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Moammar Gadhafi Fights to Hang Onto Power; Discovery's Final Flight; Mental Health Care in Kenya

Aired February 24, 2011 - 16:00:00   ET


BECKY ANDERSON, HOST: Gunfire breaks the silence on the streets of Tripoli. One eyewitness predicts a bloody night to come. The clashes have hit Libya's oil production, sending global prices soaring.

But just how high will they climb?

Later, tied up and forgotten -- our second report on the shocking state of Kenya's mental health care system.

And a count down to liftoff -- live pictures from the Kennedy Space Center, as the Shuttle Discovery prepares for its final mission to space.

Those stories and more tonight, as we connect the world.

Well, as his power base shrinks, Moammar Gadhafi is fighting back on two fronts. His militiamen are trying to retake some territory lost in the uprising, while the Libyan leader himself broadcasts a warning about al Qaeda.

Let's bring you back updated on how things stand at present.

The opposition now reportedly controls several key towns close to the capital of Tripoli, including Misrata, Zawiyah and Az Zintan. Much of Eastern Libya is also under opposition control. But the government isn't going quietly. Fierce clashes were reported in Zawiyah, after pro-regime forces attacked the town. A Libyan newspaper says 10 people were killed.


ANDERSON: This video, also posted on YouTube, was purportedly filmed in Zintan. The man you hear is yelling, "They used live ammunition. They killed him!"

Leader Moammar Gadhafi placed a call to state TV Thursday, saying protesters are being brainwashed by al Qaeda.


MOAMMAR GADHAFI, LIBYAN LEADER (through translator): The demand is not their demand. The demand is bin Laden's demand. The massive system (ph) has nothing to do.

Why do you try to drag bin Laden into our country?

Why do you listen?

You are taught and you are brainwashed by bin Laden telling you what to do.


ANDERSON: Gadhafi speaking earlier.

Well, getting news from the territory still under Gadhafi's control is extremely difficult, so we've been relying on eyewitnesses to tell us what's happening on the streets.

We spoke again today with a resident of Tripoli.

Here is what she told us.

We are keeping her identity secret to prevent, of course, any reprisals.


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: For the past 24 hours or so, it's been very calm. I've seen a couple of planes and a couple of helicopters. But I couldn't really -- I can't see if they were military planes and helicopters or not.

ANDERSON: Do you have any sense of -- of -- or do you know anybody who is actually prepared to go out on the streets at this point?

I want to get a -- a sort of profile of those who -- who are prepared, if at all, to protest at this point.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: Everybody is expecting a bloody scene happening tonight. That is why, from my point of view, that's why I'm seeing police cars. They are just waiting for protesters to come out, because the public is angry from the two statements made by the government today. Saif Islam and his vicious statements threatening the public and Gadhafi's desperation of proving and denying that he is falling and dying one second at a time.

ANDERSON: We do know and we've seen reports of many people trying to leave the country, both through the Tunisian border and through the Egyptian border.

Are you aware of any or your family and friends trying to do the same?

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: Nobody wants to flee, at least from the people I know. Some rare cases have been trying to escape. Maybe they're fearing for the safety of their children. Maybe they have other reasons. But for most of the people I'm connected to, nobody wants that.

ANDERSON: So just to confirm, today you are expecting something to happen at some point. You think -- I think you described it as -- as a bloodbath. But as things stand at present at this point, things are very, very quiet on the streets of Tripoli.

Is that correct?

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: Yes. It is -- it is -- there's a huge difference between quiet and very, very worrying quietly happening around town. So this worrying quietness is just a preparation for a massive fight or for some miracle will happen and Gadhafi would surrender.


ANDERSON: All right, that's the latest from Tripoli, as we can bring you.

Our Ben Wedeman was the first Western journalist to make it into Libya.

He and his crew were stunned when they drove into Benghazi, which is in the east. Ben says the joy of liberation he witnessed on the streets was greater than what he saw after the fall of Saddam Hussein in Iraq.

Have a listen to this.



BEN WEDEMAN, CNN SENIOR INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): This demonstration in Benghazi gives you an idea of the passion of the people of this city, of the passions of so many Libyans who have been thirsting for 42 years for this sort of opportunity, the chance to express themselves freely.

We arrived in this city and from the beginning, everywhere we went, I felt like I was an American soldier going into Paris during World War II, everybody clapping and cheering. We are the first television crew to get to this city. And we were just overwhelmed by the welcome here. People were throwing candy inside the car, clapping, shaking our hands, telling us you're welcome, thank you for coming here. An incredible experience.

And now I'm almost -- I -- I feel like I'm just not up to the task of the day, just the -- the significance of what we're seeing here.

It's noisy. It's chaotic. But the people are ecstatic. The pictures just say it all.

Ben Wedeman, CNN, Benghazi, Libya.


ANDERSON: Absolutely, they do. It's not easy to get through to Libya at all. We are trying to get hold of Ben to give us some indication of how things stand at this point in the day. As soon as we get him, of course, we'll bring him to you.

Quite remarkable scenes there, to the east of the country.

Well, as you've been hearing, bloody clashes have taken place in the town of Zawiyah, which is a key oil production center in Libya. Now bear this in mind. About 85 percent of Libya's oil goes to Europe, about 13 or so percent to Asia. Now in terms of barrels of oil, the country produces around 1.2 million barrels a day. That's around 2 percent of the world's oil.

But this is what's so important. It's good quality sweet crude. Many refineries here in Europe and in Asia aren't able to refine what's known as sour crude, which is higher in sulfur content.

Unrest has slowed in the production in Algeria, as well. But alarm bells could start ringing if things pick up again. It also produces top notch sweet crude.

Now, Libya and Algeria don't produce enough oil to significantly disrupt world supplies. But analysts are worried that political unrest could spread specifically to Saudi Arabia. Now, the world's largest oil producer. They pump out around 6.4 million barrels a day. It's worth bearing in mind, though, it is sour crude, so it needs more refining.

Well, Saudi Arabia can turn on the taps when there is disruption. It has a lot of spare capacity. At the moment, the country is in talks with European refiners over supplying additional oil because of this unrest that we are seeing in Libya at present.

But if demonstrations spread to the kingdom, then all bets on how oil -- high the price of oil could go are off.

Well, joining me now from Washington is Steve Levine.

He's the author of the "The Oil and the Glory."

He's also a contributing editor for "Foreign Policy" magazine.

We're just sort of keeping an eye on what's going on in Libya at present.

Just give me your take, very briefly, before we move on to the region as to -- as to how the Libyan crisis has played into the oil markets.

STEVE LEVINE, CONTRIBUTING EDITOR, "FOREIGN POLICY" MAGAZINE, AUTHOR, "THE OIL AND THE GLORY": It's very, very interesting what happened today with oil prices. As you know, in the last half hour or hour of trading, which -- which was very, very recent, the price of oil plummeted.

There were two reasons for that. And one -- one of them is the most interesting. There was a rumor that went around that Gadhafi had been shot. And, of course, there -- there are no -- there are no -- there's no confirmation of that.


LEVINE: There's no reason why we should believe that. But there was that rumor. At the same, you had assurances from the United States that it would compensate for any short call on the world market. And that's when you saw the price of crude...


LEVINE: -- falling below $100 in the United States.

ANDERSON: All right. OK. That rumor, I believe, has been denied at this point. The -- the context for this, of course, is that the markets go up and down quite quickly, and we know. This trouble has been going on for weeks and the oil prices ultimately, of course, though, have been pushing higher, hasn't it, Steve?

The White House, certainly today, has said that it has the capacity to act. But it's Saudi Arabia that's crucial here, isn't it?

LEVINE: Well, I think...

ANDERSON: They've been trying to reassure the markets.

Do they have what it takes to satisfy demand if things continue to be, well, chaotic?

LEVINE: Yes. I want to answer that about -- about Saudi Arabia. Let me just say clear up that one thing. The -- the Gadhafi rumor, although we -- we know it wasn't true, it just demonstrates that there is a Gadhafi premium in the oil price. Since it went down when it was thought he was shot, it shows that when the turmoil is over, the turbulence in the -- in the markets will fall.

But there is what -- what you raise is very, very important. All eyes are on Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia is the underpinning of the global oil market. It produces, alone, 10 percent of the global oil supply. It also has most of the spare capacity should someone go offline to fill that gap.

Now, there's uncertainty -- can Saudi Arabia actually fill that gap?

Because there's that uncertainty, you've seen the -- the prices go up as much as 20 percent in the last week.

ANDERSON: Yes, well, they say they can. I guess it's anyone's guess, at this stage, what happens next. I mean Saudi Arabia is certainly making a multi-billion dollar gesture to its own people to try to prevent the sort of unrest we've seen across the region.

What is your best guess at this point?

LEVINE: Well, that -- that's had the -- it's interesting you should raise that. King Abdullah came home yesterday. He had been gone for three months. The first thing he did was announce I'm going to distribute $36 billion in debt forgiveness, in wage increases. This had the reverse impact on the world market. They said hey, wait a second.

If Saudi Arabia is so safe, if Saudi is -- is able to replenish the world market, why is King Abdullah coming home and -- and giving all these handouts?

What is he trying to tamp down here?

So that made people a lot -- a lot more nervous.

ANDERSON: Listen, this isn't the first time that a Saudi has played sort of kingpin in the global crisis. In the '70s, of course, '73 and '79, the global economy got very messy when -- when oil prices went up.

They are, though, oil prices, still much lower than they were ahead of the global financial meltdown, when they were about $150 or so. But we've -- what we've got at the moment is this spiraling food price inflationary cycle which is one of the reasons behind this unrest that we're seeing in the Middle East.

And -- and oil price inflation simply adds to that, doesn't it?

LEVINE: It does. And in -- and, in fact, the -- the inflated oil price is one of the major reasons for the food price spiral. And, you know, there's -- there's nothing on the radar screen that in -- that suggests that food prices are going to drop soon.

Food tends to go up fast, food prices. They tend to come down slow. That -- that component of the unrest in the Middle East is going to stay there for some time.

ANDERSON: Steve, we're going to have to leave it there.

We're going to take an advertising break.

We thank you very much, indeed for joining us on what is a confusing and chaotic day once again in the Middle East.

Our viewers will know that markets are casinos. What happens next at this point, as far as oil prices are concerned, is in the hands of the traders, I guess.

Steve, we thank you for that.

Steve Levine joining us this evening for some context as to what is going on in the oil markets, given what we're seeing in the Middle East at present.

Much more on the situation in Libya ahead, including the humanitarian impact, as natives and foreigners flee the country.

Plus, the news many hoped they wouldn't hear -- Tuesday's earthquake in New Zealand claims more lives.

And after 26 years and 39 journeys into space, we've got live pictures for you coming from Kennedy tonight, as NASA gets ready to say good-bye to an old friend.



UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: He can't sit with other children. They run from the house because they say he'll beat them, that he's mad.


ANDERSON: It's just one woman's story, but it's an indictment of an entire system. Coming up, part two of CNN's look inside Kenya's mental health system, the story of a mother who has no other option but to keep her son locked up for 30 years. That story is coming up.

I'm Becky Anderson in London.

It's just after quarter past nine.

You're watching CONNECT THE WORLD.

Here's a look at the other stories that we're following for you this hour.

And Julian Assange says he wouldn't get a fair trial in Sweden, but it seems he is going there anyway, to face allegations of sexual misconduct. A judge in London has ruled that Britain can extradite the WikiLeaks founder to Sweden for questioning. The sexual conduct allegations stem from separate incidents back in August.

Assange hasn't been charged with any crime and vows to appeal the ruling.

At a news conference, he called the case "nonsense."


JULIAN ASSANGE, WIKILEAKS FOUNDER: To make this bigger than me. Take this case and bring it back home. Make it your own case and your own virtue. And in doing so, you will not only help yourselves and help each other, but you will make this ridiculous time that I spend on this nonsense worthwhile.


ANDERSON: Well, a police official in New Zealand says he has grave fears for those still missing after Tuesday's earthquake. Now the confirmed death toll has risen to 102, with more than 220 people still unaccounted for.

Prime Minister John Key has declared a state of national emergency. The 6.3 magnitude quake ripped open streets and toppled buildings.

A Saudi national living in Texas will make his first federal court appearance on Friday. Twenty-year-old Khalid Ali-M Aldawsari was arrested on Wednesday. He faces a federal charge of an attempted use of a weapon of mass destruction. The U.S. Justice Department says he was researching and acquiring chemicals to make a bomb. Officials say he researched several possible targets, including the home of former U.S. president, George W. Bush.

In less than 30 minutes, the famous Discovery shuttle is expected to make its final launch after more than 25 years in rotation.

I'm joined now by John Zarrella at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

Much anticipated, this launch -- John.

JOHN ZARRELLA, CNN CORRESPONDENT: No question about it, Becky.

And, you know, you couldn't ask for a nicer day here -- near perfect weather conditions. The -- the veteran six member crew on board the Shuttle Discovery, it sits out there on Launch Pad 39. Ironically, there have been 39 flights of the Space Shuttle Discovery in its long and -- and quite gloried career, dating back to 1984.

Discovery also flew the two return to flight missions after the accidents -- the Challenger accident and the Columbia accident.

John Glenn, one of the original Mercury 7 astronauts, when he flew back in 1998 on the Space Shuttle, he flew on -- on the Space Shuttle Discovery, as well.

But this is it, coming to an end. And, you know, it is such a huge event here that there are 250,000 or 60,000 people gathered along the space coast to watch this. That's the estimates of the crowd. Every hotel room in Cocoa Beach, in Titusville, has been taken. And, you know, there's two other flights after this, one in April. And they expect about 400,000 for that flight. And then in June, with the summer here and everybody out of school, they're saying that the Atlantis flight, which would be the last flight in the shuttle program, should bring in about one million people for that flight.

So it...


ZARRELLA: -- yes, it is really going out gloriously -- Becky.

ANDERSON: Yes, fantastic stuff.

Well, we're due to see that take-off from Kennedy in about a half hour's time.

We'll bring you live pictures, of course, as Discovery makes its final voyage into space.

John, thank you very much, indeed, for that.

Well, Britain's Prince William and fiance, Kate Middleton, have made their first official engagement as a couple. The pair attended a ceremony to launch a lifeboat in North Wales. Hundreds of people turned out to watch the royal couple conduct what is their first official duty together. The pair are due to marry in April at Westminster Abbey.

I'm Becky Anderson.

You're watching CONNECT THE WORLD.

The headlines are about eight minutes away.

Up next, though, CNN's David McKenzie brings us the second part of what is a shocking story from Kenya.


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: His siblings ask whether we've wronged God because we're really suffering. I can't even hang clothes outside. The neighbors tell me to remove them because they stink.


ANDERSON: We've already showed you the sorry state of Kenya's mental hospitals. That was last night at this time. Now, how one mother has no choice but to chain up her own son. That story is 90 seconds away.

Don't go away.



DAVID MCKENZIE, CNN INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: Do you think it's a good thing to be locking them...


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: You know, there isn't -- OK. (INAUDIBLE).

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: No, we are not locking...


UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Let us open. I want to go out here.


ANDERSON: No, your eyes aren't deceiving you. CNN's David McKenzie locked up in a mental institution in Kenya.

He -- he got out, but while he was there, he uncovered a horrifying reality -- a hospital that locks up its patients and they have to pay for the service.

If you missed the first part of his report last night, it's up on

Well tonight, I want to bring you the second part of David's report, the human story of coping with the system and what do you do if someone you love is mentally ill? (BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

MCKENZIE: Becky, in filming this documentary, we saw many disturbing things. We saw children stuck in hovels, families desperate for any kind of help, cases of suspected sexual abuse.

But, really, the most disturbing story we witnessed was the story of Milkah and her son Thomas.


MCKENZIE (voice-over): On a dusty back road, Edah Maina, the head of the charity, Kenya Society for the Mentally Handicapped, is on an investigation.

EDAH MAINA, KENYA SOCIETY FOR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED: I think this is going to show us where he is.

MCKENZIE: This is what she finds behind a latched door.


MCKENZIE: Thomas Mitulke (ph) tied to a steel bed, surrounded by pools of his urine. He has been imprisoned like this for 30 years. His mother has had no choice.

MILKAH MORAA, THOMAS' MOTHER (through translator): His siblings ask whether we've wronged God because we're really suffering. I can't even hang clothes outside. The neighbors tell me to remove them because they stink. He can't sit with other children. They run from the house because they say he'll beat them, that he's mad. I try to tell them no, but I came to realize that because they have never seen hardship, that is why they behave as they do.

MCKENZIE: Angry and fearful neighbors have chased the family from village to village. Thomas' parents say despite scores of visits to doctors and hospitals, they got no help.

MORAA (through translator): Though I try to be strong, strength fails me completely. I'm tired of that burden. It's not a live burden.

MCKENZIE: She tries simple things to ease his agony, like giving him a bottle cap to play with or tying him to a tree when the weather is good.

MAINA: The mother has the right to live like any other mother. She is trying to say that by looking for help everywhere, now Thomas is over 30 years old. And that's why she's expressing her being desperate and giving up and wondering when help can ever come.

MORAA (through translator): For how long will I carry this burden?

Since I got married, I have never had joy the way other people have joy. I also feel that I should have been given a lighter burden. I have tried to encourage myself and think, God, help me. Because I have carried this burden for a long time.

MCKENZIE: All Milkah can do is tether Thomas back in his cell.


MCKENZIE: Becky, Milkah and Thomas' story is certainly not unique. There are roughly three million Kenyans living with intellectual and mental disabilities. And many of them say they are crying out for help from the government.

The government told us that mental health is a high priority. But less than 1 percent of the health budget is put toward that sector.

ANDERSON: David McKenzie reporting.

It is Kenya's terrible secret. Join David McKenzie as he takes you on a journey into this world of anguish and misunderstanding. That is "World's Untold Stories: Locked Up and Forgotten." It airs several times this weekend, including Saturday night here in London at 9:00 p.m..

You're watching CONNECT THE WORLD.

I'm Becky Anderson in London.

Ahead on the show, fleeing the danger -- many Libyans are trying to get out of the country. We're live at the Egyptian-Libyan border.

And we're going to hear what the United Nations has to say -- are European countries stepping in to help?

Find out here on CONNECT THE WORLD, up next.


ANDERSON: You're back with CONNECT THE WORLD. I'm Becky Anderson in London. It's just after half past nine. Coming up, many nations watching the situation in Libya with a wary eye. Also, trying feverishly to get their citizens out. We're going to take a look at that for you, coming up.

Then, a star-studded guest list in Berlin. In our i-List series, we take a look at a German film festival that's bringing in top tier talent.

And the end of an era. The Space Shuttle "Discovery" is set to begin its final voyage.

Those stories ahead in the show. First, as ever at this point, let's get you a quick check of the headlines.

The opposition is taking control of more towns in Libya, some close to the capital. But the government isn't going quietly. Serious clashes were reported in a town called Zawia after pro-regime forces attacked. The newspaper says ten people were killed. Earlier, we spoke with a protester in Tripoli. We're keeping his identity secret to prevent any reprisals.


LIBYAN PROTESTER (via telephone): Tomorrow is a big day. I just hope that everyone will march, because as I said, this is not that very organized demonstration, but every number counts. So, everyone will just share their input and march outside.

There will be clashes, yes. There will be violence, yes. Everyone is aware of this. But all together, we've tried to voice our concern and maybe do something big. That's what people justify the media or even be able to revolt the current regime.

This is -- tomorrow, it's the final day. Everyone is anticipating it. Maybe the troops from the east will come. Maybe the ones in the west will prevail. We don't know, but tomorrow is the meeting day. Our V Day.


ANDERSON: Well, the international community, meantime, has tightened the screws on Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi. Switzerland, today, froze his assets and those of his entourage. Gadhafi appears determined to remain in power, telling state TV earlier in the day that the uprising is the work of al Qaeda.

Julian Assange says he will keep fighting his extradition to Sweden after a British judge ruled that the UK can send Assange to Sweden for questioning over alleged sex crimes. He and his lawyers have a week to appeal.

At the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, astronauts are preparing the Space Shuttle "Discovery" for its final voyage. Liftoff scheduled to happen in about 20 minutes. The six-member crew will deliver a storage module to the International Space Station. Do stay with us for that.

And on Wall Street, the Dow Jones dropping for the third straight day, down 77 points. The NASDAQ edging up slightly, and the S&P 500 ending the day flat.

Those are your headlines this hour.

Governments around the world are trying to get their citizens out of Libya. Paramilitary plane has landed in Paris with 165 French nationals onboard. Here's what one evacuee had to say.


UNIDENTIFIED MALE: I worked in the oil field. Tripoli, the center, gunfire in the night, explosions, smoke. Yes, that's about the extent of it, though. We kept together as a group, colleagues, five of us all together. It was escalating and it was finally the last minute, yes, time to go.


ANDERSON: Well, a British military aircraft has left Tripoli with over 50 British passengers onboard, bound for Malta. A warship HMS Cumberland is docked in Benghazi and is in the process, as we speak, of preparing to evacuate from the port.

Now, some have already managed to get back to the UK, many overcome with emotion, glad to be home. Here's what one woman had to say at London's Gatwick Airport.


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: It's a huge -- a huge amount of fear. I mean, if you think of the thousands who were at the airport yesterday and the people around the country, and I know a lot of people everywhere, the underlying feeling is fear.


ANDERSON: Understandable, isn't it? The island of Malta has become a hub for evacuations from the country. That's because of its location. You can see from this map just how close it is to Libya. Countries including the US, the UK, Ireland, and Croatia are landing planes and docking ships on the island, and that is where we're going to get to Ivan Watson, who's there with the latest for you.


IVAN WATSON, CNN CORRESPONDENT (on camera): A British Royal Air Force cargo plane has just landed here at Malta's international airport carrying at least 64 foreigners escaping from Tripoli, as well as one dog.

The Maltese government says this island country is the main escape route for tens of thousands of foreigners trapped in Libya right now. At least a half dozen governments are relying on Malta to try to help them get their nationals out.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: The airport? Organized anarchy is one term I could come up with. Basically, it was just a complete mess. The whole place is just a rubbish dump. Doesn't matter, people are abandoning every last piece of luggage they've got.

I'm one of the lucky few who actually managed to get through, because there's so many stampedes, the police get fed up with the people, with the overcrowding. They charge with batons and cattle prods and, occasionally, small arms fire just to basically frighten people off.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I think it's very scary.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Scary in the night. There's some gun fighting in the city at night. I'm not seeing directly, because I stay home all the time after sunset.

WATSON: But it's not just foreigners that are desperate to escape. Over here are two Libyan Air Force fighter planes. Their pilots landed here unexpectedly several days ago. They defected to escape Colonel Gadhafi's regime. Ivan Watson, CNN, Malta.


ANDERSON: And they are not the only Libyans trying to get out. Some are making their way to the Egyptian border to flee the bloodshed. Nima Elbagir is there, and she joins us now, live. What can you tell us, Nima?

NIMA ELBAGIR, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Well, Becky, you can see behind me the tailgates of the cars that are queuing up to ferry the thousands of the refugees coming across the border, fleeing the violence in Egypt. Many of those we spoke to are bringing with them terror -- tales of some of the horrors that they experienced at the hands of the Libyan authorities.


UNIDENTIFIED MALE (through translator): On the first day of fighting in Benghazi, I saw 13 bodies on the street. The youngest was only around 12. On the second day, the fighting continued, and it was a massacre. Around 600 people killed by Gadhafi's forces. It was inhumane.


ELBAGIR: But for those who've made it to safety, they say that the inability of the world to stand by the Libyan people is driving them to return and at least, as they've said, stand, fight, and die with their brothers in Libya, Becky.

ANDERSON: Nima, there on the border. Thanks, Nima.

Well, earlier I spoke to Antonio Guterres, who is the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, somewhat of a regular guest on this show, sadly, to a certain extent. I began by asking him about the situation in Libya and what the biggest challenges he sees are going forward. This is what he said.


ANTONIO GUTERRES, UN HIGH COMMISSIONER FO REFUGEES: We are seeing an awful bloodshed. We are seeing dramatic violations of human rights. It's absolutely essential to stop with this carnage, and this is our main concern.

The main concern is, of course, the suffering of people in Libya. Obviously, for Tunisia, for Egypt, for Europe, this can be a difficult moment, but our first obligation is, of course, with the Libyan people in this dramatic situation they are facing now.

ANDERSON: Let's talk about some of the concerns. Italy, for example, warning that the chaos in Libya could trigger what they call a "Biblical exodus" of up to 300,000 migrants. Do you buy those figures? How many people are we talking about at this point?

GUTERRES: I think we need to distinguish migration from refugees. What we had some weeks ago when you have these Tunisians crossing the border, crossing the Mediterranean, was indeed a migration flow. Most of these people just wanted a better job.

But if people flee a war in Libya, then they are truly refugees. They need to be granted protection according to international law, and you need to make sure that those in Tunisia, in Egypt, but also in Europe, doors are open to them.

It's impossible to predict the figures. It's impossible to predict how many people will be effected. It depends on the evolution, the political evolution in Libya. Indeed, we have the experience in some civil wars in different parts of the world that hundreds of thousands of people cross the border.

Let's hope it's not the case in Libya. Let's hope that this bloodshed relents. Let's hope that there will be a solution found before it becomes - - this awful tragedy becomes even bigger.

ANDERSON: Yes, let's stick to Europe, and I'm going to come back to Egypt and Tunisia. Certainly, countries in southern Europe are urging their northern friends to accept some of the burden of these potential refugees. Are you convinced that the countries in Europe will play ball at this point?

GUTERRES: I think it's essential to show solidarity to Tunisia and Egypt. European solidarity to Tunisia and Egypt at the present moment are absolutely fundamental to allow, first of all, these two countries that have emerged from a revolution to cope with this challenge. And effective volume sharing is, in my opinion, absolutely crucial at the present moment.

ANDERSON: You've talked about what is going on at the border with Tunisia and, indeed, with the border in Egypt. Where are these people staying? What sort of equipment and accommodation have you been able to provide at this point? And what more do you need?

GUTERRES: The vast majority of the people that cross the border are Tunisians going back to Tunisia and Egyptians going back to Egypt. Last night, only about 1,000 people had to stay for the night close to the border in different premises that were possible to be mobilized.

We are, as I said, flying to Tunisia also some tents. The army has also some tents. And we will be doing our best to gather its regional authorities and the Red Crescent to provide accommodation to non-Tunisians that will seek protection in the days to come.

On the Egyptian side, I believe the situation is the same, because I said, we only have access to the border today.

ANDERSON: Are you getting enough cooperation from Egypt and Tunisia at this point?

GUTERRES: I think those two governments have been extremely open- minded. The borders are open. They have been extremely welcoming of the people that were coming, and I think that international solidarity with Egypt and with Tunisia are -- is now absolutely essential.


ANDERSON: The UN's man in charge of refugees. A tough job.

Coming up next on CONNECT THE WORLD, it is a red carpet buzzing with the biggest stars of the silver screen. But do not expect any Oscars to be presented. The story's coming up. Stay with us.


ANDERSON: All this week, we are putting Germany in the spotlight for you. We've shown you some amazing new inventions and introduced you to remarkable entrepreneurs. And yesterday, we looked at a company leading the way in the future of wind energy.

Well, today, we'll delve into the German arts and the famous Berlinale Film Festival. This year's event wrapped up on Sunday and boasted a star- studded guest list that would make even Hollywood ceremonies jealous. Diana Magnay tells us more about the growing arts seen behind this festival.


DIANA MAGNAY, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Recent moments from the nearly 100 years worth of movies produced at Studio Babelsberg, just 30 kilometers outside of Berlin. Box office successes starring the likes of Tom Cruise, Brad Pitt, German production houses teaming up with Hollywood's top producers to make a string of made-in-Germany blockbusters.

TOM CRUISE, ACTOR: We are shooting at Bablesberg.

BRAD PITT, ACTOR: It's just a really cool vibe here.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: More exciting than the Hollywood studios.

DETLEF BUCK, FILM DIRECTOR: The people love to work here, because it's a lot of possibilities, and the good crewmembers, are really, I must admit, that really compare this to, let's say, East European countries. Czechoslovakia has also a good studio, but now, it's -- time-wise -- money- wise, they've got some support. Some 18 percent, and that's why they come here.

MAGAY (voice-over): Besides the fact that Berlin, just down the road, is cheap and achingly hit, "poor but sexy" as the mayor likes to call it.



MAGNAY (voice-over): And that Germany's dark wartime history makes it a perfect location for films like Tarantino's "Inglorious Bastards." It's the generous subsidies for international co-productions which are the real draw. Up to $5 million for films that qualify. Twice as much if the German production costs are high enough.

So the German government sees incentives are a way of bringing in investment and mitigating the effects of the financial crisis on the film industry.

KARL WOEBCKEN, CEO, STUDIO BABELSBERG: But we've certainly also got a big push through our new incentive system in 2007. We virtually exploded in that year and id 13 films during that year, out of which we had four international co-productions running parallel.

MAGNAY: There's no better time to showcase Germany's ability to make movies than at the Berlinale, which finished just last week. There were around 100 German films on show at the festival. Half the films in the competition lineup, German productions or co-productions. But national cinema-going dropped 13 percent in 2010, German movies taking a considerable hit.

DIETER KOSSLICK, HEAD OF BERLINALE: The Berlinale itself as a festival proves that there is a future, because we have an average of 300,000 people buying tickets and going 500,000 times in a film in ten days. I think this is hope for our industry.

MAGNAY: German cinema suffered another blow this year with the death of Bernd Eichinger, legendary producer of films like "Downfall" and "The Name of the Rose." The moment, then, for the next generation of German filmmakers to fill the void he leaves behind. Diana Magnay, CNN, Berlin.


ANDERSON: Well, tomorrow on i-List Germany, it's one arena where the country isn't necessarily taking the lead. Gender equality gaps in German businesses are some of the starkest in Europe. We're going to explain why and tell you how they are working on the issue.

And for more on the series, including a Berlin time lapse video, head to our Facebook page at

Coming up, it's T minus two and a half minutes. A watershed moment for the US space program as one of its most famous Shuttles prepares for a final sendoff. Will it go? Stay with us.

NASA LAUNCH ANNOUNCER: Forty seconds remaining in our launch window.


ANDERSON: Well, I've been listening in to what's going on at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida for you. You're looking at live pictures. I've just heard them say "T minus five minutes and counting." So, we're into what we hope will be the last mission for Space Shuttle "Discovery."

It'll be the 39th flight for the fabled ship. The six-member crew planning to deliver a storage module, a science rig, and spare parts to the International Space Station during its 11-day mission.

I'm joined live by Rice Space Institute director Patricia Reif, who can tell us more about the mission. When I say it's planning to deliver these things, it makes it sound all so normal. But it's not, is it? I mean, this is -- this quite something. How does it feel to be witnessing the end of an era?

PATRICIAL REIF, DIRECTOR, RICE SPACE INSTITUTE: Well, it is kind of scary, because it's been almost 30 years, now, since the very first Space Shuttle mission. And it's going -- it's kind of a bittersweet time to see "Discovery" going to be retired after this shot.

ANDERSON: We've just heard them say sort of "T minus four minutes" or so. It's supposed to go off at 50 minutes past the hour, so they appear to have some technical issues. At this point, do you expect it to go?

REIF: We don't know. There was an eastern range problem, so they're making sure there's nobody -- nobody's in the way and making sure that all the range -- downrange indicators are good.

ANDERSON: OK, we're looking at the clock, there. Two minutes, 52 -- 51 seconds to go. When you say they're making sure nothing's in the way, what do you mean by that?


REIF: Well, there's several things that can be a problem with range. One is, there might be a sailboat that's down -- downrange in a place where it might have to abort to. So, they have to make sure there's no aircraft, there's no sailboats, in the path of the launch.

ANDERSON: We were saying this is the 39th flight for what is a fabled ship. It's going to the International Space Station. What is going on there at the moment?

REIF: Well, of course, there's always a permanent crew at the space station, but what's really exciting about this mission, it's going to bring its first robot to space. The Robonaut 2 is going to be coming as part of the Leonardo permanent multipurpose module. And that is going to be very exciting to have a -- now, a robot in space for the first time to join the human crew.

ANDERSON: All right, we're within two minutes. If it goes off, what will the astronauts onboard be thinking at this point?


REIF: Well, of course, the g-forces are going to be pretty tough, here, for the first few minutes. It's a little shake and rock and roll quite a bit. Then, it will hit a point of maximum g-force. It will release its solid rocket boosters, and from then on, it should be smooth sailing.

ANDERSON: I was talking to John Zarrella just earlier on, and you can see the people there on the coast, T minus one and a half minutes and counting at this point. There are thousands and thousands of people still interested in these sort of missions. What's the appeal, do you think?

REIF: Well, of course, seeing the Earth from space is just absolutely spectacular. It was predicted that the first time we went into space we would look back on Earth and realize what a fragile, small place it is, and there's no greater rush than seeing our home planet form outer space.

ANDERSON: All right, let's listen in, because I think we're close.

NASA LAUNCH ANNOUCNER: Three onboard fuel cells. Coming up on a go for auto sequence start at T minus 31 seconds.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: CMS is go for auto sequence start.

NASA LAUNCH ANNOUNCER: And we have a go for auto sequence start. "Discovery's" onboard computers have primary control of all the vehicle's critical functions.


NASA LAUNCH ANNOUNCER: Twenty seconds. The sound suppression water system --


NASA LAUNCH ANNOUNCER: Has been activated, protecting "Discovery" and the launchpad from acoustical energy waves.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: CMS is go for main engine start.

NASA LAUNCH ANNOUNCER: Go for main engine start.


NASA LAUNCH ANNOUNCER: We have main engine start.


NASA LAUNCH ANNOUNCER: Two, one -- booster ignition, and the final liftoff of "Discover," a tribute to the dedication, hard work, and pride of America's Space Shuttle team. The Shuttle has cleared the tower.

NASA MISSION CONTROL: This is Mission Control, Houston. The Space Shuttle now rolling over onto its back. They are going to ride into orbit. "Discovery" now making one last reach for the stars.


NASA MISSION CONTROL: "Discovery's" engines are now throttling down as the orbiter passes through the area of maximum pressure, reducing the stress on the Shuttle as it goes supersonic.


ANDERSON: And these are remarkable pictures watch --


CAPCOM: "Discovery," Houston. You are go at throttle up.


ANDERSON: What is the final flight for the fabled ship, Space Shuttle "Discovery" taking off on its last mission. The six-member crew planning to deliver a storage module, a science rig, and spare parts to the International Space Station during its 11-day mission. And I've got an expert with us, Patricia Reif.

How long is it going to take them to get there?

REIF: It -- getting to orbit's not that -- it takes pretty quick, but then they have to get into the exact alignment with the Space Station orbit. That's why the time of launch is so critical, so they can get on the same plane with the Space Station, and then, they have to catch up with it and do maneuvers. So, it'll be a while before they actually connect to the Space Station.

ANDERSON: I want our viewers to get another minute or so as they watch -- I mean, these are always remarkable to see, aren't they? And the pictures just get better and better as the years continue.

So, how will those astronauts be feeling now?

REIF: They're still getting pretty heavy g-forces. You notice that we're losing the solid rocket boosters. That's a very good sign. Those are basically like roman candles. When you light them, they're on until you let them go. So now, they're under control of their main engines, which is a lot safer.

NASA MISSION CONTROL: 2,189 miles an hour.

ANDERSON: Remarkable stuff.

NASA MISSION CONTROL: Just up to 237 miles, down reach of the Kennedy Space Center, 53 miles. "Discovery" now getting --

REIF: And now you can really see the curvature of the Earth from space, even up -- only up 3 miles, where they are now.

NASA MISSION CONTROL: Two minutes and 32 seconds.

CAPCOM: "Discovery," you are two engine TAL. We do have updates --

ANDERSON: Patricia, it's been an absolute pleasure as we watch "Discovery" make its final frontiers voyage, as it were. We're going to leave those pictures here on CNN International. A successful last takeoff for Space Shuttle "Discovery." Patricia, we thank you very much, indeed.

Before we take a short break and we get your news headlines, CNN's former Jerusalem correspondent, Jerrold Kessel, has died after a long battle with cancer. I had the absolute pleasure of working with him. He was a passionate journalist and a guiding force for many that he worked with. Jonathan Mann, then, paying tribute to a colleague and a friend.



JONATHAN MANN, CNN INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): He was a tireless reporter in a troubled part of the world.

KESSEL: Even now, it's after 4:00 AM here in the early morning --

ANDERSON COOPER, CNN ANCHOR: We're joined, now, by CNN's Jerrold Kessel, in Jerusalem. Jerrold?

KESSEL: Israelis are following --

MANN (voice-over): Jerrold Kessel was a South African who moved to Israel as a young man. He worked as a newspaper and radio journalist, and then, with CNN as a field producer, correspondent, and deputy bureau chief.

Intensely committed to covering a seven-day-a-week story that never stopped, he was a reporter who didn't stop, always pushing and probing and ready to impart his encyclopedic knowledge to viewers and colleagues alike. In moments of upheaval --

KESSEL: What we have confirmed and what is absolutely true, now, is that two Israeli soldiers have been killed --

WOLF BLITZER, CNN ANCHOR: CNN's Jerrold Kessel is on the scene, he's joining us now, live from Jerusalem.

KESSEL: Grim scenes, as you see behind me.

MANN (voice-over): And optimism.

KESSEL: There will be plenty of partying -- private partying -- to celebrate the millennium.

MANN (voice-over): In a country of near constant conflict and conflicting opinions, he aimed to tell the story straight.

KESSEL: The reemergence of Jerusalem as a focal point in the peace talks is proving to be a minefield in itself.

MANN (voice-over): He could tell other stories, too.

KESSEL: With South Africa's departure, of the five African nations, only Nigeria remains in the Cup.

MANN (voice-over): Even faithful viewers would be surprised by his hidden passions. A lifelong love of sports, his firm belief in vegetarian diet, his devotion to his family.

KESSEL: Jerrold Kessel, CNN, Jerusalem.

MANN (voice-over): Correspondent Jerrold Kessel, dead of cancer, at age 65.


ANDERSON: I'm Becky Anderson here at CNN in London. Thank you for watching. The world headlines and "BackStory" will follow this very short break. Don't go away.