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World Leaders Gear Up for a Meeting of the U.N. General Assembly; A Quiz on the U.S. Constitution; CNN Hero Helps Orphans in South Africa

Aired September 18, 2017 - 04:00   ET


CARL AZUZ, CNN 10 ANCHOR: This is CNN 10, your 10-minute objective explanation of world events. And I`m Carl Azuz. We hope you had a great


Starting things for us this September 18th, the United Nations General Assembly. It`s a branch of the U.N. and it`s the big one. All 193 members

of the United Nations are part of the general assembly, and they`re having their general debate starting this Tuesday.

These events are held annually and have a theme. This year is focusing on people, striving for peace and a decent life for all on a sustainable


But many other subjects will certainly come up. The U.S. expects those to include North Korea`s weapons programs. The country test-fired another

missile over Japan late last week. The international nuclear deal with Iran could also factor in, as well as the civil war in Syria and terrorism

around the world, like the bombing attack on a subway in London that injured 30 people on Friday.

International leaders will be listening to what U.S. President Donald Trump has to say about some or all of these issues when he speaks on Tuesday.

The speech will also be closely watched in part because the U.S. contributes the largest share of the United Nations budget, about 22

percent of it. And President Trump has called for America`s contribution to be reduced.


RICHARD ROTH, CNN SENIOR UNITED NATIONS CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): The flags are up. It`s time for another United Nations General Assembly global

get-together. As always, the United States is the host country.

Much of the world`s big names will attend, none bigger than President Trump himself, whose name has been just up the street from the U.N. for years, at

the Trump World Tower building.

Trump, a New York real estate mogul, has not always embraced the U.N. After his election, Trump said the U.N. was a club where people like to



ROTH: Trump was more conciliatory when members of the U.N. Security Council visited the White House in April.

TRUMP: I have long felt the United Nations is an underperformer, but has tremendous potential.

ROTH (on camera): President Trump will speak to the entire world for the first time from here and the General Assembly rostrum, the leader who vowed

fire and fury if Kim Jong-un threatens the U.S., will be closer to North Koreans than he ever has been in his life.

The North Korean delegation will be seated here in the front row, just 20 feet away from where President Trump speaks to the General Assembly.

NIKKI HALEY, U.S. AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED NATIONS: I think you`re going to have the president who did the bombing on Syria from the chemical

weapons, the one that has gone against ISIS in both Syria and Iraq at record pace.

ROTH (voice-over): Other first time speakers include President Emmanuel Macron of France. It is also the first U.N. General Assembly for Secretary

General Antonio Gutierrez.

Richard Roth, CNN, United Nations.



AZUZ (voice-over): Ten-second trivia:

Which of these events took place on September 17th, 1787?

The Whiskey Rebellion, U.S. gained independence, Constitution was signed, or the Constitution was ratified?

The U.S. Constitution was signed on September 17th, a date now known as Constitution Day.



AZUZ: It`s Constitution Day. On this date in 1787, 39 delegates to the constitutional convention signed the document that today is the oldest

written constitution still in used by any government.

We`re finding out how much you know about the U.S. Constitution, starting with some fun true or false questions.

All right. Number one, the word "democracy" appears in Article 1 of the U.S. Constitution. Answer, false. The word "democracy" doesn`t actually

appear anywhere in the document.

Next, Benjamin Franklin was the oldest person to sign the Constitution.

This is true. He was 81 and in declining health. So, he needed someone to help him sign it. And it said that as he did, tears were streaming down

his face.

Three, some delegates to the convention refused to sign the Constitution.

Answer: true. Of the six delegates who did not sign, three of them, Edmund Randolph and George Mason of Virginia and Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts

refused to do so, partly because the Constitution didn`t a Bill of Rights. Those amendments guaranteeing individual liberties were proposed two years


Moving on, two future U.S. presidents signed the Constitution. One was George Washington. Who was the other?

We`ll give you some options on this one. Was it John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison or James Monroe?

The answer, C, James Madison. Madison is also called the father of the Constitution because he contributed so much to it.

Since the ratification of the Bill of Rights in 1791, how many additional amendments have been added to the Constitution? Is the answer, 7, 10, 12,

or 17?

If you said D, 17, you got it. That last Amendment, the 27th, says that a pay raise for members of Congress cannot take effect until after an


Now, which branch of the U.S. government is mentioned first in the Constitution? Is it the legislative, judicial or executive? Answer: A.

The legislatives branch`s powers are laid out in Article I of the Constitution. This is the branch that includes the House of

Representatives and the Senate and it`s charged with making the laws that govern the country.

Finally, where can you find the original copy of the Constitution? Is it in Fort Knox, Kentucky, the Library of Congress, the Smithsonian

Institution or the National Archives?

Answer, D. The National Archives building in Washington D.C.

To preserve the quality of the document, it is kept at 67 degrees Fahrenheit and 40 percent humidity, and you can say that fascinating fact

constitutes our Constitution Day quiz.


AZUZ: The United Nations estimates that in the nation of South Africa, there are 3.7 million orphans and that half of them have lost one or both

parents to the AIDS virus. When a school teacher who found an abandoned child took him to police, she was told she should take care of him.

Rosie Mashale says she promised God to look after orphans if he promised to provide her with the resources. Today, she`s known as Mama Rosie, a CNN



ROSIE MASHALE, CNN HERO: Khayelitsha, it`s a very, very, very poor township. Close to 1 million people are living here. There are so many

orphans who are left behind by their parents because of HIV and AIDS.

When I moved here nearby was a dumping place. Every morning, I would hear the children trying to find something to eat.

I called them in and we sang rhymes, and I gave them bread, and that was the birth of the daycare center.

In the year 2000, I found a boy on my doorstep and I took him in. That was the birth of the orphanage.

The police were bringing in the children. The social workers were bringing children. I never send any child away.

We`ve got the children`s home for 126 children.

Blessings on the meal.

We feed them. We clothe them. We send them to school. Then we do counseling for them.

Most of them are abandoned. They are orphans. They have been infected with HIV and AIDS.

We do have a medical center for children.

The basic things that we giving them, it`s the love. And when they see me, they always feel happy.

We have children, they came here a day old and now, they`re young adults.

We provide them with job opportunities and letting them to finish their education.

Our center now has become a sentinel of hope for the people of Khayelitsha.

My hope for the children is that they can be accomplished.

Everybody has got a dream and my wish is for their dream to be fulfilled.


AZUZ: Ten out of 10, more like 110 out of 10, because 110 is the number of ropes this Chinese elementary school student was jumping. You`ve heard of

Double Dutch, this is eleventy Dutch. And the video from the Guinness World Record archives shows how exactly how the record of most ropes

skipped was set.

And it`s not just the jumper who got the credit. She shares it with her 55 classmates who kept the dream and the ropes alive.

But you wouldn`t need to crisscross the world and decide swing things in favor of getting your own leg over the record. A new one may be just a hop

skip and a jump away, assuming you can`t rope in 56 people to help. Whoo!

I`m Carl Azuz for CNN 10.