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Massive Anti-Government Protests in Venezuela; Seasonal Affective Disorder or Winter Blues; Lincoln Memorial, Place for Americans to Protest and Celebrate

Aired February 18, 2014 - 04:00:00   ET


CARL AZUZ, CNN ANCHOR: Welcome back to CNN STUDENT NEWS. Ten minutes of commercial-free headlines for the classroom. I`m Carl Azuz. Thank you for watching.

First up today, unrest in Venezuela. South American country is officially a federal republic. That means, the central government`s power is limited and voters may choose their representatives. But in recent years, the power of Venezuela`s government has increased. It`s moved towards socialism, taking over control of TV stations, food companies, oil companies. The country`s president Nicolas Maduro has followed in the footsteps of former president Hugo Chavez. A controversial leader who envisioned a socialist Venezuela.

The U.S. State Department recently said it was concerned about protests going on in the country. Afterward, Venezuelan President Maduro kicked out three U.S. diplomats, and the protests continue.


JIM CLANCY, CNN CORRESPONDENT: The streets of Caracas have resembled a war zone. Thousands of anti-government protesters met with water cannons and armed security forces. Buildings scarred with bullet holes.

These protests began last week when students organized against rising crime, food shortages and high inflation.

At more than 56 percent, Venezuela has one of the highest inflation rates in the world.

DANIELLA ROJAS, PROTESTER (through translator): We are here because we hope we can have enough goods, supplies and a safe environment to live in. We also expect quality education.

CLANCY: President Nicolas Maduro met the opposition with a rally of his own and is not backing down.

PRES. NICOLAS MADURO, VENEZUELA, (through translator): I will continue in power, because the people (inaudible) power. On this constitution I swear, I swear and I will swear, nothing will take me off the road of building the Bolivarian revolution that Hugo Chavez left us.

CLANCY: Maduro has the media on a tight leash. The Maduro government threatened legal action for what it called "media manipulation against Venezuela. And attacks on V-TV, the government run television station.

While Maduro can still count on a loyal following of Chavistas, supporters of former president Hugo Chavez, Venezuela`s youth refused to back down.

Jim Clancy, CNN.


AZUZ: There are often obstacles in the Olympics, and not just in the events themselves. Yesterday, when it was time for men`s biathlon and snowboard cross in Sochi, Russia, there was this: fog, lots of fog. Thick fog. It caused the events to be postponed. It was the second day in a row this had happened to the biathlon. American snowboarder Nate Holland said, this is pretty common. Mother Nature doesn`t always cooperate. It doesn`t seem to matter much to the Americans or the Russians. Late yesterday afternoon, the two countries were living the overall Olympic medal count, with 18 medals each. Netherlands was close behind with 17 overall medals, and Norway and Canada had 15 medals each.

Germany had 13 medals total, but eight of them were gold. Germany was leading in gold medals alone.

Some call it the winter blues. If you`re - just not feeling yourself when the days are short, the weather is cold, the sunlight is weak. It`s not just about one hibernate in winter time. For those who feel depressed this time of year or have symptoms of it. There`s a medically recognized reason - and thankfully, there are some easy ways to deal with it.


DR. SANJAY GUPTA, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Even if you love the cold and winter sports, you`ve got to admit, this had felt like a long winter. AT least 12 million Americans suffer from something known as seasonal affective disorder, or SAD. Numbers probably even higher than that. Longer nights, shorter days. All that leads to a chemical imbalance in the brain. What happens, is your serotonin levels are down, and melatonin, which makes you sleepy, that`s up, to make sense. Symptoms can be mild or severe. You can get fatigue, lack of energy, oversleeping, difficulty concentrating. And also, cravings for food that cause waking. That probably sounds familiar as well. Diet and exercise can always help. Also, get outside as much as you can. You can also get a specialty designed light box. You just sit there and stare at it for a while each day, or at least put it on your desk. The point is, you can get a boost of more natural light. Worst case, some doctors may recommend antidepressants or psychotherapy to help you get through this. Another tidbit, find things that bring you joy. Open up the blinds in your house, play some of your favorite music and be with your family. Laughter and togetherness are always great therapy for the winter blues.


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: Time for "The Shoutout." In addition to Presidents Washington, Jefferson and Lincoln, whose face is carved on Mount Rushmore? You know what to do. Is it: Benjamin Franklin, Franklin Roosevelt, Theodore Roosevelt or John Adams? You`ve got three seconds, go!

The missing man here is Theodore Roosevelt, the 26 president of the United States. That`s your answer and that`s your shoutout.

AZUZ: Yesterday, it was president`s day in the United States. But what`s interesting is, it really wasn`t. Officially, the holiday is known as Washington`s Birthday. George Washington was born on February, 22 1732. Congress eventually moved the celebration to a Monday, so government workers could get a three day weekend. What Congress didn`t do was officially change the name to president`s day in honor of Washington and Lincoln who were both born in February. Many Americans still call it President`s Day and Lincoln, after all, did get a memorial.


DANA BASH, CNN CORRESPONDENT: He presided over some of the most transformative events of the last century.

MARTIN LUTHER KING JR.: I`m happy to join with you today .

BASH: Martin Luther King Jr.`s I have a dream speech. Vietnam War protests. So it`s hard to believe that this 19 feet high 175 ton Abraham Lincoln, one of the most recognizable memorials in all the world, almost never existed. And for a familiar reason: congressional gridlock over government spending.

When you hear people talk about Washington as a swamp, it`s not just a metaphor. Over a century ago, right where I`m standing, was actually a swamp. It was a place for vagrants and as legend has it, even a place to dump dead bodies. Now, to build this would cost $3 million. It doesn`t sound like a lot in today`s terms, but back then, it was the most expensive in history.

THOMAS LUEBKE, SECRETARY FOR THE COMMISSION OF FINE ARTS: Joe Cannon who was the speaker of the House, he called it a swamp, and he didn`t understand how we could have a presidential memorial out here.

BASH: It took almost a decade, five failed votes in Congress to approve this site.

LUEBKE: The designer who was Henry Bacon, he came up with this idea of putting this thing on elevated kind of hill, on pylons, 60 feet in the air. And that`s where the temple - the memorial actually begins.

BASH: Finally, in February 1914, 100 years ago this month, construction began and took eight years to complete.

LUEBKE: It`s an epic memorial, and the idea that it`s not only a president - it actually speaks to this huge American experience that was so important in our history.

BASH: But the Lincoln Memorial isn`t just iconic, because it commemorates history, it`s because it`s a place where history is made, the place for political protest.

That all started in 1939 with a concert by opera singer Marian Anderson.


LUCY BARBER, AUTHOR, "MARCHING ON WASHINGTON": She had been scheduled to sing at the Daughters of American Revolution, but when it was learned that the audience would be segregated, she refused to do so. It was a concert, but it was a protest, and people knew it. Afterwards in the `40s, in the `50s, you just have a steady stream whether it`s an explicit protest, a conference of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the Prayer Pilgrimage organized by Martin Luther King.

LUEBKE: The latest in this chapter was actually at the Obama - the first Obama inaugural. The day before they had a huge event here, which was very celebratory, but actually draws on this very same tradition.

BASH: So, was a memorial itself, is it tribute to Lincoln from his famous speeches to his hands? One clench for strength, the other open to show compassion. Its legacy for the last century is the perch Lincoln provides to Americans to protest and celebrate.

BARBER: This has become a place that the American people really feel attached to.


AZUZ: Last Friday`s "Roll Call" went to the dogs, today`s goes to the cats, because we re feline like it. The Cougars at Springfield High School are watching. Glad to see you all in Springfield, Pennsylvania. What about the wild cats? They`ve got us on in Guntersville, Alabama. Home of Guntersville High School and out West in Nevada, it`s all about the Garrett Junior High School Bobcats. They are watching right meow in Boulder City.

Believe it or not, we`ve seen a surfing cat. We`ve shown surfing dogs. I remember a song about a surfing cow. But you only see something like this hen pigs surf. It`s a surfing pig. The owner says it fell into the pool one day - that`s how they found out it could swim. After that, well, why not? Take it surfing. It hangs out, it hangs to, it wipes out, up pops the snout. It gets back on the board and rides the waves to shore. Looks like it`s in hog heaven. It has onlookers squealing with surprise, although some say for surfing bodies, it`s a pork choice. After every ride, he`s just bacon to go again. And we`d show you more, but we`re just snout at time. I`m Carl Azuz hanging it up for CNN STUDENT NEWS.