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US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton Calls Aid Package to Pakistan "Long-Term Investment in Pakistan's Future." Author Claims Pets Have Negative Impact on Environment. Ingredients in Curry May be Key to Cutting Animal Methane Emissions. The Doors Still Touring Four Decades After Jim Morrison's Death.

Aired July 19, 2010 - 16:00:00   ET



WILLIAM CLINTON, FORMER PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: We shouldn't be pennywise and pound foolish in an interdependent world, where we worry all the time about terrorism, we worry all the time about violence, we have to spend some money to make good things happen.


BECKY ANDERSON, HOST: In an exclusive TV interview, Bill Clinton says the world will pay a heavy price in the future if it reneges on funding AIDS treatment and research in the present. His words echoed by Bill Gates, as the heaviest hitters on the global health stage convene in Vienna. From there to Uganda to Ukraine, we reveal how far we've come in fighting the killer disease and, more importantly, what still needs to be done.

On CNN, this is the hour we connect the world.

Well, two million people die of AIDS every year. Sixteen times that number are living with the HIV virus. From the Americas to Africa to Eastern Europe, it's a global problem that needs a global solution.

I'm Becky Anderson for you in London, back after spending the morning at the 2010 AIDS Conference in Vienna.

The news from there and my exclusive interviews with the two Bills, Clinton and Gates.

Well, thank you for the questions that you have sent to us via Twitter. Keep them coming. My address, atbeckycnn, as well as the Web site,

Also on the show this hour, Hillary Clinton unveiled hundreds of millions of dollars in development aid to Pakistan. We'll explore whether the right people will get it and whether they'll get it for the right reasons.

And from the doctor's note to the pharmacy, the black market -- the global problem of prescription drug abuse uncovered.

First up this evening, the fight against one of the world's deadliest disease is on life support. The struggle to reverse a trend which has seen some of the wealthiest nations filing to step up and deliver on their commitments to the men, women and children around the world living with HIV/AIDS.

With the international conference underway in Vienna, let's kick off tonight with Phil Black.


PHIL BLACK, CNN CORRESPONDENT: (voice-over): Natalie, Lenox (ph) and Nicole (ph) are a success story in the global fight against AIDS. The triplets' mother, Rebecca, was HIV positive when they were born. But the infection wasn't passed onto them because she was being treated with anti- retroviral drugs.

REBECCA AWITI, HIV POSITIVE MOTHER: When I saw the negative results, that was after the first two weeks, I got happy. When I saw the next one after six months, I was happier.

BLACK: The UN's AIDS organization says 400,000 babies are born HIV positive in Africa every year and that their number could be reduced to zero if all infected mothers get access to the best treatment. That takes money. At the International AIDS Conference in Vienna, money is a big issue.

BAN KI-MOON, UNITED NATIONS SECRETARY-GENERAL: Some governments are cutting back on their response to AIDS. This should be a cause for great concern to us all. We must ensure that our recent gains are not reversed.

BLACK: U.N. AIDS says global funding to fight the disease in developing nations stalled last year, even dropping slightly. $7.6 billion in 2009, compared to $7.7 billion in 2008 -- a big increase from the United States wasn't enough to make up for other countries giving less.

DR. JULIO MONTANER, PRESIDENT, INTERNATIONAL AIDS SOCIETY: Let me remind you, over the last year, the same leaders had absolutely no problem finding money on a moment's notice to bail out their corporate friends, the greedy Wall Street bankers, and yet...


MONTANER: And yet, when it comes to global health, the purse is always empty.

BLACK: Activists leading the fight against AIDS say now is the time to boost international funding, because drug treatments are working, keeping patients alive longer and decreasing AIDS transmission.

Phil Black, CNN, London.


ANDERSON: Well, as Phil mentioned, the total number of AIDS dollars dropped last year, as many countries cut their contributions. But that was offset by more funding from the United States. In 2009, it was the world's largest donor, contributing nearly $4.5 billion. And the U.K. was second, with $.75 billion. Germany contributing about half of that amount. And rounding out the top four is the Netherlands.

Well, earlier today, I was in Vienna and I caught up with Bill Clinton and in an exclusive interview, asked him about the squeeze on funding -- who's giving, who's not and what the global consequences will be.


CLINTON: I think everybody has retrenched some. Last year -- there's an article in "The Wall Street Journal" today which points out that last year, in the first year after the financial meltdown, the United States increased its actual contribution by 10 percent. And almost all of Europe and Canada flatlined theirs. But together, we were able to, you know, have a tiny input.

This year, the United States has cut back on the amount of increase. I think they're increasing, you know, maybe 2 percent this year. It's not enough, but there are serious budget constraints in the Congressional process, so that the same countries that need more help in medicines for AIDS have come to the secretary of State, the AID director, the White House and said please help us build our health care systems, please do more on maternal and child health.

So even the people where a lot of the AIDS patients are saying this. And I think the president did what he thought was the best he could do. And he knows perfectly well that it wouldn't cost very much more money for us to put up the money. But under the Congressional budget rules, they have to agree to put more money in.

Now, they did actually, last year, put some more money in. And I think we can get them to put some more money in this year.

ANDERSON: You seem fairly satisfied with Obama's domestic plans.

But are you pointing the finger here at G8, G20 donor countries who simply aren't stepping up to the plate, are they?

CLINTON: I'm saying that they felt they had to retrench even before we did and -- and that -- that he showed good faith and for supporting a nice increase last year. And so did the Congress, on a bipartisan basis. That this year, so far, they have not done that. But keep in mind, the final budget for the United States has not been adopted this year, which is why I encourage this group, instead of -- to go and explain the situation to Congress, as Bill Gates and I tried to do. If they will just lift the cap on health appropriations and development systems, they'll get more money for treatment and -- and the president will sign it.

ANDERSON: If you had one message to those countries who appear to be reneging on their commitments, what would it be?

CLINTON: My message would be, first of all, that if we all do this, the consequences will be calamitous and you will spend more money later. You start having huge numbers of people dying again. You'll have more political instability, more economic collapse. And it's going to cost us more money later. So it's not only going to be a humanitarian crisis, if at all possible, hang in there.

The second thing I would say is that we shouldn't be pennywise and pound foolish in an interdependent world, where we worry all the time about terrorism, we worry all the time about violence, we have to spend some money to make good things happen, to give people a chance to live their dreams.

And if you look at it when -- from President Bush's and America's approval went way down all over the world because of the Iraq War, there were three places where it didn't go down. In India, where we made a deal for peaceful nuclear cooperation; in Central and Eastern Europe, where we continued my policy to expand NATO; and in the 10 countries in South and -- Southern and Eastern Africa, where PEPFAR was concentrated and the highest AIDS rates were.

And did they agree with President Bush's Iraq policy?

No. A lot of these countries, Tanzania, Kenya, huge Muslim populations.

Why do they still like him?

Because they thought he and the United States cared whether their children lived or died. That's why. This is -- it's -- we don't want to be penny wise and pound foolish. You can't just spend all your money stopping bad things from happening. This makes good things happen and we have to do that.

ANDERSON: But who do you really want to shake at this point?

CLINTON: I would like to see the Congress, every year they'd make one or two exceptions, not big, to the budget rules. I'd like to see them lift the cap on this and put a little more money in to encourage others, because this is a rebuilding year for the global fund.

I would like to see all the other countries that started their cutback a year before we did do the same kind of soul searching and ask themselves what's going to happen. I also think since the economy is coming back, it may be that everybody should consider making clear that over a two to three year period, they will give three years worth of money. So maybe they get one more year of giving less, but it means in the next two years they'll give more. There's a thousand ways to work this out.

ANDERSON: Scientists are still searching for the holy grail, a vaccine for this AIDS virus.

How close are we and what is holding it up at this point?

CLINTON: There is a preliminary indication that some time in the next two or three months, we will get some reports on vaccine tests which are very hopeful for the quick development of a vaccine that actually works.

Meanwhile, we know that if you start people on the medicine, not when they have full blown AIDS, but as soon as their so-called CD4 blood count drops below a certain amount, it can prevent 90 percent of AIDS. That's about as good as a vaccine. It's not 100 percent, but if we just could do that, this whole epidemic would be in a different place within five years.

ANDERSON: Ali from Bangladesh has written to us. He asks how easily affordable do you think a vaccine will be for people in poor countries?

CLINTON: In most places, the donors are providing this medicine. And what I would say to your questioner is this, you said be able to get the help right now, because I have negotiated great contracts for this medicine all over the world. And if you can't, you need to get in touch with us directly and I'll try and make sure it happens, because in any poor country, you know, people shouldn't have to pay anything for it.

ANDERSON: Joseph has written to us, Mr. President. And he asks what you think has been the most effective method of spreading HIV and AIDS awareness.

CLINTON: In poor rural places where people don't have television, the effective thing is for the young people who are themselves HIV positive go to places where there's been stigma, there's been ignorance, fear and stand up and simply refuse to see themselves as victims and tell people how they were infected and why people should take -- should take all the necessary preventive steps.


ANDERSON: Bill Clinton speaking to me earlier. And I recorded that interview today in Vienna, while the conference -- the 2010 AIDS Conference -- was underway. So you may have heard that going on behind us.

Well, more on the worldwide fight against HIV/AIDS coming up, including my -- part of my exclusive interview with another man at the forefront of the fight. And a look at the struggle around the world to defeat the pandemic.


ANDERSON: Well, HIV/AIDS has taken a huge toll in Africa. Uganda was once lauded as an AIDS success story on the continent. It managed to stem the tide of the disease, largely with the help of billions of U.S. dollars.

Well, a couple of weeks ago, we brought you the story of how HIV/AIDS is now on the rise again and Ugandan AIDS clinics are facing a funding crisis.

Well, that is putting critical medicines in short supply and putting many patients who depend on those drugs for their lives in jeopardy.

Well, you've heard from Bill Clinton. And in a minute, you're going to hear from another Bill, Bill Gates.

First, though, a closer look to the response to the AIDS/HIV pandemic in Africa and in Europe.


ROBYN CURNOW, CNN CORRESPONDENT: I'm Robyn Curnow here in Johannesburg, South Africa, which, of course, has been one of the regions that's been so deeply affected by the AIDS pandemic, which is why this latest report from U.N. AIDS is such good news.

Basically, it says that in many African countries, the prevalence of HIV/AIDS has dropped by 25 percent, particularly among young people, which means that in countries such as Kenya, Zimbabwe or Zambia, people are indulging in less risky sexual behavior.

Now, the good news, there's also something of a tier in South Africa - - statistics in South Africa say that AIDS deaths have dropped over the last four years. No doubt that's because of increased access to anti- retroviral drugs.

But still, just think about it, more than 700 people die each day here in South Africa from AIDS-related illnesses.


Now, there are around one-and-a-half million people in Russia, Eastern Europe and Central Asia living with HIV. And that is a number that has more than doubled since 2001. The bulk of those people living in Russia. But if you add Ukraine to the mix, that accounts for 90 percent of the total. And it is mainly an infection driven by intravenous drug users using contaminated needles.

AIDS organizations say that governments need to be far more active in providing HIV treatments to people, anti-retroviral treatments and in also giving people better access to HIV-related campaigns, such as needle exchange services.


ANDERSON: Well, this is a fight, isn't it?

And a fight that is at the heart of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The Microsoft founder and his wife are two of the world's biggest philanthropists. And tomorrow, Bill Gates answers your questions as our Connector of the Day.

Now, though, in part of that interview I want to show you now, he talked to me about the fight against AIDS in Vienna just earlier this morning.


BILL GATES, BILL & MELINDA GATES FOUNDATION: Well, there's a sense of -- of achievement, that treatment has killed off, that it's worked very well. There's a sense of fear that the funding levels are not going up like they were and that is going to mean we can't treat as many people as - - as we should. There's a sense of excitement about new tools which could make a huge difference. But because it takes so long for the trials and the science isn't fully understood, we can't give exact dates for those. And, you know, so that you'll -- you'll hear good progress on some of these science things.

So we're kind of in the middle of this now -- some good lessons, but the end is not clearly defined yet. We need a lot more work and generosity before we can write the story of the end of AIDS.


ANDERSON: And more from Bill Gates tomorrow. He is your Connector of the Day, answering your questions. He reveals who he thinks is being generous in the fight against AIDS and which countries have balked somewhat. And he addresses the holy grail -- the development -- potential development of an HIV/AIDS vaccine. So do be sure to tune in tomorrow.

CONNECT THE WORLD, though, continues tonight. And we are starting off a new series, a new project, really, that focuses on one of the most pressing issues crossing borders. And we want you to take part in that discussion. It involves human trafficking in all forms.

Now, on our Web page at, we are following Siddarth Kara. He's a Harvard researcher who's spending the next 10 weeks traveling through South Asia documenting the problem and what's being done to fight it. Now along the way, he'll be providing us with weekly blogs on what he is seeing. Now, he's just arrived in New Delhi, from where he writes: "Slave exploitation takes place everywhere, in the middle of major cities and in the deepest rural reaches of the globe, from forced prostitution of minors to organ harvesting and everything in between."

Well, these are the issues that we are going to be tackling on this show. Read his blog. Do leave your own questions and comments. And then on Thursday, we'll bring him onto the show to response and provide updates on the trail of human trafficking. So that coming up for this week.

Now, a matter of trust -- the U.S. secretary of State announces a huge, huge aid package for Pakistan and hopes to win the hearts and minds of Pakistanis along the way. That story up next.


ANDERSON: Let's get you up to date on a developing story here on CNN.

The U.S. oil spill response commander giving reporters the latest information on BP's oil well integrity tests in the Gulf of Mexico.

Thad Allen live in Washington.

Let's take a listen and see what he says.

ADM. THAD ALLEN, NATIONAL INCIDENT COMMANDER: We had talked before the capping stack went on of the need to build capacity out to 60,000 or 80,000 barrels per day by the end of July.

We have necessarily had to make some tradeoffs between allowing the seismic vessels in and finish things like the vertical riser associated with that system. We continue to negotiate with BP right now the best trade-off and how we best want to prioritize our long-term containment as it relates to the well integrity test.

Long-term containment is the second goal following the relief wells, as I noted earlier. As I said, we have granted 24 more hours for BP to come back and provide us a response. There will be a science meeting later on this evening in Houston that will take a look at the data and the timelines provided by BP, and we will be assessing that as we move forward through the next 24 hours as well.

Some key things we're working on -- and these have been discussed before -- I will start with the big one related to the pressure being lower than we thought. This has to do with a discussion about whether or not we're dealing with depletion of the reservoir vs. Some other reason why that pressure might be lower. The most notable reason for that would be some kind of a leakage in the well bore itself.

There are different views on how this could come about. There's not a resolution moving forward, but we continue to discuss that. One reason we are continuing to discuss that is, we do have the robust response and the monitoring that's going on as we requested from BP.

There have been three general areas of anomalies that have been detected since the 17th of July. The first one was a seepage about three nautical miles from the wellhead itself. We do not believe that is associated with this particular well integrity test or the Macondo well. However, we are continuing to look at baseline data associated with past activity that's in the area and we will continue to monitor that moving forward.

We also have picked up some anomalies within several hundred meters of the wellhead itself and we are continuing to take a look at that and what that might portend. And, finally, we do have some bubbles that have arisen around the base the legacy blowout preventer. And then late last night, we established that there was some leakage in the capping stack itself.

I have got a picture and a schematic of the capping stack. Let me just tell you right away, because this happened overnight. As you know, we had a connector piece of equipment that we established in to allow us to put the capping stack on. These are the three rams that are associated with the capping stack.

This is a schematic of those three rams. The leakage is occurring in a flange that's located right about here. And there is hydrate formation up here on this side of the capping stack as we move forward.

We do not know, but we do not believe this is consequential at this time, nor does it appear that the hydrate formation is inhibiting any operation of the capping stack.

This is something we will continue to monitor as we move forward.

So, we have the things that we're seeing right around the blowout preventer and the capping stack itself. There are a couple anomalies that have been detected within 100 to 200 meters around the well itself, and then the anomaly was detected on the 17th of July out to three kilometers.

Again, there is no indication at this time that this is any indication of a significant problem in the well bore, but we are running every one of these anomalies down. One of the reasons we're starting to find these, most likely, is that during the time that the well was open, it would be impossible to get those sensors in there and detect it with all the amount of hydrocarbons and noise that was being generated.

So, we had the opportunity to see in a very quiet environment what the bottom of the ocean looks like there. And some of these conditions should be preexisting, and trying to sort this out as something we're dealing. But it is the collective opinion of the folks that are talking about this that the small seepages we are finding right now do not present at least at this point any indication that there is a threat to the well bore.

If we think that was going to happen, we would be taking immediate action. Now, having said that, if there is any indication of a precipitous drop in pressure or any reason why we might need to do something about it, we would need to have to vent immediately to let -- relieve the pressure on the well and move to longer-term containment.

And one of the requests that we have made to BP...

ANDERSON: That's actually where the issue stands at -- just, in fact.

Thad Allen speaking there in Washington for you.

Let's take a very short break.

Back after this.


ANDERSON: The headlines here on CNN.

The U.S. official overseeing the Gulf of Mexico oil spill says BP's well integrity test will continue for another 24 hours. BP says that seepage detected yesterday is three kilometers from the well and occurring naturally, not related to the leak.

Well, at least 60 people were killed in Eastern India when a moving train slammed into one stop at the railroad station. At last word, rescuers were using cutting torches to free people stuck inside the wreckage. The minister of the railway says victims will get financial compensation.

Well, there's no relief in sight for two flooded provinces in Central China. Floods and landslides have killed at least 54 people. Another 90 are missing. The situation may get even worse toward the end of the week. That's when a tropical depression is expected to make landfall in Southern China.


SHAH MEHMOOD QURESHI, PAKISTANI FOREIGN MINISTER: We are focusing on projects, on sectors that would make a qualitative difference to the lives of ordinary Pakistanis so they understand that this relationship is beyond security. This is a relationship that includes our purchasing power, our quality of life and then a different message is understood.


ANDERSON: Well, you've just heard Pakistan's foreign minister there discussing the major U.S. aid package which was unveiled today in Islamabad by his American counterpart, Hillary Clinton.

But will all that American money buy the trust that Washington so desperately seeks in the region?

Well, Reza Sayah has more on what Secretary Clinton calls a long-term investment in Pakistan's future.


REZA SAYAH, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Washington has made it clear that it desperately needs Pakistan's help in the fight against militants. And when you need someone's help, you obviously have to be nice to them. You have to say nice things and it doesn't hurt if you do nice things for them. And that's what U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton was doing during her one day visit here in the federal capital of Islamabad.

Mrs. Clinton on a 24 hour charm offensive to win as many Pakistani hearts and minds as possible. Mrs. Clinton unveiling a number of aid projects paid for by U.S. aid money, approved by Congress. The programs are designed to address Pakistan's biggest concerns and needs, among them, an energy crisis, a water shortage and jobs. The plans include the building of several hospitals, the building of hydroelectric dams, and revamping Pakistan's aging power grid.

One of the projects calls for the increase of export of Pakistan's world-famous mangoes. The US hoping that project generates jobs in Pakistan.

HILLARY CLINTON, SECRETARY OF STATE OF THE UNITED STATES: We know that there is a perception held by too many Pakistanis that America's commitment to them begins and ends with security. But in fact, our partnership with Pakistan goes far beyond security. It is economic, political, educational, cultural, historical. Rooted in family ties.

That this misperception has persisted for so long tells us we have not done a good enough job of connecting our partnership with concrete improvements in the lives of Pakistanis.

SAYAH (on camera): Make no mistake, the ultimate goal for Washington is the fight against militants. The Obama administration has said over and over again that there cannot be any success in Afghanistan if there is no help from Pakistan, if Pakistan doesn't do more against militants. The militants especially who are taking refuge on Pakistani soil, but fueling the insurgency across the border in Afghanistan.

It hasn't always been easy for the US to get Pakistan to do more because of the huge trust deficit here. Mrs. Clinton hoping some of these projects will bridge that trust deficit. Reza Sayah, CNN, Islamabad.


ANDERSON: Pakistan was the first stop in what promises to be a very busy tour of Asia for Secretary Clinton. She's now in Afghanistan with talks -- with the president Hamid Karzai ahead of tomorrow's 17-nation international conference on the war there. While in South Korea, Clinton and the Defense Secretary Robert Gates will talk with top officials amid the South's heightened tensions with North Korea. And the trip concludes for Hillary Clinton in Vietnam for the annual ASEAN Conference. She returns to the US about a week before the wedding of her daughter, Chelsea.

I want to talk more about the US aid package to Pakistan now with Shuja Nawaz. He's the director of the Atlantic Council's south center -- South Asia Center. And the author of the book "Crossed Swords: Pakistan, it's Army, and the Wars Within." And he joins me now from Washington.

US aid to Pakistan has notoriously gone into the wrong hands in the past. What is there to suggest that this new aid, hundreds of millions of dollars, let's be clear about this, will be any different?

SHUJA NAWAZ, ATLANTIC COUNCIL: Well, I think this time there's been success in focusing the aid directly with the government. Mr. Holbrooke was instrumental in taking out of the equation the major contractors that previously were being used by US aid, in which a lot of them money used to come back to the United States. So there's been a minor success in that direction.

Secondly, the government will direct the aid through public-private partnerships to very specific projects, which are now being discussed by the United States and Pakistan at the provincial level.

ANDERSON: OK, so you've explained to a certain extent how Pakistanis will have more control over that money. I guess that begs the question, how much control will they have over corruption with that money?

NAWAZ: Well, the corruption is always there. However, there is an overlay of audit and control over the aid process this time. At least in theory. The United States will be using auditors, including auditors from within Pakistan. People who know where to look and how to look for the corruption. And they will be reporting back, because Congress is very interested in ensuring that the aid is uses effectively and efficiently.

ANDERSON: How important was it that this announcement was made today, a day ahead of Clinton's visit to Kabul and this conference on the war, do you think?

NAWAZ: It's important because Pakistan can't be seen in isolation. This is a regional issue. It involves Afghanistan, it involves India. And yesterday, as was evident from your earlier report, there was a signing of a trade agreement between Pakistan and Afghanistan, which is part of this regional economic cooperation deal that the United States has helped broker.

Now, what's missing from that is a very important eastern border between India and Pakistan. Once the US uses its influence in opening that border to trade, you will have a much better chance of reducing hostility and increasing political stability.

ANDERSON: But the interesting thing is, and we've covered this a number of times on this show, is the relationship, of course, between India and Afghanistan. And that is a very tetchy one at best, isn't it? So what sort of deal would you expect the States to try and pull off between India and Afghanistan in order to make that border, perhaps, more porous when it comes to economic ties.

NAWAZ: The United States can certainly help influence India in opening its border with Pakistan. That would allow transit trade between India and Afghanistan and all the way through to central Asia. The United States also tomorrow, at the conference in Kabul and in subsequent meetings with the Afghan government will be encouraging them to open much more closer relationship with Pakistan. There's already been talk of military training.

And if the border trade is open and if some of the corruption and the smuggling that is normally part of that trade is brought under control, then both Afghanistan and Pakistan will come out ahead.

ANDERSON: Fascinating stuff. Shujar Nawas joining the dots for you in what is an incredibly important story this day. So, we thank you very much indeed for joining us. Your expert this evening.

Dogs might well be man's best friend, but it seems they are not the environment's. We're kicking off our theme week on pets. Tonight, up next, discover the potential carbon paw print of your beloved pooch.


ANDERSON: It's the part of the show where we kick off our theme week on a Monday. And this week, the team here at CONNECT THE WORLD have picked pets. Our love for animals around the world is our focus this week.

Kicking things off, then, Richard Roth is paw-deep in a new study which reveals the surprising impact of man's best friend on the environment.



RICHARD ROTH, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Hazel the dog in Brooklyn, New York, is ready to eat. 8900 miles away in New Zealand, author Robert Vale is also about to dine from a bowl. What's the difference? Hazel is unaware that Vale and his wife have written a book called "Time to Eat the Dog? The Real Guide to Sustainable Living."

The book says that the carbon foot -- uh, paw print of a large dog is twice that of a gas-guzzling car.

ROTH (on camera): Hazel here is depressed over the theory expressed by the New Zealand authors that a dog consumes more energy, in effect, and threatens the Earth's atmosphere much more than an SUV vehicle.

ROBERT VALE, AUTHOR, "TIME TO EAT THE DOG?": We called it "Time to Eat the Dog?" to try and make clear that some of these decisions that have to do with sustainability are going to be difficult and troubling. It's not just about changing your light bulbs and so on.

ROTH (voice-over): Hazel's owners think the study fails to see the light.

ASHKON ADET, DOG OWNER: It doesn't make much sense to consider eating one's dog for Mother Earth. But I think there is something to the fact that there needs to be a fundamental shift in the way we think about our impact on the environment.

ROTH (voice-over): They were howling at the nearby dog run.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE SPEAKER: It does get me upset. I just think it's unnecessary.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE SPEAKER: I think we should do reasonable, conscientious things for the environment, but should I put my dog to sleep over it? Certainly not.

ROTH (voice-over): The book says the meat of the problem is all the land and resources to feed dogs.

CAMERON TONKINWISE, SUSTAINABILITY EXPERT: The problem is the way in which all societies are delivering their food, not the particular problem of what pet you're choosing right now.

MARION NESTLE, NUTRITION PROFESSOR: Pets are eating food that would be there anyway because of what we eat. It's we humans who are eating all the meat that's causing the problem.

ANNE MARIE KARASH, HUMANE SOCIETY OF NEW YORK: Look at this face. She can't have any food? What are you talking about? She can't have food?

ROTH (voice-over): The Humane Society thinks the Vales' views are inhumane.

VALE: Certainly having edible pets is a really good idea. We used to keep rabbits, Luigi and Maria and we used to eat --

UNIDENTIFIED REPORTER: And did you eat them?

VALE: We used to eat the little rabbits.

KARASH: I think what they really do need is a dog, but not on their table. Under their table.

ROTH (on camera): I want to see these dogs' carbon footprint. Can you hold up their paws?



ROTH: Whoa. Is he growling at me?


ROTH (voice-over): Richard Roth, CNN, New York.


ANDERSON: And do be sure to tune in tomorrow. Cats and dogs might be furry friends for many of us, but in some restaurants in China, I'm afraid they are on the menu. Tomorrow, our theme week continues with a report by Emily Chang on potential legislation that could ban eating cat and dog meat in China.

Now, pet lovers might be surprised to hear about the potential carbon paw print of their dogs. Most of us are aware of the impact grazing animals have on the environment, so we want to bring you an interesting story out of the north of England now. We know that cows and sheep produce a significant amount of methane. What's new and potentially fascinating is that the key to reducing those emissions could be -- wait for it -- curry.

Research has found that coriander and turmeric, spices traditionally used to flavor curries, can help reduce the amount of methane the animals produce. It works a bit like an antibiotic. The spices kill the methane- producing bad bacteria in the animals' gut without harming the good bacteria. The findings are part of an ongoing study by Dr. Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry at Newcastle University in the north of England. He joins us now.

I've got to say, I'm pretty sure that about 90 percent of the people watching this show are saying, "I don't believe it. Feeding curry to animals is going to reduce their carbon footprint? Are you sure?"

ABDUL SHAKOOR CHAUDHRY, SENIOR RESEARCH ASSOCIATE, NEWCASTLE UNIVERSITY: First of all, thanks for having me. But we are not talking about curry. We are talking about ingredients of curry. So, in this case, we used some spices on their own to see whether they can have an impact on methane emission from animals in the lab.

ANDERSON: You haven't, I believe, tested this out in the field as it were. What's the significance of this initial discovery?

CHAUDHRY: I think what we always do, we cross this with any novel products, any novel feeds. Because of animal welfare issues, we try to look at any novel ingredients before we apply it to the animals in case there is any toxins, poisons, any side effects. So, for that reason, for the safety issues, we looked at simulated lab, to see whether these spices can have an impact in the lab situations we have simulated there.

ANDERSON: What made you try this?

CHAUDHRY: I think we all know, it's not a new thing. Historically in middle ages, Egyptians, Greeks, Chinese, Indians, spices have always been in use for a variety of reasons. For gut upsets, stomach problems, as antiseptics. So in this case, we selected a number of spices which have antiseptic as well as appetizing effects.

ANDERSON: All right. I want to know whether you can -- this can be applied across the animal kingdom. Can it?

CHAUDHRY: We are actually restricting ourselves to grazing ruminants, the animals which have a multi-compartmental stomach, with the first compartment, which is the largest, which occupies 80 percent of the total gut, which has billions of bacteria, micro organisms, which have the ability to neutralize fibrous feeds which we, the human, cannot use.

ANDERSON: I hope this doesn't sound rude or silly or facetious, but I know there will be some people out there who are saying, "OK. I hear what you're saying, and I'll wait the field tests as it were. Could curry- eating by humans, or the consumption of curry and of turmeric, as it were, reduce our own methane or carbon footprint?"

CHAUDHRY: I think, as I said before, we are restricting ourselves to methane component of this fermentation process, that distil process. We humans produce probably more carbon dioxide. We are not interested in that side of it at the moment. There may be a sort of opportunity for these spices to be tested for that purpose. But for my study, we have restricted ourselves to reduce methane from sheep, cattle, buffaloes, or goats singly.

ANDERSON: All right, we're going to leave it there. Fascinating stuff. We thank you very much, indeed for joining us this evening. Your expert on the subject.

Mixing poetry and popular music. The Doors talk about the legacy left behind by their late front man Jim Morrison, and the conspiracy theories surrounding his death. And, of course, they're going to answer your questions. They are your Connectors of the Day, and they are just ahead.








ANDERSON (voice-over): The answer? American rock legend. More than 40 years after the band fronted by Jim Morrison first formed, The Doors are still entertaining audiences.

MORRISON (singing "People are Strange"): People are strange, when you're a stranger. Faces look ugly when you're alone.

ANDERSON (voice-over): Most recently, with an award-winning documentary. "American Masters: When You're Strange" chronicles the group's history, using previously unseen footage of all four members.

MORRISON (singing "People are Strange"): When you're strange, no one remembers your name, when you're strange.

ANDERSON (voice-over): Named after a line in a William Blake poem, the band revolutionized US rock and roll in the late 60s, releasing seven albums in less than five years.

The first song guitarist Robby Krieger ever wrote, "Light My Fire," went to number one in the Billboard charts.

Sadly, Jim Morrison's poetry and unpredictable stage presence came to an untimely end in 1971 when he was found dead in a bathtub in a Paris apartment. Yet, while that meant the end of an era, The Doors remain restlessly creative to this day, helping a new generation "break on through to the other side." The Doors are your Connectors of the Day.


ANDERSON: Well, they cut a controversial figure, or figures, in the 60s with their psychedelic tunes and lyrics. I caught up with members Ray Manzarek and Robby Krieger a little earlier, and I began by asking them about one of their most contentious TV appearances. Have a listen to this. It's fantastic.


RAY MANZAREK, KEYBOARDIST, "THE DOORS": "Light My Fire" is from "The Ed Sullivan Show." The actual performance in which we said the word "higher," and were proscribed by the network -- the network said, "don't say the word 'higher' on national television." And it's like, "what are you talking about?" So we did it anyway. Jim went ahead.

ANDERSON: Of course you did. Of course you did.

MANZAREK: "Higher." And all the "Ed Sullivan" people freaked out and told us, "You'll never work 'The Ed Sullivan Show' ever again."

And Morrison just kind of sits back and says, "Hey, man. So what? We just did 'The Ed Sullivan Show.'"

And out of that one performance, we're still talking about it. It was 1967. It's still -- we're still performing the word "higher" on national television, and it's in the movie.

ANDERSON: We've got some viewer questions here. Maltva from Sweden says, "Back in the day, did you realize just how influential and timeless your music was going to be?"

ROBBY KRIEGER, GUITARIST, "THE DOORS": I don't think you ever know. We hoped that it would be. We knew that our music was just as good as anybody else's, so we had high hopes that it would be -- But you know, if you asked, would I have thought back then that we'd still be talking about it 40 years later? No.

ANDERSON: AD from NC says, "You seem to have always had this intuitive understanding on the cultural zeitgeist of any given time, and the music reflected that. So what do you think about the times we're living in now, and how does your music reflect that?"

MANZAREK: I think that each generation gets the music it deserves. And I'm going to leave that at that.

KRIEGER: I think the times now are a little bit like it was in the 60s. We have wars going on, and horrible stuff. And we wanted to change all that back in the 60s, and we almost did. Music is the one thing that you can use to reach out to the other -- the Muslim kids, they love our music.

ANDERSON: Another question from one of the viewers. Ian from Sydney says, "What comes after 'The end, my friends'?" he says.

MANZAREK: Enlightenment.

KRIEGER: We hope.

MANZAREK: Well, that's for each individual person to find, the object of being alive is to become enlightened, to move the energy -- here's hippie stuff, Indian -- up the chakras on your spine until you get to the top chakra and you "break on through to the other side." And then you find out that you are infinite, it's all infinite.

ANDERSON: Let's talk about Jim. Heidi writes to us and says, "Any regrets about the time you shared with Jim Morrison both as a band member and as a friend?"

MANZAREK: Regrets. I regret that he's dead, you know? That was the whole thing, was, "would you have done anything differently?" we're often asked. And yes, we would have done everything we could to keep Jim alive, and probably not let him go to Paris.

ANDERSON: How difficult was it to start touring again, start playing again after his death?

KRIEGER: Well, it was difficult, because we lost our lead singer, and it wasn't just any lead singer. Before he left, we'd been still rehearsing and working up new songs when he would have come back. And we decided, what the hell, let's go ahead and make another album. And we actually made made two more albums after Jim died. And there's some really good stuff on those albums, I think.

MANZAREK: Had Jim been the singer, those songs would've been considered Doors classics. But without Jim, the songs that we created were great songs, but it was just that vibration of the singer, that lead singer, and given that lead singer was Dionysus reincarnated again, the Greek god Dionysus, who's come back on the planet to dance for us, we were without him. So we did a couple of albums and said, let's put it to bed now.

Now, we're back on the road playing together.

ANDERSON: I was going to say, you're touring together.

MANZAREK: Exactly.

ANDERSON: It meant you enjoy your stuff.

MANZAREK. Exactly. Having a great time. I get to play "Light My Fire" with the guy who wrote "Light My Fire," and it's a brilliant guitar player, Robby Krieger.

ANDERSON: We have a whole bunch of questions from our viewers about the conspiracy theories around Jim's death. And I just want to put this one set to rest with you guys. Brent Maupin has written to us, and he says, "In the absence of an autopsy, do you ever have any suspicions about what happened to him?"

MANZAREK: Sure. Nobody knows what happened to him. As a matter of fact, a sealed coffin was put in the ground in that cemetery Pere Lachaise in Paris France. There was a sealed coffin put in the ground.

Our manager, he was just a kid. He went to Paris, walks into this apartment, and there's a coffin in the living room in this apartment in Paris in the Marais District. And he believed that Jim Morrison was in there. I said, "You put a -- you didn't see Jim's body? You're the manager, kid. You're supposed to see Jim Morrison dead." And he said, "I never saw him dead."


ANDERSON: You've been listen to a couple of members of The Doors. Their reminiscing about a man who died in 1971, Jim Morrison. He was the face of that band. Fascinating to sit and listen to them earlier.

You heard a snippet from another man earlier today. Bill Gates, arguably the most famous businessman in the world. Well, the Microsoft founder is also one of the world's greatest philanthropists. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has assets of some $34 billion, a significant portion of which is spent each year fighting the spread of HIV and AIDS. I interview with your Connector from the Vienna 2010 AIDS Conference this time tomorrow on the program.

In the meantime, send us your comments. Head to We always want to know who you want to hear from. So let us know, who is your idea for a Connector of the Day. Let us know that, Tonight, we'll be right back.


ANDERSON: There's just time for some popular videos that you've been watching online. First, in Costa Rica, where our surprise iReporter and his fellow divers are suddenly surrounded by sharks in a bait fish feeding frenzy. Stay calm, boys. Stay calm. Thankfully, nobody was seriously hurt. Excellent underwater nature photography, and everybody made it to the surface with limbs intact. I know what that feels like when you're scuba diving -- well, I don't, I can't imagine what that feels like. But anyway, they get -- oh, goodness.

To Florida now. See that guy? Caught on camera robbing a house. Nobody was home, but the owner's son got these images automatically e- mailed to him, captured by a surveillance security camera. He basically watched his father's house get robbed from 90 miles away. Police got the pictures and locked up the intruder.

Let's turn to one of our top stories tonight, which is generating an awful lot of interest online. US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton announcing a major aid package for Pakistan this morning, worth hundreds of millions of dollars. Hundreds of you have left comments on the website. Wellreadone writes, "Charity begins at home. After that we might actually be in a position to help others in a manner that we can sustain."

Somebody who goes by the name of PRinOhio says, "We should funnel our funds into Pakistan in order to construct modern schools. This is the only way to pull kids away from the radical madrassas there."

Do have your say. Lots of you writing in, only time for a couple of your comments tonight, but we'll try -- we do read them all, I promise you. And we'll try to get the best on air,

I'm Becky Anderson, that is your world connected this Monday from London. "BackStory" up next, right after this check of the headlines.