Return to Transcripts main page


Greek Crisis Deal Reached; Africa's Drought; Andy Schleck Pulls Within 15 Seconds of Lead in Tour de France; Tiger Woods' Former Caddie Speaks Out; Paraguay Makes Copa America Final Without Winning Any Games; Flawless Landing Ends Space Shuttle Program; As Shuttle Exits, Deep Space Calls; Commercial Space Exploration; 30 Years of Shuttle in Pictures; Greek Crisis Deal Reached. Green Pioneer Sows Seeds of Change; Parting Shots of Beatles' First U.S. Concerts

Aired July 21, 2011 - 16:00:00   ET


HALA GORANI, CNN INTERNATIONAL HOST: Finally a deal -- European leaders reach an agreement to rescue debt-stricken Greece. The European Commission president may be breathing a sigh of relief, but is the deal enough to stop contagion fear spreading across Europe?

Plus, also on the program this evening, desperate for food and water - - as Somalia faces a famine that's left 10 million people in dire need, the country's president makes an urgent appeal.

And welcoming home Atlantis for the very last time -- we explore what a new era in space discovery might bring.

Those stories and more tonight on CONNECT THE WORLD.

Hello, everyone.

A special edition of CONNECT THE WORLD coming to you this evening from Atlanta in the CNN Center.

And we start with that plan for Greece and a sigh of relief -- relief that we heard across European markets. Leaders in Europe have come to a final agreement, which may trigger an event once considered unthinkable -- the first selective default on Eurozone bonds since the creation of the single currency.

But at the same meeting, there were promises for the future for Greece and for other vulnerable economies, as well, that is the big fear -- contagion. So despite the prediction of partial default, global bond markets heaved a sigh of relief in response to the news. A unique solution, indeed.

Our own Richard Quest is standing by in London to explain the significance of today's agreement.

But first, CNN's Jim Boulden has been in Brussels all day as leaders hashed out the detail.

And he joins us now live.

So what does the deal tell us -- Jim Boulden -- about what European leaders think should happen in Greece?

Is this a partial default that is going to happen with Greek bonds and Greek debt?

JIM BOULDEN, CNN INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: Well, I think a number of people will say that you could count this as a partial default, because Greece will get more time to pay back its bills at a lower interest rate. It will get more money, another 109 billion euros. And it will have anywhere between 15 to 30 years to pay any new monies back, with another 10 year grace period. That's a very long time for Greece to pay it back.

So we'll have to see what the rating agencies say about this. But I think what's so interesting -- and he just heard Jean-Claude Trichet, as well, speaking about this -- they are going to lessen the impact that private rating agencies can have within this whole mechanism. And I think that was very interesting, because basically they're saying, well, if we get one or two China's into default, you're not going to count it necessarily as a default and the European Central Bank will continue to take Greek debt as collateral.

You heard so many technical details here. But the other thing was so they think they've helped Greece greatly. And, secondly, they've done a lot, they say, to help stabilize the Europe so it doesn't have a contagion. They've put muscle into what's called the EFSF, this lending facility, to give it more flexibility, to do more in case there's a contagion problem and allow us to go out and possibly buy secondary bonds, allow us to do other things that could help countries. And we're all thinking in our minds Spain and Italy, if they were to get in trouble in the market, then they hope here in Brussels that they've given -- that their mechanisms they've created during the crisis more power.

GORANI: And what they want to do is expand the power of the bailout fund, almost like a mini European monetary fund, to avoid contagion.

So what would the mechanics of that actual be then, Jim?

BOULDEN: Well, OK. So they put all this money into the EFSF. They've given it -- they've given it the ability to go out into the markets to buy bonds. They've given it the ability to lend money to governments who they could then go out and buy bonds.

They wanted to give this more power and more decision-making, more flexibility than just be a big bailout fund that countries would have to come to it after they've gotten themselves into deep trouble.

I think one of the things you're also hearing about is that governments will be able to come to -- they will be able to step in and do more quicker in these circumstances, as well.

I know we have some sound bites here. And I wanted to hear from President Sarkozy, Hala, because he stepped onto the podium first. He beat everybody else to the podium, as he often does. And he announced some of this. And I wanted to hear what he had to say.


NICOLAS SARKOZY, FRENCH PRESIDENT (through translator): I want you to understand and fully gauge the importance of this decision. It is a weighty, mighty decision because in (INAUDIBLE) what is at stake here is (INAUDIBLE). But we are saying very clearly that Greece is specifically and that what we are doing for Greece, we will do for no one else, no other country.


BOULDEN: Specifically, exceptional and unique -- those are three words you heard from the press conference from everybody tonight. They don't want to make it sound like just because Greece is getting a little extra special attention and favor here that that is automatically going to go to Ireland and automatically go to Portugal. Just because the public -- the private sector banks have given a break to Greece and lost some of the money or lost some of the credibility, possibly, in all of this, it doesn't mean that tomorrow Ireland and Portugal can do the same thing. They want to make sure that those countries know that they have to stick by their sovereign promises -- Hala.

GORANI: And that's interesting, Jim, because some of the investor confidence today came from the idea that perhaps Eurozone leaders would come to the rescue of other countries if they face similar problems.

Thanks very much, Jim Boulden.

He's live in Brussels.

Let's go to Richard Quest.

He is live in London with more on this deal -- all right, Richard, what do you make of this?

Is there going to be enough to reassure markets?

We saw initial reaction was very positive today, Richard.

RICHARD QUEST, HOST, "QUEST MEANS BUSINESS": Yes. I think it will initially reassure markets. It's a huge amount of money that's going to Greece. They have taken the pressure off Greece with the lower interest rates, the longer maturities. And they will also get the same -- the benefits of that will go to Ireland and Portugal.

However, however, Hala, where they're going to find problems is if Portugal, Ireland and Italy, or anybody else, starts suffering further difficulties, if the debt burden for Ireland becomes too great -- and there are some in the markets who are saying that's already happening -- they -- this whole question of this unique solution for Greece, the fact that every other country has said we will be inflexible about keeping to our commitments, I'm afraid, Hala, I don't think that's going to work. Ultimately, each country, Ireland and Portugal, may find themselves back at the European door, seeking some adjustment and seeking, crucially, that same benefit on private sector involvement.

The other big thing, just -- I know it's highly technical and we really are in the depths and the quagmire of -- of Euroland here, but let's wait for tomorrow and let's see. I'm guessing that at least two of the main rating agencies will declare Greece to be in selective default. The ECB will continue to take the bonds because they will be guaranteed. And we'll have to wait and see how that translates to those other countries.

But it's a momentous decision tonight and certainly there's a lot of long form -- long-term reforms in this communique, as well.

GORANI: All right, this is just as much to shore up confidence in the Eurozone, shore up confidence in the euro, as it is technically to economically help Greece. And --

QUEST: Ah --

GORANI: -- and the question is -- the question, Richard, is, as far as this single currency is concerned, it is up. It is strong versus the dollar.

What does its future look like, if this kind of problem pops up in the Eurozone on a regular basis?

QUEST: Glad you asked that.

First of all, on a little side bar. They don't really care about Greece, frankly. It's a small country with not a huge amount of importance.

No, this is all about protecting the Eurozone, protecting the euro. And if you go to number 12 and number 13 on this communique: "We commit to introduce legally binding national fiscal framework -- a very long-winded way of saying, guess what, guys, the rules are about to change. Over the next year or two, you are going to see fiscal consolidation. You're going to see monetary union, fiscal union.

The Europeans are doing -- going to do, over the next year or two, exactly what they should have done when they set the whole thing up. You're going to see national governments being bound by certain limits. European level being able to implement and to actually enforce certain limits. And they're going to make sure that no country can go rogue again using the euro as collateral.

GORANI: Richard Quest, thanks very much.

Richard Quest in London.

The European Commission president said just moments ago in Brussels that the private sector is also on board.




Firstly, we've not just substantially improved the system, the ability of Greek public finances. The lowering of interest rates and the extension of maturities are an essential element in this respect. This is true both for public support and private sector involvement.

This, of course, requires full implementation of the Greek macroeconomic adjustment program. It is, of course, a two way street. Prime Minister Papandreou gave, in very clear terms, his assurances in this respect.

Second, the feasibility and limits of private sector involvement. We now are clear about what we mean by psi and to whom it applies. It is a voluntary approach by the private sector and it is, therefore, a solution for the markets, not against them.

Importantly, we are crystal clear that psi (ph) is for Greece and Greece alone. It is an exceptional solution which we exclude for others. It's a unique solution.


GORANI: President Jose Manuel Barroso there.

Coming up on CONNECT THE WORLD, a country in crisis -- Somalia's president makes a plea for help, as his nation confronts famine.

But will aid get to those who need it?

That's in a few minutes.

Also, deal or no deal -- the clock ticks down on the U.S. debt crisis. The latest on the negotiations in about fifteen minutes.

And Tiger's caddy lashes out -- we'll tell you what he's saying about his former boss a little bit later in the program.

Do stay with us.

You're with CNN.


GORANI: Decades of poverty and violence and now the worst drought in more than half a century. This is Somalia. Parts of it are crippled by a famine, which is putting millions of people directly in crisis. Its president, speaking to CNN, has issued an urgent plea to the international community for help.

As thousands flee toward refugee camps across the border, many more are heading to the capital, Mogadishu. A city, as Jane Ferguson explains, that's already on the brink of disaster.


JANE FERGUSON, CNN INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): A new horror has reached the streets of Mogadishu -- hunger. These people fled the civil war here in Somalia's capital city. Now they're back, desperate for food and water.

Kuma Esak's (ph) husband died of starvation. She says she traveled 400 kilometers to get here, in a desperate bid to keep her children alive. "My car was blocked by a panicked group of women trying to get some food."

"Please help us!" this woman shouts, "I am sick."

But there is little help for the thousands who come here. The weak transitional federal government controls only part of the capital and has been fighting the al Qaeda-linked group, Al Shabab, for years.

Al Shabab controls most of Central and Southern Somalia and in the past, banned foreign aid agencies from working here. But with the country in the grip of a drought, they recently lifted the ban. Still, aid groups are wary of the risks of working in this dangerous country, leaving these people trapped -- too weak and poor to make it to the U.N. camps in neighboring Kenya.

So they've come here to the capital in search of help.

(on camera): Tens of thousands of Somalis have arrived in Mogadishu just in the last few days. But despite that, this remains on of the hardest places in the world to get food aid to.

(voice-over): This is a very dangerous country. As a foreign reporter, I could only be on the streets for a few moments at a time before driving away, as the threat of kidnapping is very real.

The Saudi-based Organization of Islamic Cooperation, the OIC, hopes to persuade more aid agencies to come in under their umbrella. Al Shabab is more willing to allow Islamic charities to distribute aid in their areas. A delegation from the OIC visited Mogadishu on Wednesday to bring food and discuss bridging the aid gap.

The U.N. says this war-torn country needs an extra $300 million in the next two months and the president made this plea.

SHEIKH SHARIF-SHEIKH AHMED, SOMALI PRESIDENT: The situation is very severe and the conditions are very harsh. We are requesting that the international community assist the Somalis, those within Somalia and the borders. We urgently request this help.

FERGUSON: But for many Somalis, aid may come too late, especially for starving children. Amina (ph) is six months old and suffering from severe malnutrition. Next to her is Bakha (ph), a 2 -year-old boy too weak to stand. And the cue grows longer every day, as the desperate come to the capital in search of help.


GORANI: And Jane Ferguson is the first Western broadcaster to enter Somalia in some time.

She just returned.

She's with us now live from CNN Abu Dhabi -- Jane, thanks for being with us.

Once they get to -- to Mogadishu, all these people desperate, hungry, sick, thirsty, what happens to them longer-term?

FERGUSON: Well, what I saw in Mogadishu was that people come within the boundaries of the city and then they reach these camps, the camp that we saw on that story.

The camps, however, aren't necessarily formal arrangements. They're not run by large NGOs. They -- they tend to be ramshackle camps where people just try to make their own tents. And whenever food aid does come, then, as you saw, people run to get it.

But in terms of long-term planning, there isn't much beyond that right now. So people are literally just there to survive.

GORANI: And what stories do they tell about the parts of Somalia they have to flee, controlled by the Al Shabab group?

What -- how much of it is fleeing conflict, violence?

How much of it is the drought itself?

FERGUSON: Well, the Somalis that I spoke to were very adamant that it was the drought. Sadly, speaking to them, it became apparent that what we saw in Mogadishu was really the tip of the iceberg -- very difficult for journalists and researchers to get out into Central and Southern Somalia.

But the tales of people coming in, saying how family members had died. But very rarely you'd come across someone who hadn't come across a dead person on the road.

So, sadly, they're -- what -- what they're fleeing from is -- is not only the drought, but the -- the effect of that drought, which is the high death rates, which can't be counted right now. But the stories coming -- coming through with the refugees are that they're fleeing mass death.

GORANI: All right. And speaking for a second here about the aid and how some Western countries are sending aid to camps in Kenya, Dadaab Camp in Kenya, for instance, but Somalia itself, it's access to aid that's almost the biggest problem, isn't it?

FERGUSON: Absolutely, Hala. It's incredibly complex and difficult. You're effectively trying to bring aid into a war zone, a war zone which has al Qaeda-linked groups and a U.N.-backed but weak small government and clinging to a part of a city. So when you have foreign aid agencies, a TSC (ph) government that's pitted against the al Qaeda Islamists, it becomes extremely difficult not just from a practical perspective of how to disperse the aid, but who to disperse it to and where.

GORANI: And who benefits, as well, because there are issues with Shabab of benefiting financially from the distribution of aid. So, in other words, you have these charitable organizations who end up having to fund a terrorist organization in order to help the vulnerable.

FERGUSON: There have been reports of that in the past. Obviously, for some time now, Somalia has been a large receiver of aid. It's been a food insecure area. And there have been reports of Al Shabab selling food to locals and obviously profiting from that themselves.

So that's the big challenge for the aid agencies coming in.

Some of them have -- have spoken out in recent (ph) days, saying they will only come in with food so long as don't tax it, so to speak, in terms of profiting from that.

And let's not forget that Al Shabab themselves, this military and their families and their communities, they are hungry, too. So it's going to be a challenge for aid agencies to -- if they do get into Al Shabab's territory, to persuade Al Shabab commanders that that aid should be dispersed evenly amongst the population -- Hala.

GORANI: Jane Ferguson, thanks very much, live in Abu Dhabi, just back from Somalia.

Well, let's take a look at where this is all happening. Somalia is at the center of a drought affecting more than 10 million people in the Horn of Africa. The U.N. has declared a famine in two areas of Somalia, the southern Bakul (ph) and lower Shabelle (ph) regions. Almost four million people there are in dire need of food, shelter and other aid.

But getting help to the people in this region poses its own set of challenges, as we discussed with Jane.

According to the U.N., there is limited access to the area highlighted in red, due, in large part, to the presence of Shabab militants. The Islamic extremist group has ties to al Qaeda and controls much of southern and parts of Central Somalia, including portions of the capital, Mogadishu.

The U.S. warns that aid workers trying to reach the area may be putting themselves at grave risk. We're going to hear more now on how humanitarian organizations are dealing with Al Shabab, how they're managing to distribute aid or not, as the case may be.

Paul Weisenfeld is head of the Bureau for Food Security with USAID.

He's with us from Washington.

So, talk to us a little bit about the challenges of getting aid to those who need it in Somalia, specifically in Southern Somalia.


Yes, Somalia does present a particularly difficult challenge to respond to the humanitarian needs of the population there. The drought, I should say, and the consequences that we're seeing, are not just in Somalia. There are populations affected in Ethiopia and Kenya, as well.

But we're particularly interested about responding to Somalia. We're seeing thousands of people crossing the border a day, going to camps in Ethiopia and Kenya and arriving in situations of malnourishment, conditions of malnourishment that are really just horrendous, with malnourishment rates exceeding 50 percent for children under five.

It's heartening that Al Shabab has indicated that -- that humanitarian organizations can enter and provide relief there. And President Obama has -- has provided instructions that we're prepared to aggressively test that, because the --

GORANI: How will --

WEISENFELD: -- the generosity of the --

GORANI: I'm sorry to -- to jump in.


GORANI: How will the United States test that, that pledge by Shabab?

WEISENFELD: I mean it's got to be part of a global response. The U.S. is a leader in this. We've provided about $459 million of relief commodities to date for the region, for the whole Horn of Africa, for Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia. And -- but there's not enough. The needs are great and we need to work together with other donors, with the Europeans, with international agencies, particularly the United Nations agencies, the World Food Programme.

And we work through those agencies.


WEISENFELD: We work through the World Food Programme.

GORANI: What is the time line?

This is an emergency.

WEISENFELD: It is an emergency. And -- and it really is heartbreaking to see the images that you've shown. The malnourishment that you see for children, we know that there's a permanent stunting effect on their intellectual and physical development. So we're moving aggressively.

The World Food Programme is -- is getting people in as we speak, this week, to try and get commodities in. And there are really three conditions that are important to us.

The first is, as -- as your reporter said, is it's important that this is not taxed, because we want to make sure that the -- the most food assistance, and not just food. It's other relief -- medical relief for malnourishment -- we want to make sure that the most assistance gets in.

The second condition really is that we have to have flexibility to target the assistance to those who are most vulnerable. We can't really stomach any conditions of favoritism.

And the third, given the conditions of instability there, is the safety and security of our humanitarian workers --


WEISENFELD: -- has to be protected.

GORANI: But I mean when you set all these conditions -- and it's understandable that you would -- doesn't it make it -- this whole process of getting aid to those who need it now, very difficult?

Won't it take more time than it should in order to get to those people who need food and water immediately?

WEISENFELD: Well, it is a challenging situation. We are moving aggressively, working with international aid agencies, the World Food Programme, to get in this week.

The -- the situation is dire and we have to move forward --


WEISENFELD: -- as aggressively as we can and see what happens. It's hard to speculate about -- about what will happen tomorrow if there are blockades. But -- but we need to move because the images are just -- the generosity of the American people is such that -- that there's really -- they're demanding that we take action.

GORANI: Will there be American aid workers in Somalia this week?

WEISENFELD: We -- we're working through other international organizations.

GORANI: Um-hmm. But so through other organizations, but will they be American government workers helping out or will it just be funding by the US --

WEISENFELD: I think --

GORANI: -- of global organizations that will then do the work in Somalia?

WEISENFELD: At this point, we're talking about funding of the U.S. to global organizations.

GORANI: Paul Weisenfeld, thanks very much, head of the Bureau for Food Security with U.S. AID, joining us from Washington.

Thank you.

WEISENFELD: Thank you very much.

GORANI: This is a story we're going to be following closely here on CNN. You can hear more about it next on "BACK STORY" with John Vause -- what's coming up, John?

JOHN VAUSE, HOST, "BACK STORY": OK, we want to look at the situation with Al Shabab, because this seems to be what is turning, essentially, a disaster into a catastrophe, a drought into a famine. And the problem that aid workers are have just simply getting in there. Even though there is a deal in place between Al Shabab and the U.N. and other aid agencies, because two years ago, and we know, they kicked all of the aid workers out --

GORANI: Right.

VAUSE: And they said, you know, you can't come back in because we think you're crusaders, we think you're spies for Western governments.

So now they're saying to get food aid into the country, but it's still really untested. They don't know how this deal is going to work out. They don't know if they're going to get aid workers to go in, because it's still one of the most dangerous countries on Earth for aid workers.

So, again, we're going to talk to Jane Ferguson, who spent some time there.


VAUSE: And she spent a lot of time reporting on Al Shabab, as well. And what is interesting, we know there is a crisis in this region. If you look at the map, Ethiopia, maybe Eritrea, Djibouti, Kenya --


VAUSE: -- they're all suffering from drought. But the only country where they're suffering from famine is in Somalia. And it's those two areas down south --


VAUSE: -- that have been hit by -- by famine. And that's the areas which are being controlled --

GORANI: And it affects the --

VAUSE: -- by Al Shabab.

GORANI: -- it affects the whole country --


GORANI: -- because those regions in Southern Somalia are food producing regions traditionally.


GORANI: So it's really the whole country that ends up being affected.

VAUSE: They call them heaven (ph) --

GORANI: Right.

VAUSE: -- because they are the fertile plains and -- and they do feed troth country. And there is still this ongoing conflict. And there are so many people now streaming into Mogadishu, which is itself another safe place, which just shows how bad it is in the south -- the southern part of the country.

GORANI: Well, you can talk politics, you can talk conflict, in the end, you see these 2 -year-old kids who are --

VAUSE: It's awful.

GORANI: -- two weak to walk. So there you go.

We look forward to the program.


GORANI: John Vause on "BACK STORY" today.

VAUSE: Thank you.

GORANI: Now, don't forget, we've also got some excellent coverage about Somalia online. We love this one from Joy Portello (ph), who works with humanitarian organization, Mercy Corps. She tells us the incredibly moving story of 10 -year-old India (ph), whose family had walked nonstop for 17 days. Joy says: "I can't help looking at India's stick thin figure and wonder how long can she possibly keep going."

You can find out more on And also, you can help. There is plenty of information on our Impact Your World site at You'll find the details there, as -- as to how you can make a difference.


I'm Hala Gorani.

An epic day on the mountain in five minutes -- see who pulled ahead and who cracked in the latest stage of Tour de France.

Then, in 10 minutes, NASA safely wraps up the shuttle program. But that's not exactly the end of the story.

Plus, seeds of change -- we'll meet someone who's got his eyes on the prize -- a sustainable future. That's in 20 minutes.


GORANI: You're back with CONNECT THE WORLD on CNN, the world's news leader. Let's get a check of the headlines this hour.

European leaders agreed today on a second bailout for Greece worth more than $150 billion. The plan includes lowering interest rates and extending maturities on Greek bonds. Plus, new powers for the bailout fund to help other vulnerable economies.

And the final landing. The Shuttle "Atlantis" glided home to Earth on Thursday, capping a 30-year program that launched hundreds of astronauts into space. NASA still has big plans for deep space exploration with test flights planned in about five years.

"The conditions are very harsh." Words from the president of Somalia as he issues an urgent appeal for famine aid. Half of Somalia's population is in dire need, and the country is also stricken by drought.

The investigation into illegal activity by British journalists appears to be expanding beyond the "News of the World" tabloid. We understand police are looking at a private investigator who sold information to 31 publications. This time, the focus is on "blagging," that is, illegally obtaining information by impersonating someone.

Lawmakers in the US are still trying to hammer out a deal to raise the debt ceiling as the deadline for default inches closer. The White House denied a report today that US president Barack Obama is close to a deal with the Republican House speaker John Boehner. If both sides don't agree by August 2nd, the US could risk -- could risk -- a catastrophic default.

To sports now, and three-time Tour de France champion Alberto Contador concedes that his fourth try for the coveted yellow jersey is over. Contador cracked during today's epic 18th stage in the Alps. Rival Thomas Voeckler of France battled hard enough to be the race's overall leader for another day.

Friday's showdown is the big climb up the Alpe d'Huez. For more on that and other major sports talking points, we go now to Don Riddell in London.

You know what? I have trouble driving up the Alpe d'Huez.



GORANI: So, those guys are absolutely amazing.

RIDDELL: Yes, amazing just for doing it once, never mind day after day after day for a whole month. It is just incredible, isn't it?

However, I can't remember in recent memory a Tour de France shaping up to be as exciting as this. We've got the last big climb tomorrow, a time trial on Saturday, the run into Paris on Sunday.

And there are three men very much in contention to win the Tour de France, and that's not to mention Thomas Voeckler, who's the man wearing the yellow jersey at the moment.

What we saw today from Andy Schleck was just incredible. We potentially witnessed a tour-winning climb from him today. It was a brave move, a bold move, to make a breakaway from the pack, but he finished more than two minutes clear of everybody else, and he's put him self right into contention.

Voeckler there, as you can see, wearing the yellow jersey, he is still in front, but his lead has been cut down to just 15 seconds. So, Andy Schleck is right on his heels.

Could be a great story if Schleck wins this because he has been living in Alberto Contador's shadow in recent years. He's finished runner-up to Contador twice.

If Schleck's going to win it, though, he's got to get past Voeckler. He's then got to worry about his own brother, Frank, who's just about a minute behind him. And then, of course, we've got Australia's Cadel Evans. No Australian has yet won the Tour de France, but Evans is just one minute and 12 seconds off the pace.

So, you've really got four guys that could still win it, and I think we're going to see a really exciting last few days.

In other news, Hala, Tiger Woods' longtime caddie says that he lost respect for the golfer when the details of his infidelities came to light. Steve Williams has been speaking publicly after he was fired by Tiger on Wednesday, ending one of the most successful partnerships in the sport.

During their 12 years together, Woods and Williams won 13 major titles and 50 other tournaments on the PGA tour, but things haven't been the same since Tiger was publicly shamed by a scandal that cost him his marriage.

He hasn't won anywhere since the end of 2009, but Williams stuck with him. Now, he's been fired, and the caddie clearly thinks he should have been treated better.


STEVE WILLIAMS, TIGER WOODS' FORMER CADDIE: I'm extremely disappointed, given the fact that the last 18 months has been a particularly difficult time period for Tiger, obviously, working through a scandal, he's got a new coach, a swing change.

And yes, the last 18 months has been very difficult, and I've stuck by him through thick and thin. I've been incredibly loyal, and then -- and then to have this happen. Basically, you could say I've wasted two years of my life.


RIDDELL: To South America, now, and a unique achievement in the Copa America. It's not necessarily one to be proud of, but Paraguay will now play in the final of Sunday -- the final of the Copa America on Sunday, but they haven't won a game yet.

It's the first time in the history of the continental tournament that a team has drawn five games. And they were lucky, because their opponents, Venezuela, were desperately unlucky in Wednesday's semifinal.

La Vinotinto hit the woodwork three times in Mendoza. Alejandro Moreno's header came off the crossbar in the first half. Justo Villar then pulled of a great save. It was in regulation.

In extra time, more chances for Venezuela. First it was Miku who was denied by the post. And then later, from a free kick, Juan Arango hit the upright before a shell-shocked defense cleared its lines.

Venezuela have been the Cinderella story of the tournament, but they weren't going to the ball. Their hearts were broken in the penalty shootout. Villar, who's been phenomenal in the competition tonight, Franklin Luceno, bad pen, easy save, and that set up Dario Veron for the decisive penalty, and he made no mistake.

The defender beat Renny Vega to put Paraguay into their first final since 1979. They'll play Uruguay for the title in Buenos Aires on Sunday, Hala.

GORANI: OK, Don Riddell in London. Thanks very much.

A flawless pre-dawn landing closes out the Space Shuttle era. Ahead, we'll have more on "Atlantis's" return to Earth and what the future may hold for space travel.


GORANI: Many dreamers felt lumps in their throats as they watched this.



ROB NAVIAS, STS-135 DESCENT COMMENTATOR: Main gear touchdown. Hurley now deploying the drag chute.


GORANI: Thursday's picture-perfect landing of "Atlantis," the last ever US Space Shuttle.

Welcome back, everyone. You're watching CONNECT THE WORLD. Phrases like, "It was an honor," "the end of an era," "an emotional farewell" are very much in the air today, as cliched as they are, especially for the thousands of people at NASA who made the Space Shuttle live for the past three decades.

For them, today's flawless landing was a moment of poignant dignity. They won't get to do this again. Ed Lavandera had a special view from NASA's Mission Control in Houston.


ED LAVANDERA, CNN CORRESPONDENT: For the thousands of NASA employees who work here at Johnson Space Center in Houston, this final Space Shuttle landing has been an emotional adventure.

Hundreds of people turned out this morning for a viewing party on the grounds here of the NASA campus. Inside, Mission Control, in this building behind me, family and friends of the flight directors turned out to watch their loved ones work for the final time.

And it wasn't until about 45 minutes after the Space Shuttle "Atlantis" landed that the flight director, Tony Ceccacci, spoke to his team in an emotional way.

TONY CECCACCI, ENTRY FLIGHT LEADER, NASA: Today is also a moment in the history books. Those books will talk about the amazing work of the flight control teams over the past 30 years. The work done in this room, in this building, will never again be duplicated.

I believe that the accomplishments of the Shuttle Program will become the next set of shoulder of giants for the future programs to stand on. Hold your heads up high with pride as we close out the Space Shuttle Program. You have earned it.

To all, like I always say, savor the moment, soak it in, and know you are the best. The best in the world. Your work here has made America and the world a better place.

LAVANDERA (voice-over): After Tony Ceccacci spoke to his flight team, it was a fascinating scene that unfolded inside Mission Control. More than a hundred NASA employees filled up Mission Control.

Hugs, people shaking hands, there was a cake brought in in the shape of the Space Shuttle "Atlantis." There were flowers and cigars, even, brought in, a box of cigars brought in and passed around between many of the workers.

Clearly, this is the emotional moment that has finally sunk in for these folks who have spent so many years dedicated to the Space Shuttle missions.

LAVANDERA (on camera): And watching the Space Shuttle "Atlantis" crew un -- deboard and come off that final Shuttle mission, it really sank in here, this final moment -- in these final moments for the thousands of employees who have worked for the Space Shuttle Program for the last 30 years.

Ed Lavandera, CNN, at the Johnson Space Center in Houston.


GORANI: Well, America's long history of human space flight isn't over until it's over. NASA's chief, Charlie Bolden, a former Shuttle astronaut in his own right told CNN, quote, "This isn't the end for the workforce here." He says the Shuttle Program may be flown out, but deep space is calling.

Now, you are looking at an artist's take on NASA's new multipurpose crew vehicle. The space agency wants to take human beings to Mars. But the first test flight is five years away.

NASA's also playing a part in the development of Sierra Nevada's Dream Chaser. It could provide crews with transport to and from low Earth orbit.

And this is the SpaceX Dragon. It's already had a practice run. No people were onboard, though.

And commercial companies could be the ones to pick up the slack when government money for space exploration is in short supply. After all, Richard Branson hopes to fly tourists to outer space within the next 18 months.

So, could this actually be the next great era of discovery, commercial space exploration? CNN's John Zarrella has been covering space for three decades, and he takes a closer look at that angle.


JOHN ZARRELLA, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Elon Musk runs SpaceX. Richard Branson heads Virgin Galactic. Both are using their considerable wealth to back bold attempts to make space travel as routine as boarding an airplane.

RICHARD BRANSON, VIRGIN GALACTIC: People used to say to me, look, it'd be impossible to build your own spaceship and your own spaceship company and be able to take people into space. And that's the kind of challenge that I love to sort of prove them wrong.

ELON MUSK, SPACEX: We want to see a future where we are exploring the stars, where we're going to other planets, where we're doing the great things that we read about in science fiction and in the movies.

ZARRELLA: There are several companies, some big, some small, who see, as NASA moves on to distant planets, that weightless region just above the atmosphere. Just out of reach right now, becoming quite possibly a good investment.

GEORGE MUSSER, "SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN" MAGAZINE: NASA's still in there, it's still going to develop a heavy lift rocket, but we've also got this, hopefully, flowering private space flight. And that's what's going to get us the Hiltons and the Hertz rental cars and whatever in orbit.

ZARRELLA: SpaceX and Virgin Galactic are on the verge of not just opening --


ZARRELLA: -- but stepping through that door to the future.

MUSK: We want to make space accessible to everyone. That's a revolutionary change, but it's incredibly exciting. And it brings space -- the possibility of space travel to all Americans, which is fantastic.

ZARRELLA: Next year, Musk hopes to begin carrying cargo to the International Space Station. Eventually, astronauts. A commercial company replacing the Space Shuttle.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Confirmed, docking is complete.

MUSK: We believe firmly we can send astronauts to the Space Station within three years of receiving a NASA contract to do so.

ZARRELLA: But unless it's safe, NASA's administrator says no US astronaut will be onboard.

CHARLES BOLDEN, ADMINISTRATOR, NASA: I cannot allow them to put us in jeopardy by not focusing on crew safety and the like. That's my job.

ZARRELLA: The stakes are high. There is no turning back.

BRANSON: Please welcome the future of space travel.

ZARRELLA: With Shuttle retired and astronauts left to ride in Russian space ships, NASA is counting on commercial companies to get it right, make it work. And the more who make it work, the more affordable it will become.

BRANSON: That's the end of a particular era. And it's up to individuals like myself, if you're in a position to be able to achieve wonderful things, not to waste that position.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: Finish, down the lock.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Liftoff for the Falcon 9.


GORANI: Well, we've all heard Oscar Wilde's saying, "We're all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars." So, it seems especially appropriate this evening to bring you the images from the press photographers who've been looking up for the past 30 years at this Shuttle Program.


NASA LAUNCH ANNOUNCER: Liftoff of America's first Space Shuttle. And the Shuttle has cleared the tower.

SCOTT ANDREWS, PHOTOGRAPHER, CANON: I do this for history, I think, more than anything.

RED HUBER, PHOTOTAGRAPHER, "ORLANDO SENTINEL": I've tried to show how man and machine coexist on the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge.

PHILIP ANDREWS, PHOTOGRAPHER: It's an incredible amount of work, but I think the payoff's worth it.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: OK, here's a clamp and a ball head.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Just grab that one.


SCOTT ANDREWS: It's 6:00 in the morning, we go out with all our remote gear, and we head out for the filed, placing all our cameras in their appointed positions.


SCOTT ANDERWS: I built this trigger, and the AP adopted it and other people began to adopt it, and it became sort of like an easier way to capture the Shuttle from close up.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: This is my -- this is my remote.

PHILIP ANDREWS: The timer's off by like five minutes.

So little of photography is actually pushing the shutter button. Out here, we don't even press the button, right? We have to invent technology to press the button for us because we can't do it.

NASA LAUNCH ANNOUNCER: Booster ignition, and the final liftoff of "Discovery."

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: This is a mount 2, it's a 7-D with a wireless transmitter.

SCOTT ANDREWS: We're not normally like this at home. We're just excited to be here.

So, normally an hour and a half to two hours after the launch, we'll head out to get our cameras.


SCOTT ANDREWS: Hey, at least it worked.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Oh, yes, after six years of trying to get it.

SCOTT ANDREWS: James Neilsen from the "Houston Chronicle" has wanted to take this picture for years of the Shuttle. It just begins to pop out of that smoke.

UNIDENTIFED MALE: Let's make it work.

SCOTT ANDREWS: We'll play it later.

We've worked here for nearly 30 years with Red Huber, Mike Brown. Red Huber from the "Orlando Sentinel," Mike Brown from "Florida Today." Joe Skipper from Reuters. Phil Sandlin for years with the AP. Anyway, I can go on and on and on.

HUBER: We are trying to be competitive, but we all try to help each other, too.

SCOTT ANDREWS: Here we're working photographing the decisive moment remotely.

HUBER: My main goal is always to bring the reader something different that they can't see on TV. And you've got that frozen moment in time.

SCOTT ANDREWS: But there's a challenge to recording history, and if you can do it a little bit differently so that future generations will benefit from it.


GORANI: All right, up next we'll head off to Lebanon to meet a Green Pioneer of sorts. Stay with us. You're watching CONNECT THE WORLD.


GORANI: We'd like to update you once again on a breaking news story we've been following over the last hour here on CNN. European leaders have come to a final agreement on the crisis in Greece, which may trigger an event that was considered pretty unthinkable not too long ago, and that is the first selective default on euro zone bonds since the launch of the euro currency.

At the same meeting, we heard promises for the future for Greece and for other vulnerable economies, as well. So, despite the prediction of that partial default, that selective default, as it's called, global markets did breathe a sigh of relief in response to the news. They were up on the day.

What exactly did euro zone leaders agree on? Here's a look for you. First, the big number, the new rescue package, this is the second one for Greece, is worth more than $150 billion US. The bailout will be achieved partly by lowering interest rates and extending the life of a loan, of Greek bonds.

The plan also includes significant new powers for the European bailout fund, and the aim of that is to help prevent a repeat of the Greek crisis in other vulnerable economies. That's the big fear, the fear of contagion.

After today's meeting, the European Commission president said support for the package was unanimous.


JOSE MANUEL BARROSO, PRESIDENT, EUROPEAN COMMISSION: Yesterday, I made the statement where I said we had 24 hours to respond to a very serious situation that puts at risk the financial stability in the euro zone.

And I said that the minimum we needed to do was provide clarity on five central issues. Not only this has been achieved, we have no a very credible package.

Firstly, measures to substantially improve the sustainability of Greek public finances. The lowering of interest rates and extension of maturities are an essential element in this respect. This true both for public support and private sector involvement.


GORANI: Jose Manuel Barroso, the president of the European Commission, speaking tonight in Brussels. We, of course, will continue to follow this story as it develops as well as the impact on stock markets and currencies.

All this week, we've been introducing you to our Green Pioneers, people from across the globe who are not afraid to tackle environmental challenges in innovative ways. In Bali, we met businessman John Hardy, who set up a school to teach future generations about the problems of today.

From Indonesia, we traveled to Argentina to see how a family of sheep farmers are going back to nature to save the region's fragile grasslands.

Today, our green adventure takes us to Lebanon, where Rima Maktabi met one man who's trying to make sure that the perils facing our planet, all of our planet, are not overlooked.


RIMA MAKTABI, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Amid the turmoil in the Arab world, Najib Saab keeps his eye on the prize, a future that's sustainable.

Today, he's at a school on a hilltop overlooking Beirut, an almost perfect setting for Saab's green revolution.

While the older generations are immersed in today's problems, the kids at Ain Najem are planting tomorrow's trees under the watchful eye of the man who's become a leading figure in the Arab environmental movement.

NICHOLAS, STUDENT, AIN NAJEM SCHOOL: We're cleaning the land surface, and then we open the pit, and third, we cut the plastic bag, and then we put the plant into the pit and we return the soil. And then we put watering and pressing the soil for expelling the air.

NAJIB SAAB, GREEN PIONEER: The project here is called a Tree Nursery for Every School. We started five years ago with 350 schools in Lebanon. The idea behind it is to educate young people about the importance of trees.

MAKTABI: Plastic bags and seeds are sent to participating schools all over Lebanon. Teachers are trained to ensure the seeds get planted the right way.

CLARAA, STUDENT, AIN NAJEM SCHOOL: We are planting the -- we are planting trees. We love nature. We will give it water.

MAKTABI: Lebanon's national emblem is the cedar tree. It's even on its flag. But Saab says that symbolism has not led to action in his native land.

SAAB: We have more hopes during the years of the civil war in Lebanon than what we have now, because we were hoping things would change when the war ends.

Those are private initiatives, individual initiatives at the level of school, universities, and organization. But at the government level, you don't have real plans to save the environment.

MAKTABI: The tree-planting program is just one of Najib Saab's environmental projects. He's also the editor of "Al-Bia Wal-Tanmia," a monthly environmental magazine that now reaches 22 countries across the Middle East and is part of the curriculum in many schools.

SAAB: I concentrate more, actually, in my work on the regional level to keep my sanity, because many times I lose hope of all Lebanon. Because the only hope I see in this country are the children, the newer generation, with whom we are working.

MAKTABI: So, they are his focus, and education is his weapon. One by one, Najib Saab is converting Lebanon's schools, making the environment part of daily life and taking his message to a wider audience through a series of TV documentaries and the think tank, the Arab Forum for Environment and Development.

SAAB: When the wars end, we shall still have to face the fact we have to breathe fresh air, we have to drink clean water, we have to have good soil to grow our food. So, whatever happens in Lebanon or in the region around it, we cannot avoid to care about environment, because this is our future.


GORANI: Rima Maktabi reporting from Lebanon.

Tomorrow, we head to the UK to meet the man behind a sports car using wind energy. Hoping, I guess, to blow away the competition. There you have it, the latest in our series.

If you're a Beatles fan, our Parting Shots tonight will be right up your alley. Here are some of the 46 never before seen photos from the Fab Four's first concerts here in the United States.

They were taken by Washington-based photographer Mike Mitchell when he was just 18 at the Washington Coliseum and the Baltimore Civic Center back in 1964.

Christie's in New York have now auctioned the lot and they have auctioned the lot off for $350,000.

Now, if you're wondering why it took the photographer this long to sell them, well, he just says it was time. But don't think you've seen the last of his Beatles work. He still has more than 400 negatives up his sleeve.

So, there's a lot more to see, there, from his work. $350,000 for black and white photos of the Beatles back -- from back in 1964.

I'm Hala Gorani, thanks for watching CONNECT THE WORLD. Headlines and "BackStory" will follow this short break.