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A Deployment of the U.S. National Guard; Politics in Hungary; A Crack in the Earth in Kenya

Aired April 9, 2018 - 04:00   ET


CARL AZUZ, CNN 10 ANCHOR: Hey. I`m Carl Azuz, kicking off a new week of explaining world news on CNN 10. We hope your weekend was amazing.

And we`re starting this Monday with a follow-up on a story we brought you last week. We reported that U.S. President Donald Trump was sending a

number of National Guard soldiers to the border between America and Mexico. Now, we know that number, the president wants to deploy between 2,000 and

4,000 guardsmen there. And the order from Defense Secretary James Mattis is for up to 4,000 National Guard personnel to go and they`re scheduled to

be there through the end of September.

President Trump says this will help seal off America`s southern border, providing better security and safety for Americans. Critics of previous

deployments like this say they were costly and limited in terms of how effective they were. The border between the U.S. and Mexico is 1,954 miles

long. It runs from the Pacific Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico and while most of that border, more than 1,200 miles of it, runs along the U.S. state of

Texas, the barriers that are currently there cover 100 miles.

The National Guard has been deployed along the border before. Six thousand soldiers were sent by former President George W. Bush, beginning in 2006.

Twelve hundred soldiers were sent by former President Barack Obama beginning in 2010. And this year, President Trump is planning to deploy

guardsmen to the border until his proposed wall is completed.

President Bush signed what was called the Secure Fence Act back in 2006. What that did was authorized more barriers and surveillance equipment at

the border. Ten years after that, in 2016, there are around 700 miles of fence along the border. It`s different heights at different places, the

tallest parts being 18 feet off the ground.

As far as apprehensions at the border are concerned, the government says almost 304,000 people were arrested or detained for illegally crossing the

border in the 2017 fiscal year.


NICK WATT, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Here in Arizona, we are told that National Guard planners are working over the weekend in advance of the deployment of

150 personnel sometime during next week. Exactly where they will be stationed, we do not know and exactly when they will be deployed, we also

do not yet know. Over in Texas, of course, the deployment has already begun.

Now, is this even necessary? Well, opponents will point to the stat back in 2000, 1.6 million people were apprehended on the southwest border and

that has fallen to around 300,000 a year. Proponents will say, yes, but this march is up on March 2017, and March was up on February and they will

say that more families and more individuals are crossing the border and that is why the Department of Homeland Security is calling what`s happening

on this border right now a crisis.

Nick Watt, CNN, Nogales, Arizona.


AZUZ: The issue of immigration also factors into our next story from the Central European nation of Hungary. It held a general election Sunday

that`s expected to give the nation`s incumbent leader, Prime Minister Viktor Orban another term. He and his political party had campaigned on

anti-immigration platform. They`ve had enough support in the government to make major changes to Hungary`s laws, increasing governmental control over

the media, the bank, the high court and outside organizations.

Hungary is part of the European Union, a political and economic partnership of 28 European countries, but E.U. leaders are concerned that Hungary`s

democracy is being weakened by its increasingly powerful government.


PHIL BLACK, CNN INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: Hungarian politics may not be on your radar, but this E.U. country is starting to drift away from the

West, and back into Russia`s sphere of influence.

This is Hungary`s Prime Minister Viktor Orban. Back in 1989, he was calling for Soviet troops to leave the country.

Fast forward, almost 30 years, and here he is, one of Russian President Vladimir Putin`s closest allies.

So, how did Orban go from pro-Western activist to Russian ally?

Orban, like Putin, has consolidated control of the country`s media. And Orban, like Putin, has cracked down on nongovernmental organizations.

Russia`s influence can be seen in other ways, too.

Back in 2014, Moscow made a $10.8 billion to Hungary. Ostensibly, it was to fund the expansion of Hungary`s only nuclear Soviet era power plant.

But critics said it would only increase Hungary`s dependence on Russia. The deal was finally given the go-ahead by the E.U. this year. Orban`s

government stands by its record and denies any Russian influence.

ZOLTAN KOVACS, GOVERNMENT SPOKESPERSON: There`s not one element of our policies and not one element of our decisions that can suggest to you that

we are closer to Russia and Mr. Putin in any way that any Western European country.


AZUZ: It`s one thing to patch up a crack in the wall, the floor, or the driveway. But what do you do about this?

The crack in the earth is more than 50 feet wide in some places and 50 feet deep, and it reportedly followed heavy rains and some ground vibration last

month in the Eastern African country of Kenya.

Scientists say this is evidence of plate tectonics, the theory that giant chunks of the earth`s crust and upper mantle are slowly shifting and

breaking in some places. One area where two such plates are thought to meet is the East African Reef, and that`s near where there is going on.

So, does this mean that part of the African continent will eventually break off? Maybe. But it`s probably nothing for us to worry about.

If this is part of a breakup between the East African Reef and the rest of the continent, scientists say it won`t be complete for tens of millions of



AZUZ (voice-over): Ten-second trivia:

Which of these world capitals has the highest population?

New Delhi, India, Cairo, Egypt, Manila, Philippines, or Moscow, Russia?

These nations are ranked in order from the highest population to the lowest, according to the CIA world fact book.


AZUZ: With more than 25.7 million people, New Delhi isn`t just one of the world`s most populated cities, it`s also one of the most polluted, and its

leaders have tried everything from banning trucks at certain times to shooting water mist cannons to get pollutants out of the air.

The man in our "Tomorrow`s Hero" report has a more conventional solution, a giant air filter.


ANGAD DARYANI, INVENTOR: Growing up, I had asthma, and I was -- I used a lot of breathing problems. In India, I have seen there`s a -- it`s one of

the fastest growing economies in the world, which means there`s thousands of cars added to the street every single day.

And with the increasing cars, there`s high levels of air pollution in the city.

Hi. My name is Angad Daryani and I`m 19 years old.

My invention is a large scale air purification system for developing countries like India and China.

I wanted to build something that could actually impact thousands of people in the city who are facing these breathing problems.

What I`ve actually been working on is a 20-foot tower that captures all the solid dust particle that`s rising because of the construction and the

economic growth in the city and also the solid carbon particles that humans breathe every single day, which are emitted from trucks and car exhaust


So, there`s two things that we want to separate. One is dust and other heavy solid particles in the air. And second is microscopic carbon

particles. So, if there was a surge (ph) again, it automatically starts stabilizing.

There`s five phases in the tower that all do different specific task and it`s very highly controlled, each phase, so that it`s automatically

adopting to its surroundings and temperature in the air, and accounting for the external details while carrying out the cleansing process internally.

There`s something that`s very special about this project, is that there`s no solid replaceable filter used anywhere in the entire project. So, at

the bottom of the tower, you have dust and carbon separated in two separate tanks that can be cleaned every week or every two weeks based on how much

dust and carbon it captures every single day.

If this tower performs the way that we want it to perform, we will see an overall improvement in the quality of air in the city and also the quality

of health of people suffering from breathing problems and other respiratory diseases.

My eventual dream is to build companies that solve problems like this and cleaning the planet of the waste that we humans have caused for hundreds of

years. As overly ambitious as it sounds, that`s a dream and that`s what I`m working towards every single day.


AZUZ: With the weather turning warmer, a lot of Americans are anticipating or dreading cutting their law every week. But you don`t need a mower, you

need a goat. Now, you might expect to see them in a major city like Atlanta, Georgia, but near the Mercedes Benz Stadium, 41 ruminants were

recently brought in, along with a couple of dogs that guard them to keep a roadside trim with that just mowed look.

Are they quieter than lawn mowers? Usually. What do you call them? Billy. Could they be used in other places? They cud.

What do they drink for refreshment? Milk. And will they ever replace lawn mowers? Ibex they will in some places.

I think we`ve tried just about every other goat pun and that`s all the ruminant we have on today`s show.

I`m Carl Azuz for CNN 10.