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U.S. Lawmakers Debate an Immigration Reform Plan; Parisians Suffer Flooding; South Africans Suffer Drought; 3D Printing Finds a Role in Culinary Arts

Aired January 29, 2018 - 04:00   ET


CARL AZUZ, CNN 10 ANCHOR: Welcome to CNN 10. My name is Carl Azuz, hope your work or school week is off to a good start.

Now that he`s been office for more than a year, U.S. President Donald Trump is set to give his first State of the Union Address on Tuesday night. The

speech he gave last year is known as an annual message. One big subject he`s expected to focus on is immigration.

The White House issued an immigration reform plan late last week. Among other things, it would allow 1.8 million people who were in the U.S.

illegally to eventually become U.S. citizens. That number includes the 700,000 young people who came to America or were brought there illegally as


Another major part of the Trump administration`s plan calls for $25 billion for border security. That would help the wall the president has called for

between the U.S. and Mexico. The plan would put new restrictions on certain forms of immigration to the U.S. and it would allow the government

to deport more people who are in camera illegally and come from countries that don`t border the U.S.

The White House says the plan is a compromise, that should get support from congressional Democrats and Republicans and fulfill the president`s

immigration priorities as well. But it has been criticized on both sides of the political aisle. Some Republicans opposed the plan to allow people

who came to the U.S. illegally to achieve citizenship and some Democrats opposed the plan to put new restrictions on legal immigration to the U.S.

The White House says it`s confident the framework could get enough votes to pass in the Senate, but that the House of Representatives would pass a

different bill and the two chambers would then have to find common ground.

While part of Europe struggles with heavy flood conditions, part of Africa struggles with bone dry conditions. We`re starting with France. The Seine

River, which runs through Paris, bursts its banks over the weekend.

The flooding isn`t quite as bad as it was in 2016, and nowhere near the level it reached during the Great Flood of 1910 when many Parisians had to

evacuate. But though most people there seemed to be taking this event in stride, officials say it could be another week before the waters have

significantly receded.


JIM BITTERMANN, CNN SENIOR CORRESPONDENT: Stabilize is the word everybody is using this morning because the situation is headed towards

stabilization, the river levels are still rising and there was some rain overnight. But the Seine here in Paris is expected to peak sometime during

the day today or overnight tonight, at about a little less than the levels of the flood of 2016.

But there are big differences between this flood and that flood, and one is that December was a very rainy month, and the month of January, according

to some people, was the second wettest in almost the century. And because that, because of that, the reservoir is around Paris, which can have a

buffering effect on the floodwaters, in fact, are now full. And if there`s any further rain, it has no place else to go but here.

But now, as a precaution, officials in Paris have evacuated some the low- lying apartments, basement apartments and especially on the west side of Paris, and they have taken works of art out of some of the museums, out of

the basements of some museums. They have as well closed down a gallery in the Louvre here behind me.

In terms of damages, there`s no way to estimate it exactly right now. But officials are saying, a former security official for Paris, for example,

said that he expected it to be in the hundreds of millions of euros, especially when one considers that the river traffic is a major transport

hub for Paris, the river traffic has been cut off now for days as well as they won`t be able to determine exactly the extent of damage because they

have to wait until the flood waters go down. That could be weeks and it can do a proper inspection of the underground railroads, the footings of

the bridges and other things that are presently submerged.

Jim Bittermann, CNN, Paris.


AZUZ: Meantime, Cape Town, the second most populated city in South Africa, is running out of water. Drought is a natural disaster that South Africa

is prone to. And for years, the amount of water being used in the country has exceeded the amount that`s been conserved.

In Cape Town, the population has been growing. It`s now more than 4 million people and the drought the area is facing is the worst in more than

100 years. The reservoir of the city`s largest dam is almost completely dried up.

People are being told to limit their showers to 90 seconds. Some are recycling bath water to flush their toilets. And starting in February,

people will have to limit their water use to 13 gallons per person per day.

The city`s major has criticized residents, most of them, for not reducing the amount of water they used though they know there`s a problem. Some

residents have criticized the city for not doing enough to prepare for the drought. One person CNN spoke to says everyone she knows who can afford to

leave is getting out until things get better and it`s hope that will listen the strain on the city`s dwindling water supplies.


AZUZ (voice-over): Ten-second trivia.

In what field would you find the terms truss, meuniere and parboil?

Culinary arts, construction, dermatology or fashion design?

Though the word truss has several definitions, all of these terms are used in the field of culinary arts.


AZUZ: And here`s another one, 3D printer. They`ve been used to create everything, from coat hangers and instruments, to cars and cups and clocks.

And a number of engineers have been working to develop them as virtual chefs. This is easier to do for food that still has to be cooked

afterwards, like breadsticks or ravioli, than something that`s already hot and ready to eat.

But a U.S. university has been experimenting with the cooking process in an effort to make 3D printed food something you can machine yourself at home.


UNIDENTIFIED MALE: If you try to imagine what your kitchen would look like in 10 years, you might have an extra appliance that it doesn`t have today,

and that would be a food printer, or maybe there`ll be sexier name for it. But it allows you to do things you can`t do today.

RACHEL CRANE, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): It`s easy to dismiss 3D printing food as a novelty. But Columbia`s Creative Machines Lab, they`re

predicting that your future kitchen may have a 3D printer. Right now, what comes out of the machines isn`t cook. So, the team is trying to figure out

the best way to cook food as it prints.

(on camera): Why do you need to incorporate lasers into 3D printing of food?

JONATHAN BLUTINGER, PHD CANDIDATE, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING: So, lasers offer you much higher resolution with cooking as opposed to conventional

cooking methods like using an oven, but a laser, it gives you that accuracy in the resolution and precision you need because now it`s a pinpoint of

energy that you can control where it goes.

CRANE: OK. So, show me how this works.

So, this guy is just browning the top.

BLUTINGER: And it only cooks about just under a millimeter of dough on the top. Which doesn`t sound like a lot, but again, if you think about how

this will be used on a 3D printer, you`re only laying down about a millimeter to a food. So, you only really need to cook one to two


CRANE (voice-over): It`s the start of turning 3D food printing into a consumer product.

(on camera): We`re talking about like printing like goo?

HOD LIPSON, PROFESSOR OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, COLUMBIA: A lot of people have this kind of misconception that is sort of Frankenstein food, right?

CRANE: Right. Doesn`t seem too appetizing, Frankenstein food.

LIPSON: But the ingredients that you put into a food printer are flower, water.

CRANE: It`s kind of like, I mean, having your own chef in a way, that really knows everything that your body wants --

LIPSON: That`s this magical combination of having sort of a personalized chef. But also having it relatively low cost and made on the spot.

BLUTINGER: I think when I talked about people about food printing, the first thing is like, oh, you know, can we make a cake or can we make, you

know, some carrots? It`s like, sure, you can do those things, but why would you want to do that when you have a machine that can pretty much make

any combination of flavors, you know --

CRANE: Right, something so much better than just like plain carrots.

What timeline are we talking here? When do you think that this will actually be commonplace in people`s kitchens? These lasers, these


LIPSON: It`s difficult to predict because it`s more of a business question than of a technology. Technology is here. If a company wanted to take

this and run with it, it could happen in a year.


AZUZ: A flock of starlings, black speckled birds is known as a murmuration. And the intricate shapes they form often when there`s a

predator nearby are fascinating. This is from an Instagram post by Katie Davis. It shows the shape-shifting ebb and flow of a recent murmuration

over California. Scientists aren`t sure exactly how the starlings coordinate to make this happen without a single leader. But one study

concluded that they communicate with a small number of their neighbors to decide where and how to fly.

When something startling startles starlings, staring and starting to dart and dartle, train your eyes on the skies with a fly (ph), to spy the flyer

that gave him the startle. Thank the thing on the wing, endangering starlings, trigger the change and range your destination, but for the

fervor and furor that stirs and spurs the alluring demonstration known as murmuration.

I`m Dr. Carl Azuz for CNN 10.