, Valerie Jo Koelsch, Alvin J. Justeese (ph), Christy Yoland Jenkins (ph), Robin Ann Hough, and Baby Amber Denise Hough, Linda Colleen Housley (ph), Shiela R. Gigger Driver (ph) and Baby Gregory N. Driver, II, Jamie Theokowski Ginzer (ph), Kathy A. Findley, Kimberly Ruth Burgess, Woodrow Clifford (Woody) Brady.

We remember our friends and family in Defense Security Service, Third Floor: Robert G. Westberry, Larry L. Turner, Norma Jean Johnson, Peter L. Dimaster, Harley Richard Cottingham.

We remember Scott D. Williams, visitor to the second floor. We remember the children and workers in the America's Kids Child Development Center, Second Floor: Coltin Wade Smith, Chase Dalton Smith, Dominic Revea (ph) Johnson London (ph), Blake Ryan Kennedy, Wanda Lee Howell. Kevin V. Gotshall II, Kevin Deandre Garrett, Tyler Sentoia Eves (ph), Brenda Fae Daniels, J.C. R Koin, Elijah S. Coverdale, Erin M. Coverdale, Antonio Ansera Cooper, Jr (ph). Anthony Christopher Cooper II, Dana Lee Ann Cooper, Zachry Taylor Chavez, and Daniel Nicole Bell, and Miss Baylee Almond.

We remember our friends and family in the General Services Administration Building, First Floor: Michael L. Laudenslager, Steven Douglas Curry (ph). We remember our friends and family and visitors in the Social Security Administration, First Floor: Sharon Louis Wood Chestnut, W. Steven Williams, Julie Marie Welch, Robert N. Walker, Jr. Luther H. Trentor, Larue A. Trentor, Michael George Thompson, Charlotte Andrea Lewis Thomas, Emelio Tapia, Beulah I. Mitchell, Darwin W. Miller, Cartney J. McCraven, my dad, Reverend Gilbert X. Martinez, Robert Lee Luster, Jr., Gabriela Donna Luster, Lakesha Richardson Levy. Raymond Lee Johnson, Jean Nutting Hurlbert, and Dr. Charles E. Hurlbert. Thomas Lynn Hawthorne, Sr., Lonnen (ph) Vernon Harding Sr., Cheryl E. Hammond, Ethel E. Griffin, Margaret Federton Goodson, Laura Jane Garrison, Mary Ann Fritzler, Dawn Fritzler, Ashley Meagan Eckles (ph), Catherine Louis Kregan, Gabrion (ph) D.L. Bruce, Peachland Bradley, Carol Louis Bowers, Casandra K. Voker (ph), Aleta C. Bitty (ph), Piola Battle, Calvin Battle. Sandra G. (Sandy) Avery, Pamela Cleveland Argo (ph), Richard A. Allen, Teresa Antoinette Alexander.


Also this year, we want to recognize the survivors. We are aware that your journey over the past decade has been tough. We thank you for not only tackling each day with your own challenges, because many of you lost your own closest friends and co-workers, we recognize your journey has been difficult. If you are a survivor will you please stand and be recognized for the strength have you given us to move forward.


HEMMER: The pain and gratitude, both emotions, shown there so well in that memorial service. For about half of the names being read there, you were able to see pictures of those killed that day. Those photos were provided to us, here at CNN, through the museum behind me. There is a special room inside that museum, "The Hall of Heroes", they call it, every photo of someone killed that day is listed here.

They invited the family to donate some sort of memento or some sort of souvenir, There are so many touching items inside that very room. A University of Texas tree ornament, there is a crystal grand piano in miniature. There is a red cotton towel from the Oklahoma University saying I'm your number one fan; a plastic statue of Piglet, for a two-year-old boy.

And some, yet, sit empty today. We're told the families have not given a reason or may never give a reason as to why they will not provide a memento or souvenir.

The point is, is that it is all very personal. It is always first class here in Oklahoma City. The director of that museum is a woman who is named Joanne Riley. She says moving forward is never easy, but moving forward is certainly necessary. That it is.

Our coverage continues live in Oklahoma City in a moment here. I'm Bill Hemmer. First a commercial break, back after this.


BETTY NGUYEN, CNN ANCHOR: You're looking at a live picture -- or you were -- of Oklahoma City National Memorial. Where it has been a day of remembrance there, for the 168 people who died on this day, 10 years ago.

We will be going back to Oklahoma City in just a moment, but coming up on the half hour, good morning everybody. I'm Betty Nguyen, here's what's happening right "Now in the News". Black smoke at the Vatican this morning, that means no pope has been elected. Cardinals are holding their second session on this day, on this afternoon, actually. Two-thirds of the cardinals have to agree on a papal candidate for him to be elected the 265th pope.

President Bush helped to dedicate the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield, Illinois, that happens next hour. In an interview with CNBC, the president says he'd considers raising the retirement age for Social Security to 70. It's currently 67 for people born after 1960.

A Senate committee is expected to vote on the nomination of John Bolton as U.N. ambassador. Democrats are still trying to stall that vote. They want to convince one Republican to side with them. That would mean a tie in committee, and that would prevent Bolton's name from reaching the Senate floor.

In Wichita, Kansas, it was a very short day in court for accused BTK killer Dennis Rader. Just minutes in the courtroom, Raider, waived his right to a preliminary hearing that would have presented evidence against him. That means the state's trial can proceed. Rader is charged with 10 counts of first degree murder. His next court appearance is an arraignment, that is set for May 3rd.

"The Washington Post" reports, Zacarias Moussaoui plans to plead guilt to his involvement in the 9/11 attacks. Mousaoui is the only person in the U.S. ever charged in the attacks. Quoting sources, "The Post" says Moussaoui's guilty plea could come this week.

And in California, the Michael Jackson child molestation trial continues. The mother of the Jackson's teenage accuser is expected to spend the fifth day on stand. During scathing testimony on Monday, the mother accused Jackson of managing to, quote, "fool the world".

Now, in Oklahoma City, a procession of prayers and tears. It was 10 years ago, today, that a homemade truck bomb ripped through the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, claiming 168 lives. Now, in events all day long, many are gathering to remember and to mourn. CNN's Gary Tuchman is in Oklahoma City with much more.


TUCHMAN: Betty, we stand here at the Oklahoma City Memorial with a strain of bag pipes now over my shoulder, as the memorial service come to an end.

This was a beautiful memorial, we were here exactly 10 years ago on a day very similar to this. It was sunny and windy. And this area right here, was one of the worst things you've ever seen. Precisely where I'm standing, because exactly in this spot, this is where Timothy McVeigh parked the Ryder Truck. This was Fifth Street, where the reflecting pond is right now.

They have a reflecting pond here, because the idea is that you look into the reflecting pond, see a reflection of someone -- you, that is -- whose life has been affected by the bombing on April 19, 1995. But this was the street, where the Ryder truck was.

And this, where all the chairs are, 168 chairs of the victims of April 19, 1995, that Ryder truck bombing, these represent the people who were killed that day, exactly 10 years ago. All throughout the day relatives of those who died have been coming to their chairs to pay tribute.

Right now, we have a woman here, Nancy Lenz. Nancy is the aunt of J.C. Coin. J.C. has a small, little chair, because she (AUDIO GAP) daycare center that day.

Tell me how you feel, 10 years later right now? Is there ever a point where it gets easier?

NANCY LENZ, AUNT OF BOMBING VICTIM: Yeah, every day. The day after it got easier, it was sad, but your life goes on. And life is a joy. I live every day grateful I have people around me I love, and people in heaven that love me, and look over me.

TUCHMAN: Tell me what you put on J.C. chair. Let's move down a bit.

LENZ: Flowers and a pink elephant; she was a baby.


LENZ: Uh-huh.

TUCHMAN: Which means now she would have be a little over 11. When you think about that, what does it make you feel?

LENZ: It's sad, it's not so sad. She remains ageless to me, I guess. She won't experience some of the heartache and she won't experience some of the joy. She's in eternal bliss right now.

TUCHMAN: Nancy Lenz, thanks for talking to us. You have a wonderful attitude.

LENZ: Oh, thank you.

TUCHMAN: We appreciate it.

We have met so many people here over the last 10 years, when we were here that day on April 19, 1995. And one thing about the people of Oklahoma, they are just remarkable.

I want to give you one look, over here, if we can, of what is going on over here. And this gives you an idea of the different kinds of reactions people have when they come to these chairs.

It's just so emotional. The whole idea of these chairs, these granite and glass chairs, is to show these are real people. These are not just numbers, this gives you an idea of the number of adults and 19 children who were killed inside this building.

Also there's a practical reason for the chairs. It allows the relatives, grieving relatives, to sit in them and just ponder and pray, and remember that day 10 years ago when terror came to the heartland.

Betty, back to you.

NGUYEN: You made a good point. They are real people, not just chairs. People with families and obviously families are experiencing great loss, even 10 years after the bombing.

Gary Tuchman, thank you so much.

We do have other news today. Is it white, black, or in between? We're talking about color of smoke coming out of the Vatican. A live report from Vatican City is coming up on what today's smoke might mean for the cardinals inside the Sistine Chapel. Stay with us.



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