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CONNECT THE WORLD
Berlin Celebrates the Tearing Down of the Wall between East and West; Americans Freed by North Korea Return to U.S.; The End of History?
Aired November 9, 2014 - 10:00:00 ET
THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT. THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
BECKY ANDERSON, CNN HOST (voice-over): A live look at the Brandenburg Gate, the center of modern Berlin. Marked 25 years ago, the scene a very
different one. (INAUDIBLE) and chaos as people came together to tear down the wall between East and West Berlin.
And today the world stops to mark the anniversary of the fall of the wall. We'll take you live to Berlin in a moment for today's celebration
Also ahead, back on U.S. soil: two Americans are released after long stints in North Korea in detention. But many are asking, why release them
UNIDENTIFIED MALE (voice-over): Live from CNN Abu Dhabi, this is CONNECT THE WORLD with Becky Anderson.
ANDERSON (voice-over): Good evening, 7 o'clock here in the UAE. Welcome to our special coverage of the 25th anniversary of the fall of the
Berlin Wall. I am Becky Anderson.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
RONALD REAGAN, FORMER PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall.
ANDERSON (voice-over): In the end, it was the people of Berlin, East and West, who tore down that wall, 25 years ago today, November 9th, 1989.
East Germany lifted its ban on travel to West Berlin. That opened the front gate that ended the division of the city and led to the collapse of
Communism and the end of the Cold War.
Chancellor Angela Merkel has arrived for a ceremony that will include former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev from Berlin and the president of the
E.U. Parliament, who will also speak.
Our Jim Clancy is in Berlin to cover the celebration, just as he was 25 years ago, when the wall came down.
JIM CLANCY, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Every strike that brought down this wall was a blow to the Soviet system that had entrapped East
Berlin and the people who lived there. It limited their movements and their dreams.
Covering this commemoration, we naturally spent a lot of time looking at the history of the past. But I want to pause for a moment and take a
look at the future, the future of the post-wall generation.
I found them here in the European School of Management and Technology, where Berlin's next generation of entrepreneurs is learning in the very
building which used to house the East Berlin government. It still has the remnants of the Communist dream, now a building nurturing capitalism.
CLANCY: Does it feel like this post-wall generation is doing better or has better opportunities?
SUSANNE SCHULZE, STAFF MEMBERS, ESMT: I would say that we have better opportunities right now, of course. I mean, I don't want to be fenced and
I'm glad that I have the opportunity to live wherever I want to live.
CLANCY: Is this post-wall generation, do they have a different concept of failure?
Or are they still stuck in the past? They need to get over that?
BENJAMIN ROHE, ENTREPRENEUR AND INVESTOR: Well, I employed once a guy who grew up in Eastern -- and in East Europe and East Germany. And he was
a -- in a discussion about salary and that's something that eight years ago, like what's the salary you're expecting, he was like, what do you
mean? Don't we earn all the same?
So I was like, really? He does still this kind of mindset. And I think it's still takes another 25 years to have overcome all of this heard
from West -- from East Germany and have a more Western kind of thinking.
CLANCY: But not just Berlin. This city, are there entrepreneurs that maybe they can't get someplace else?
LUISA NAIER, ENTREPRENEUR: I would say that Berlin is a little bit of Africa in Germany. So it seems work, like they do in the rest of Germany.
But it's just so much more free to do things and explore things and than what the rest of Germany is.
CLANCY: This generation has a better opportunity, in your view?
JAN EGGERT, ESMT: I truly believe so. I -- actually I was born in Berlin. I was born in East Berlin. I was 9 years old when the wall came
down. But then, at the very right time for me, when I was old enough to basically think what I can do with my life, I had the opportunity to go
and, for example, go on an exchange to the U.S. and travel and understand the world with the freedom I had at the time.
CLARK PARSONS, BERLIN SCHOOL OF CREATIVE LEADERSHIP: It's a generation that doesn't -- that is aware of the past and you can't escape
the past here. It's on every street corner. It's amazing. It's fun. It gives the place such vibrancy. But the past is past and the new
generations, they're completely focused on the future.
CLANCY (voice-over): The utopian dreams of East Germany's Communists fell along with the wall. A new generation is poised to succeed by
building a future they can call their own.
ANDERSON: And Jim joining us now from Berlin.
And, Jim, you're on the phone as we look at pictures, live pictures, coming out of Berlin tonight.
What's the mood and what should we expect in the hours to come?
CLANCY (voice-over): Well ,the party is on at the Brandenburg Gate. There's no doubt about that. It's a little bit of communications confusion
here. I don't know whether you can see me, Becky, but behind me at the Brandenburg Gate, we've got yet another rock band that's playing. And
there's a throng of people that have turned out now. We're edging closer and closer to the official ceremonies that'll take place here and the
Berlin State Opera Orchestra will be playing as well.
People are looking forward to this day. There's a lot of excitement in the air. This place was just electrified by the music of Beethoven's
9th Symphony a little bit earlier. It's been a day that started out very cold with thin crowds. And now when I look behind me, I can see there are
huge crowds that have gathered here, packing this square that is the Mitte Centre (ph), as it's called, of the German people.
This really an incredible time for the Germans as they really mark the most historic day in the lives of anyone who is standing in the square.
They are being joined by thousands upon thousands of people, who have traveled all around the world to see this event, to be here, to be a part
And we had talked with some of them earlier. They're excited to be here. Some of them were here earlier; some of them remember the wall.
They served here as U.S. service members or perhaps they only read about it. They've come from Asia. They've come from Africa. They've come from
Latin America. They've come from North America and they have certainly come from all over Europe.
November the 9th --
ANDERSON (voice-over): Jim, the -- Jim, I'm going to stop you there because your microphone, I think we're having slight technical issues. We
can't actually see you. You've described what's going on though at the Brandenburg Gate and a lot to come. But we're looking at, as you speak to
us, is a ceremony in the Great Hall, we'll hear speeches by the mayor.
And Martin Schulz, who's the president of the E.U. Parliament, there will be a lighting of candles of remembrance in the next hour at the
And as Jim was discussing, the crowd already gathering by him there and do stay with us because that is where we will be in the hours to come,
an awful lot going on in what is a great day in Berlin for those who were there 25 years ago. And those perhaps who weren't born but enjoying the
Well, two Americans released by North Korea and are back with their families in the United States. You're looking at the moment but Kenneth
Bae and Matthew Miller stepped off their plane onto U.S. soil late on Saturday. Bae expressed his gratitude shortly after his arrival.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
KENNETH BAE, FORMER NORTH KOREAN PRISONER: I just want to say thank you all for supporting me and standing by me during this time. And it's
been just amazing blessing to see so many people being involved, getting me released the last two years.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
ANDERSON: North Korea released the two men after a rare visit by a top U.S. official. More on that and why the North likely chose now to free
the men. Here's Paula Hancocks.
PAULA HANCOCKS, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): A top secret mission in the dead of night. The top spy chief from the United States arrives in
Pyongyang, carrying a letter from the U.S. president. He leaves one day later with two former prisoners. No conditions and no strings attached,
according to the U.S.
So why this sudden humanitarian gesture from North Korea?
CHRISTOPHER HILL, FORMER U.S. AMBASSADOR TO SOUTH KOREA: Clearly they crave having this kind of high-level attention. So obviously they're
pleased that General Clapper came.
HANCOCKS (voice-over): Another suggestion: Kim Jong-un wants to show he's still in charge after disappearing for six weeks recently. He's back
in the spotlight, limping, but without the cane. Other experts believe Pyongyang's recent charm offensive, including a high-profile visit to
Seoul, technically enemy territory, is a PR exercise to improve its image.
The trigger: the United Nations Commission of Inquiry on human rights abuses in North Korea, abuses the report termed "crimes against humanity."
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: It had to basically show a letter side, a more human side to the international community because although there could be
legal sanctions or even International Criminal Court proceeding against North Korea, North Korea's also very much conscious of its reputation.
HANCOCKS (voice-over): The release of Kenneth Bae and Matthew Todd Miller comes more than two weeks after a third U.S. citizen, Jeffrey Fowle,
won his freedom. No U.S. citizens remain in North Korean captivity.
HANCOCKS: Two things are certain: this decision came from the top and it was made for a reason. Pyongyang released a statement, claiming
that the U.S. president had made many requests and also an apology.
Now if that is the case, this domestically is propaganda gold for a leader who wants to remain and show that he's relevant on the international
stage -- Paula Hancocks, CNN, Seoul.
ANDERSON: Now in Iraq, U.S.-led airstrikes attacked a convoy carrying ISIS leaders. It happened near the northern city of Mosul. U.S. officials
say they can't confirm that top ISIS leader Abu Baker al-Baghdadi was in any of the trucks although it had been widely reported earlier. And in
Baghdad, a series of car bombs killed at least 21 people. No one has claimed responsibility for those attacks.
This all comes as the U.S. decides to send more military personnel to the country. Iraq welcomed the decision but says it's a little late.
CNN's Arwa Damon has the details on what these troops will be doing.
ARWA DAMON, CNN CORRESPONDENT: The addition of 1,500 U.S. troops enter Iraq, almost double America's presence there. They are not meant to
be in a combat role but rather continuing to advise and assist the Iraqi security forces and the Kurdish Peshmerga also providing America with
critical increased eyes on the ground when it comes to those coalition airstrikes.
These troops are going to potentially be based perhaps in al-Anbar province, some of them at least, and also potentially to the north end at
Taji, two key areas where ISIS has significant control. Al-Anbar province especially critical in that it is predominantly Sunni and in the past has
historically been Al Qaeda's key stomping ground.
And when we look at Iraq's history, it was a Sunni tribe that allowed for the tide to turn against Al Qaeda. And those Sunni tribes are going to
be vital is ISIS is to, in fact, be defeated. That is one of the main reasons why the U.S. and others are putting a lot of pressure on the Iraqi
government led by Shia Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi to reach out to those Sunni tribes, who, at this stage, remain fairly weary of the government in
But when we're talking about ISIS' long-term defeat, there is the realization that this cannot be achieved by military means alone. There
has to be a significant political effort alongside it -- Arwa Damon, CNN, Gaziantep, Turkey.
ANDERSON (voice-over): Well, still to come tonight, the man who called this moment the end of history. Francis Fukuyama joins me after the
break, 25 years on (INAUDIBLE) changed.
And later we'll take you on a drive through Berlin, show you what life was like on either side of that wall.
ANDERSON: This is CNN and CONNECT THE WORLD with me, Becky Anderson, welcome back.
Now we are continuing our special coverage of the ceremonies marking the 25th anniversary at the fall of the Berlin Wall. This was the scene, a
quarter of a century ago when the wall came down and this is what it looks like right now with celebrations, some planned, some spontaneous,
remembering a conflict, barbed wire scar that defined the city and divided its generation of Berliners.
Well, let's get a different perspective from the fall of the Berlin Wall. Now 25 years ago, author Francis Fukuyama penned an essay entitled,
quote, "The End of History and the Last Man." It was the spring of 1989, a few months before the wall came down.
And the conceit of the article was that history was turning out very differently from what thinkers at the time on the Left had imagined. Take
Marx, for example. Fukuyama joins me now from Stanford in California.
And the progression of human history as a struggle between ideologies is largely at end, you said, back then, sir. Given the current chilly
relations between Washington and Moscow in the mess that is the Middle East, certain parts of this region is competing ideologies, what do you
frankly naive to suggest that the end of history had come?
FRANCIS FUKUYAMA, AUTHOR: Well, the end of history really didn't refer to the end of events. It referred to the directionality and up until
that point, everybody on the progressive Left had said that the end of history would be some form of a Communist utopia.
And I simply observed that that didn't look like it was going to happen and that, if anything, we were headed towards liberal democracy and
some version of a market economy. And I think that's still the case for much of the world. Two-thirds of the world's countries at this point have
some form of electoral democracy. So I think it is still the default form of government.
ANDERSON: That's interesting, that you say that we are broadcasting from the UAE, you say the underlying idea remains essentially correct, that
of liberal democracy, you say, has no real competitors. I guess my point might be, tell that to Putin or al-Baghdadi running ISIS or the Islamist
government in Libya or most citizens of West Africa for example.
You still stand by that, do you?
FUKUYAMA: Well, I think that clearly there are big challenges out there. So we have authoritarian powers, Russia and China, and you've got
this huge problem in the Middle East, which is basically less a lack of democracy as a lack of basic stateness (ph). And so there's a tremendous,
in a way, turn away from not just democracy but stable government in many parts of the world.
So it's not a done deal. I guess the question, though, is there really a higher form of government in which we're all evolving eventually?
And I think the only one out there that has any plausibility as a real competitor is the model posed by China, because I think the other ones, in
the long run, are not going to be sustainable.
ANDERSON: Fascinating to talk to you, sir, as we talk -- I'm just looking at pictures coming out of Berlin. Let's bring those back up for
our viewers, please. The lighting of candles of remembrance. We are seeing Angela Merkel, the chancellor of Germany, a woman who grew up in
Eastern Germany. This will be a very important day for her.
And the rest of those who are celebrating the festival at the Brandenburg Gate, the citizens' festival there and CNN continuing coverage
over the next few hours. We'll keep you back up to day in exactly what is coming on or going on there.
A new Cold War, ominous words from the former Soviet president, Mikhail Gorbachev. Here is some of what he said on Saturday in Berlin. I
want to talk to you about this after we hear from him. Hang on.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
MIKHAIL GORBACHEV, FORMER PRESIDENT, SOVIET UNION (through translator): The world is on the brink of a new Cold War. Some are even
saying it has already begun and yet while the situation is so dramatic, we do not see the main international body, the U.N. Security Council, playing
any role or taking concrete action.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
ANDERSON: A new Cold War? Is that how you see things, sir?
FUKUYAMA: Well, I agree. I think the challenge offered by Putin's Russia is a very substantial one. And there had been a territorial
settlement after 1991 when the Soviet Union fell apart that said that Russians outside of Russia would basically stay there. And he's
essentially told them, no, we're going to help you.
And so I think we're really in for a pretty conflictual (sic) period for the next few years. The only difference, I think, is that Russia today
is not the former Soviet Union. It doesn't have a universal messianic ideology. It's got a declining demographic base and it's completely
dependent on the price of oil and gas.
So I think they're playing a much, much weaker hand than what the Soviet Union had back in the 1980s.
ANDERSON: With that, sir, I've got to leave it there. I'm going to take a very short break. It has been a pleasure talking to you and
discussing your words, way back when, as it were, 25 years ago and hearing you discuss your arguments as we move a quarter of a century on.
And watch these pictures coming out of Berlin and discuss the -- your thoughts for the future this evening. Thank you, live from Abu Dhabi, this
is CONNECT THE WORLD.
Coming up, Berlin has undergone a radical transformation since the dark days of the Cold War. We take a drive through history -- up next.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
AMANPOUR (voice-over): Getting ready for the citizens' festival at the Brandenburg Gate, Germans (INAUDIBLE) truly historic day for their
country as the world tens of thousands of people from the German capital celebrating 25 years since the fall of the Berlin Wall. It's a moment many
East Germans thought would never come.
These are live pictures from Berlin, as we speak, earlier German Chancellor Angela Merkel told the crowd that the fall of the wall should
serve as a, quote, "message of hope," and that nothing is impossible.
The German capital looks dramatically different today as that which during the Cold War. CNN's Jim Clancy and Fred Pleitgen give us an idea of
what life was like in Berlin before that wall came down. Have a look at this.
CLANCY (voice-over): The Berlin Wall didn't just divide the city on the front lines of the Cold War, it also divided its people. The Church of
Remembrance, this area became the new center of West Berlin.
FREDERIK PLEITGEN, CNN CORRESPONDENT: While the Communists tried to show their superiority by building the gigantic broadcast tower on the
CLANCY (voice-over): But the two sides quickly drifted apart. West German's economy became strong and people could afford cars like this
PLEITGEN: Meanwhile, the East stagnated. People were lucky to even get their hands on the unreliable Trabant.
PLEITGEN (voice-over): The border between East and West Berlin was sealed overnight on August 13th, 1961, some of the most dramatic scenes
happened right here at the (INAUDIBLE). As the wall was increasingly fortified, thousands tried to flee to the West. Very soon, guards were
given orders to shoot to kill anyone who tried to get out.
West Berliners could do little but look on as families were torn apart. But America took a stand. President John F. Kennedy came to Berlin
in 1963 and delivered an unforgettable speech right here at Schoneberg City Hall.
CLANCY (voice-over): Hundreds of thousands gathered as the U.S. president vowed America would not let Berlin fall to Communism.
JOHN F. KENNEDY, FORMER PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: Ich bin ein Berliner.
PLEITGEN (voice-over): But the Communists tightened their grip on East Germany. The wall's death grip was upgraded and living conditions got
worse. Most people were forced to live a dull life in Communist high-rise blocks with virtually no chance of realizing their personal dreams.
CLANCY: Meantime, the West kept the pressure up. On June 12th, 1987, West Berliners gathered at the Victory Column, while down the street,
President Ronald Reagan demanded that Moscow end the divide.
REAGAN: Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall.
CLANCY (voice-over): That happened on November 9th, 1989, when the bankrupt East German regime opened the border and finally gave its citizens
ANDERSON (voice-over): Join us throughout the day for live coverage of what is the 25th anniversary of the fall of the wall. We've got four
hours of special coverage coming up live from Berlin. Starts 4:00 pm London, 5:00 in London and a half hour from now if you're watching here in
I'm Becky Anderson in Abu Dhabi for you. Thank you for watching CONNECT THE WORLD. I'll e back with your world news headlines in just a
few minutes. We'll leave you there with live pictures for now from Berlin.