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Russia Seizes 3 Ukrainian Navy Ships And 24 Sailors; Western Powers Slam Russia Over Kerch Strait Conflict; Theresa May To Tour U.K. To Rally Brexit Support; President Macron To Address French People Tuesday; Prosecutors: Manafort Breach Plea Agreement; Trump Defends Use Of Tear Gas At U.S.-Mexico Border; CNN investigation Reveals Startling Rise in Anti-Semitism; Briton pardoned, Released from Prison; Turkey Searches Saudi's Villa in Khashoggi Probe; Mars Probe Touches Down on the Red Planet. Aired 1-2a ET

Aired November 27, 2018 - 01:00   ET

THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT. THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED.


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[01:00:00] ROSEMARY CHURCH, CNN INTERNATIONAL ANCHOR: Hello and welcome everyone. You are watching CNN NEWSROOM, I'm Rosemary Church. Ahead this hour, a showdown on the high seas quickly turns into a high-stakes diplomatic standoff. Ukraine demands the release of two dozen sailors detained by Russia. Plus perhaps two resumes toughest challenge yet. The British prime minister struggles to convince Parliament to support her Brexit deal. Also ahead, new concern that anti-Semitism is on the rise across Europe. A CNN poll finds that even memories of the Holocaust are starting to fade.

A conflict is brewing in the waters of Crimea. Ukraine is furious after Russia seized three of its ships on Sunday. Its parliament has voted to impose martial law in areas bordering Russia. It also wants the return of its ships and two dozen sailors. This video shows the vessels docked in Russian control Crimea. Both sides accuse the other of being the aggressor. CNN's Matthew Chance has more on the standoff from Moscow.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

MATTHEW CHANCE, CNN SENIOR INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: This is the moment simmering tensions on the high seas burst into outright hostility. Russian patrol boat intercepting a Ukrainian naval tug and ramming it dangerously hard. In audio recordings broadcast on Ukrainian media which CNN can't independently verify, the Ukrainian boat can be heard protesting.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: (Speaking Foreign Language)

CHANCE: Then Russian officers order the Ukrainian vessels to surrender or face attack.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: (Speaking Foreign Language)

CHANCE: The Ukrainian Navy says at least six of its sailors were injured when Russia fired on three of its vessels then seized them, an act of aggression say Ukrainian officials by Moscow.

PETRO POROSHENKO, PRESIDENT, UKRAINE (through translator): I addressed the leadership with the Russian Federation with a demand for the immediate release of Ukrainian servicemen who in violation of international law were brutally detained and whose fate is unknown. We demand they be immediately handed over to the Ukrainian side together with the ships and to de-escalate the situation in the Azov Sea.

CHANCE: But that situation has been escalating since Russia's President Vladimir Putin opened a controversial bridge earlier this year spanning the narrow Kerch Strait between Russia and annexed Crimea. All maritime traffic to and from the Azov Sea must pass under it. U.S. officials say Russia has been harassing international shipping there for months, stopping or delaying vessels heading for Ukrainian ports.

Russia says it's simply reacting to dangerous naval maneuvers by Ukraine which have now forced it to curb access.

SERGEY LAVROV, FOREIGN MINISTER, RUSSIA: Maneuvers in the narrow straits naturally creates threats and risks for normal movement of vessels in these waters.

CHANCE: This is how Russian state television has cast the naval clash as a provocation orchestrated by Ukraine and its supporters in the United States to disrupt a planned meeting between presidents Trump and Putin at the upcoming G20 summit in Argentina.

Ukrainian government says it's imposing martial law in response to the crisis and amid international condemnation. The coming days may yet see this confrontation on the high seas escalate further. Matthew Chance, CNN Moscow.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

CHURCH: And for more, I am joined now by Jill Dougherty. She is a CNN Contributor and our former Moscow Bureau Chief. Good to see you. So, Jill, you have covered this region for many years. What's Russia's endgame here after seizing three Ukrainian Navy ships and holding 24 sailors over alleged border violations?

JILL DOUGHERTY, CNN CONTRIBUTOR: Well, you'd have to say that number one by seizing them they are protecting that area around Crimea which is the area that they annexed from Ukraine. And in fact, they built a bridge. And I think you know part of it is exactly physically what's going on the ground they built a bridge that connects Crimea to Russia. And in effect this little strip of water is really a chokehold so that Russia can let's say cut off that area in -- beyond the Kerch Peninsula -- the Kerch waterway -- Kerch Strait and make it very difficult for Ukraine to export and import product, steel, grain, and others from the ports -- there two of them -- that are located there.

[01:05:37] So really one of the reasons I think is that they want to continue to economically weaken Ukraine and also continue to kind of roil the waters pun not intended politically in that area. It makes it -- people are losing jobs because of some of this economic cutback of their trade and that creates societal problems and it can also create political problems. So weakening Ukraine is one of them, protecting Crimea and their land and the water around it is certainly the other.

CHURCH: Right. OK, so the U.N. Security Council convened Monday but failed to come up with any solution to this situation. This is what U.S. President Donald Trump had to say about the matter. Let's just bring that up.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

DONALD TRUMP, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: We do that like what's happening either way. We don't like what's happening and hopefully, it'll get straightened out. I know Europe is not -- they're not thrilled. They're working on it too. We're all working on it together.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

CHURCH: So Mr. Trump failed to call Russia out on this but his Secretary of State Mike Pompeo wasn't afraid to do that saying this in a statement. The United States condemns this aggressive Russian action. We call on Russia to return to Ukraine its vessels and detained crewmembers and to respect Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity within its internationally recognized borders extending to its territorial waters.

So, Jill, what are the possible solutions to this imminent crisis or you could say it is a crisis now and would you expect Russia to do any of those things that Secretary Pompeo is asking for.

DOUGHERTY: You know, one would be releasing the man, releasing the ships, certainly. But I don't think that's going to solve it because you still have this problem of that chokehold and the control that Russia exerts over the Sea of Azov which is the area is small, very narrow, shallow sea located right next to Ukraine. They still have control over that. And the problem here is it's being used not only militarily but politically on both sides.

Russia continuing to say that you know there's a provocation coming from Ukraine and from the West and the Ukrainians accusing the Russians of provoking. I do not see this ending quietly or simply going away. I think it's going to continue to fester. And one of the problems is when you begin to fire on another ship or another boat and you begin to arrest people, unpredictable things can happen, and this is precisely what could happen. It might be contemplated it's kind of a political game but when you get live fire, then it can get very dangerous.

And already, obviously, you know, Ukraine, that situation in eastern Ukraine has been going on since 2014. So it's not -- it's very worrying and this is certainly way beyond anything that happened so far. CHURCH: Yes. This is the concern indeed and of course, Ukraine is

now threatening to declare 30 days of martial law. What would be the likely consequences of such a move?

DOUGHERTY: Well, you know, originally when that proposal came up, they were talking about 60 days of martial law and pretty draconian aspects to that, right? They pulled it back. President Poroshenko pulled that back to 30 days. He vows that it will not affect civil rights of the Ukrainians etcetera. But it certainly raises the level of concern into a kind of a fever pitch both in Ukraine and then in Russia reacting to that.

And don't forget you know, there's a political part of this Rosemary which is you have Ukrainian presidential elections coming up at the end of March, coming up just in a few months, three months. Mr. Poroshenko is not looking as if he's doing well so there are some who say that partially he could be doing this to gin up political support.

You also have President Putin whose ratings have been falling recently because of the economic reforms with the pension system. Some say that it could be partially that. But I do think it's this concern that Russia has for keeping control on Crimea and extending that control into that area that will affect Ukraine.

[01:10:25] CHURCH: Jill Dougherty we thank you for your analysis. Many thanks. Well, Britain's Prime Minister travels to Northern Ireland and Wales Tuesday as she begins her push to rally support for her Brexit plan. Parliament is set to vote on the agreement on December 11th. Theresa May addressed the House of Commons on Monday urging lawmakers to accept this deal or risk starting all over again. But as Bianca Nobilo reports, Mrs. May is facing an uphill battle.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

BIANCA NOBILO, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Theresa May faced a bitterly divided U.K. Parliament Monday, just one day after getting her Brexit deal approved by the E.U. And in a marked contrast to the unanimous an orderly way that the E.U.-27 signed off, Theresa May was faced with a barrage of hostile questioning from MPs in the House of Commons who opposed her deal from all sides. This as she's beginning her campaign to sell her deal and persuade MPs to vote it through Parliament.

THERESA MAY, PRIME MINISTER, U.K.: And I could say to the house with absolute certainty that there is not a better deal available. There is a choice which this house will have to make. We can back this deal, deliver on the vote of the referendum and move on to building a brighter future of opportunity and prosperity for all our people or this house can choose to reject this deal and go back to square one.

NOBILO: Currently the parliamentary arithmetic doesn't add up in the Prime Minister's favor. Schools of her own backbench MPs have publicly declared that they will reject the deal as has the Democratic Unionist Party, the DUP, which the Prime Minister relies on for her majority in parliament. And if Theresa May was hoping to look for the opposition Labour Party to support her, then the Labour Leader Jeremy Corbyn had other ideas for her today. JEREMY CORBYN, LEADER, LABOUR PARTY: The Prime Minister May have

achieved agreement across 27 heads of state but she's lost support of the country. This deal is not a plan for Britain's future. So for the good of the nation, the House has very little choice but to reject this deal.

NOBILO: The date has now been set for the historic vote on the Prime Minister's brexit deal December the 11th. Mark your calendars. It will be the Prime Minister's toughest Brexit battle yet. Bianca Nobilo, CNN London.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

CHURCH: And for more on this, CNN European Affairs Commentator Dominic Thomas joins us now from Los Angeles. Good to see you.

DOMINIC THOMAS, CNN EUROPEAN AFFAIRS COMMENTATOR: Hi, Rosemary!

CHURCH: So Dominic, right now the numbers don't look good for Theresa May. How likely is it that she could win over enough British lawmakers over the next two weeks to get her Brexit deal through Parliament when it goes to a vote?

THOMAS: Right. Well, the numbers don't just not look in a favor, they look absolutely terrible and there's no support there. The irony of this, of course, is that there is overwhelming support in the House of Parliament for Brexit. There just isn't overwhelming support for her particular deal. Either those that initially voted to leave support the idea Brexit or the opposition Labour Party's official position has been to support the outcome of the referendum.

I think in Theresa Mays case, she is trying too late in the game to enlist domestic support around these kinds of issues. She's got her withdrawal agreement and a political declaration with the European Union that she's not going to be able to convince people back in Parliament to support this particular deal.

And so what we are going to have right now is a couple of weeks of sort of you know, of lobbying and pressuring and we see a lot of threats out there as she sends out different ministers and cabinet members to try and sell this deal. But it doesn't seem like there is any path towards her getting the deal, the majority vote that she needs in Parliament to get this particular deal through.

CHURCH: The E.U. said it's the best deal that's available. They approved it. How does the British Prime Minister plan to convince those lawmakers that her Brexit deal is the right path ahead? Essentially what is her strategy over these next two weeks then?

THOMAS: Well, the strategy, unfortunately, I think even the European Union saying out loud but this was not only the best deal but the only deal was somewhat problematic. And you know, in some ways it's sort of forecloses the opportunity of consulting with Parliament and returning to the European Union to ask for this deal to be -- to be tweaked. So ultimately what she's doing is threatening the members of

parliament and therefore the British public with this sort of overhanging you know, possibility of the European -- of the U.K. crashing out with a no deal which of course would have all sorts of implications for E.U. citizens, the border with Northern Ireland and all the kinds of questions that we've been talking about. And we have seen in the international media, both French President Emmanuel Macron, talking about aspects of the deal and the trade deal which would come after the agreement even Donald Trump, you know, waited on this today.

And so, she's really sort of being attacked and challenged on all sides. And it was seeing that the deal is indefensible to the extent that there is nothing in there that can possibly satisfy the multiple factions that exist in the Houses of Parliament.

And I think she went about this process the wrong way rather than engaging in extensive consultation back home across party lines and across these kinds of divisions, she went to the European Union first and has come back with a deal that essentially endeavors to satisfy everybody, and in so doing satisfies nobody.

[01:15:54] CHURCH: All right. So, let's say you are right. And going forward in two weeks, so the British prime minister fails to get the support she needs, what happens then? A general election possibly? Perhaps, another attempt to put this to the British people with another Brexit referendum. What do you think will happen? What needs to happen here?

THOMAS: Well, all of those -- all of those votes are there. What I think will happen, what I think needs to happen is, I think at this particular stage, if the vote does not go through Parliament, Theresa May must go. She must either resign or -- and the Parliament must protrude a vote of no-confidence or table such a motion.

I think at that particular stage, they need to be able to go back to the European Union with something concrete. Simply having Theresa May continue with these negotiations is not good enough. They need to be able to go back to Europe and say, "Look, we're having a general election here."

And after the general election, I think one possible option is to consider a referendum. If the outcome of the referendum is to remain in the European Union, then, this saga is over once and for all. And if it is indeed a vote to remain in the European Union, a cross-party commission must immediately be set up, that can explore and negotiate the parameters of a deal that they can then take back to the European Union.

But I cannot see Theresa May, shepherding this way through any more than I could at the beginning of this process. What I thought, it was so outrageous that somebody who had supported, remaining in the European Union ended up being the person to kind of shepherd this through.

CHURCH: It here -- it's been a tortured journey. No doubt about it. Dominic Thomas, sir. Thank you so much for joining us. We appreciate it.

THOMAS: Thanks, Rosemary.

CHURCH: Emmanuel Macron will make his case to the French people in just a few hours. The French president will deliver a televised address explaining why his government has raised taxes on diesel fuel.

The tax hikes have sparked massive protests. The demonstrations turned violent in Paris over the weekend as some protesters lit fires, and police responded with tear gas and water cannon. More protests are planned for this coming weekend. President Macron, whose popularity ratings have dipped told his cabinet Monday that the government needs to heed public anger.

Well, next here on CNN NEWSROOM, desperation and tear gas at the U.S.- Mexico border. What's next for the thousands of migrants stuck in limbo between two countries?

Whilst we are about to get a peek at what's underground on Mars? Coming up, a look at the fantastic voyage to get there. Back in just a moment.

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[01:21:03] CHURCH: Prosecutors in the Russia investigations say Donald Trump's former campaign chairman has breached his plea agreement by lying to the FBI and Robert Mueller's office. Paul Manafort denies the claim and says he's provided truthful information. CNN's Jessica Schneider has the details.

JESSICA SCHNEIDER, CNN JUSTICE CORRESPONDENT: The lingering question after this filing, what did Paul Manafort lie about? The special counsel saying he lied on a variety of subject matters but they won't disclose what those were until they file a sentencing submission with the court at a later date.

But remember, Paul Manafort, he's been working with Mueller's attorney since he pleaded guilty to two charges that he faced in Washington, D.C. That guilty plea was back in September. But now, the special counsel is calling off the cooperation. They're saying in a filing that Paul Manafort lied to the FBI and the special counsel's office on a variety of subjects, and now, they're finished. No more talks, no more opportunity to cooperate, they are ready for a federal judge to sentence Paul Manafort.

Now again, this filing doesn't specify exactly how Paul Manafort lied, what he lied about? But we do know that Paul Manafort has been meeting with Mueller's team for about two months now in exchange for that possibility that they would ask for a lesser sentence on the two charges he pleaded guilty to.

And then on top of that guilty plea, of course, Paul Manafort was found guilty by a different jury in Virginia on eight counts in August, and he faced up to 20 years on that conviction. That sentencing also was put on hold in that case. But now, of course, Mueller's team is calling off all further talks. They want Paul Manafort sentenced immediately.

Paul Manafort's attorneys, they responded, they say that Paul Manafort believes he was truthful and he does not agree that he breached any agreement. So, really, we'll just have to see in -- wait and see what the judge says in this case. Jessica Schneider, CNN, Washington.

CHURCH: Well, U.S. President Donald Trump doubles down on his Border Patrol agents firing tear gas at migrants trying to rush the border with Mexico. This was the scene on Sunday in Tijuana, Mexico. When many of the thousands of migrants hoping to be granted asylum in the U.S. ran toward the border wall.

Mexican officials have deported 98 migrants involved in the melee and has asked the U.S. to investigate the incident. In his defense of border security officers, Mr. Trump asked why the children were there, in the first place.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

TRUMP: But, first of all, the tear gas is a very minor form of the tear gas itself. It's very safe. But you really say, why is the parents running up into an area where they know the tear gas is forming, and it's going to be formed, and they're running up with a child? And in some cases, you know they're not the parents. These are people they call "grabbers", they grab a child.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

CHURCH: Our Miguel Marquez, takes a closer look at Sunday's chaos at the border, and what happens next.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

MIGUEL MARQUEZ, CNN NATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: Desperation turns to anger as migrants overwhelm Mexican police and storm the U.S. border. Hundreds of migrants' part of the caravan of Central Americans who have been moving north for weeks, that first protested, then grew more aggressive. The president saying the situation called for the use of force.

TRUMP: They had to use because they were being rushed by some very tough people, and there they used tear gas. And here is the bottom line. Nobody is coming into our country unless they come in legally.

[01:24:43] MARQUEZ: The U.S. Border Patrol says, four of its officers outfitted in riot gear were hit with rocks but were not injured. They deployed tear gas and shot pepper balls to disperse the crowd.

Video captured the migrants as they ran toward the border then fanned out along it looking for any weak point. Caught up in the melee, women, and children. One photo shows a mother dragging her children away from the conflict and smoke, one of her kids in diapers.

In a tweet, the president called many of the migrants' stone-cold criminals and used the episode to push his agenda. Writing, "We will close the border permanently if need be. Congress, fund the wall. At issue whether thousands of migrants who caravan from Central America seeking asylum will ever be allowed the opportunity to have it. The number of asylum applications at legal border crossings has diminished to a trickle. The protest in border confrontation won't help their cause.

RODNEY SCOTT, CHIEF PATROL AGENT, SAN DIEGO SECTOR BORDER PATROL: If they were truly asylum seekers, they would have just walked up with her hands up and surrendered, and that did not take place.

MARQUEZ: Dozens were arrested on the U.S. and Mexican sides of the border. U.S. officials say those arrested will be allowed to make an asylum plea and be prosecuted for any crimes they may have committed. Mexican authorities say law-breaking migrants will be deported to their home countries.

So, there is great tension on either side of that wall. That is the border between the U.S. and Mexico. The U.S. has brought in many agents and patrol agents from other parts of the country to here in California. And here on the Mexican side, they brought in police, federal police, and military.

Throughout this area, many of them with their riot gear nearby, creating a presence essentially, hoping to head off any sort of protest, and migrants storming areas like this again in the future. Back to you.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

CHURCH: Thanks so much for that. Well, the Trump administration has released a report warning of the potentially catastrophic impact of climate change if something isn't done soon. But it's got at least one skeptic.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Have you read the climate report yet?

TRUMP: I've seen it, I've read some of it and its fine.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Did they say the economic impact will be devastating?

TRUMP: Yes. I don't believe it.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: You don't believe it?

TRUMP: No, no. I don't believe it.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

CHURCH: Critics, say the Trump administration tried to bury the report by releasing it on Friday, the day after Thanksgiving, a U.S. national holiday. The report's authors who include hundreds of top climate scientists warned among other things that the U.S. economy could lose hundreds of billions of dollars. Heat-related deaths will increase with continued global warming, and there could be severe crop shortages.

We'll take a short break here. But still to come, Europe is dealing with a rising tide of anti-Semitism. A major investigation by CNN reveals what's behind the program casting a shadow over Europe.

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[01:30:18] ROSEMARY CHURCH, CNN ANCHOR: You are watching CNN NEWSROOM. I'm Rosemary Church.

Want to check the headlines for you this hour.

Ukraine will impose martial law in border areas with Russia and pro- Russian forces. Parliament approved the move Monday after a sea confrontation with Russia near Crimea. Russia seized three Ukrainian navy ships and detained 24 sailors. Both sides accuse the other of being the aggressive.

The British parliament will vote on the Brexit agreement on December 11th. Prime Minister Theresa May faces major opposition to the plan and will begin a four-nation U.K. tour in support of it Tuesday. She addressed parliament Monday, telling lawmakers it's either this agreement or back to square one.

U.S. prosecutors say Donald Trump's former campaign chairman Paul Manafort has lied to them and the FBI breaching his plea agreement. He made the deal in September after he was convicted earlier this year of fraud and money laundering. Manafort says he's been truthful with prosecutors.

A major CNN investigation is revealing just how widespread and growing anti-Semitic attitudes are in Europe. More than 70 years ago when the nightmares of the Holocaust came to a close with end of World War II, Germany as a nation vowed to never forget. Yet it seems that many in Europe have done exactly that or even more shockingly, have never even known about the atrocities committed against millions of Jews by the Nazis.

So all this week we are focusing on this shadow over Europe. Our chief international correspondent Clarissa Ward begins our coverage with a sweeping new survey commissioned by CNN that unearths some surprising statistics.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

CLARISSA WARD, CNN CHIEF INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: To give us our unprecedented look at anti-Semitism in Europe, we spoke to more than 7,000 European citizens across these seven countries. 44 percent said they believe anti-Semitism is a growing problem in their country, with 40 percent saying Jewish people are at risk of racist violence there.

63 percent, around two-thirds of the people we spoke to agree that commemorating the Holocaust helps ensure that such atrocities will never happen again. But awareness of the genocide seems to be fading.

Of the people in the 18 to 34 age bracket that we spoke to, almost two-fifths said they had either never heard of the Holocaust or had just a little knowledge of it.

The situation is especially bad in France. 8 percent of people we spoke to there, across all age groups, said they had never heard of the Holocaust. That's around five million people in France alone, more than double the population of Paris.

The International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance spells out what anti- Semitism is with 11 specific samples. One is the myth that Jewish people controlled global media, economies and governments. In Europe 28 percent responded that Jewish people had too much influence in finance and business across the world; a view that was most common in Poland and Hungary.

Europe's understanding of how many Jewish people there are in the world is also way off the mark. 16 percent of respondents thought that Jewish people make up at least a fifth of the global population. According to Pew Research, it is a 100th of that, around 0.2 percent.

Clarissa Ward CNN -- London.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

CHURCH: And Matthew Karnitschnig is Politico's chief Europe correspondent. He joins me now from Berlin. Thank you so much for being with us.

MATTHEW KARNITSCHNIG, CHIEF EUROPE CORRESPONDENT, POLITICO: Thank you.

CHURCH: I have to say when it comes to the fading memory of the Holocaust, the numbers are shocking. Children in America learn about the Holocaust. It's part of the current curriculum. It's the same in Australia. So why isn't that the case across Europe given its history in World War II?

KARNITSCHNIG: Well, absolutely. And that might be the most shocking thing about this report that the region where the Holocaust took place isn't understood or even known about to the degree one would expect.

[01:35:02] I do think that it depends on what country you're in. Where I am here in Germany, the education system is pretty good about educating children from a fairly early age about what happened in the Holocaust. Most school classes take trips to concentration camps, for example, to learn about what happened but there are clearly gaps.

You have to remember that Germany, for example, was separated for decades during the Cold War between East and West. And certainly in the former Communist East, education about the Holocaust wasn't as prevalent or even present to the degree that you saw in -- in western Germany.

So I think it really does depend on what country you're talking about and also what population. You remember, Europe obviously has had a large influx of people from the Middle East and from Africa in recent decades. And they might not be as sensitive to this history or aware of this history. And they bring with them, often their own ideas about what Judaism is.

They associate it very closely with Israel and look at it often through the prism of the Arab-Israeli conflict.

CHURCH: Indeed. And of course, in the shadow of ignorance hate grows. And now we see anti-Semitic stereotypes growing across Europe because no work has been made to educate people about what happened during the Second World War.

A quarter of Europeans polled believe the Jews have too much influence in business and finance, conflicts and wars across the world. How do you go about dispelling those myths and those stereotypes?

KARNITSCHNIG: Well, I think as you say, presenting the basic facts is often very useful. I think the fact that a lot of people believe that there are far more Jews in the world than there are is quite shocking. And if you look at the actual numbers, you know, they're obviously pretty modest. And I think that, you know, just explaining that to people, that can't be that this population has this outsized influence, you know, that you believe given that they are a fraction of the population globally and in most countries.

But I think the most important thing is to really just show people what happens and where this -- where this leads and, you know, return to this idea that, you know, you need to educate people, not about just the Holocaust itself but what led up to it and the politics that led up to it.

And unfortunately we're seeing many of the same behaviors now in Europe that we saw in the 1920s and 1930s. And I think that's why this education of what happened then is -- is so crucial.

CHURCH: So what are the various countries across Europe doing about countering this rising tide of anti-Semitism? And why do you think these anti-Semitic stereotypes are so prevalent across Europe particularly?

KARNITSCHNIG: Well, again, I think it really depends on the country that you're talking about. You know, these are stereotypes that has existed for centuries in many cases, in most cases.

I think some countries in particular in Western Europe do a fairly good job of addressing, you know, this history and of confronting it. But it has to begin as well I think with individual countries like Poland, like France also coming to terms with what happened there in World War II and the complicity in many cases of their own citizens in the Holocaust. And a lot of that was swept under the rug.

Germany is a country obviously that has really confronted its past in a very direct way but that's not true of every country in Europe. And you might want to see a bit more honesty on that front.

And you know, to be honest, I think we also, you know, would want to see maybe European leaders being a bit more forceful in condemning some of the activities that we've seen across the political landscape in Europe, recently in countries such as Hungary for example, and particularly Hungary where the leader there Viktor Orban has really launched a campaign against George Soros, the Hungarian-American financier and philanthropist.

And that campaign has involved a lot of, you know, old anti-Semitic stereotypes and tropes that have made a lot of people very nervous about anti-Semitism in central Europe. And I think that has fed these stereotypes there and has helped keep them alive.

And in other countries, such as Austria for example, where you have the young chancellor Sebastian Kurz. He on the one hand is saying all of the right things about anti-Semitism and about Austria's responsibility for what happened in the war and confronting his past.

[01:39:55] But on the other hand he's in a coalition with a far right party that was founded by an SS general and that has over the years repeatedly used anti-Semitic tropes in its propaganda including as recently as the last campaign a couple of years ago.

So I think that there's a lot that Europe could do here in educating people about what happened. Not just in what happened in the Holocaust itself but what led up to it.

CHURCH: Yes. It is critical. We all inform and educate ourselves. The onus is on us.

Matthew Karnitschnig -- thank you so much for joining us. We appreciate it.

KARNITSCHNIG: Thank you.

CHURCH: And our week-long look at anti-Semitism in Europe turns to Germany on Wednesday. Clarissa Ward takes us to a right-wing extremist march on the streets of Berlin.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

WARD: Christian Weisberger (ph) explains that neo-Nazis are finding new ways to express the same old hatred. And he should know. Weisberger used to be a right-wing extremist himself.

CHRISTIAN WEISBERGER, FORMER RIGHT-WING EXTREMIST: I would say that it is a form of anti-Semitism that disguises itself so they don't talk about the Jew anymore. They talk about the Zionists or the globalists or the bankers.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

CHURCH: Clarissa ALSO meets with members of the Jewish community who are questioning their future in Germany.

Join us for the next report in our exclusive series, "A Shadow over Europe: anti-Semitism in 2018". That's Wednesday on CNN.

And you can also find out more about anti-Semitism in Europe and the stunning results of the CNN poll on our Web site. Just go to CNN.com/anti-Semitism. We're going to take short break, we'll have more news for you after

this.

(COMMERCIAL BREAK)

CHURCH: A British academic who could have spent the rest of his life in prison in the United Arab Emirates was due to return back to the U.K. and his family on Monday. Matthew Hedges received a presidential pardon just days after he was sentenced for spying.

CNN's Sam Kiley reports authorities say the pardon is due to the long relationship and close ties between the U.A.E. and the U.K.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

SAM KILEY, CNN CORRESPONDENT: A moment of relief and release.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Mr. Hedges will be permitted to leave the country once all the formalities are complete.

KILEY: A presidential pardon for Matthew Hedges who was convicted of espionage to mark the United Arab Emirates' national day. And an end to a bitter row with the United Kingdom that had soured a close friendship. Matthew Hedges was a spy, the Emiratis say.

[01:44:55] JABER AL-LAMKI, NATIONAL MEDIA COUNCIL, U.A.E.: Mr. Hedges was acting as an agent for a foreign intelligence service. He confirmed that he collected sensitive and classified information about the U.A.E. The evidence, both documentary and electronic are irrefutable.

KILEY: As part of the Emirati proof that Matthew Hedges was indeed a spy, they played journalists some videos that we're not allowed to publish. It is allegedly of his confession. In it he says he's both an analyst for MI6 and a field operative. That's an unlikely combination. But on top of that he also says that he's a captain in MI6. MI6 does not use military ranks.

The British deny that he was a spy and so did his family. But his wife is just delighted that he's been freed from a life sentence.

DANIELA TEJADA, WIFE OF MATTHEW HEDGES: I'm just so happy and so relieved and really incredulous that this is all happening finally. And I just can't wait to have him back.

KILEY: The U.K. has supported the Emirati participation in Yemen and the fight against al-Qaeda there. Their economies are deeply interlinked. A row between these close allies could have been a strategic setback for both.

JEREMY HUNT, BRITISH FOREIGN MINISTER: First of all it is fantastic news for Matthew Hedges and his family. And I want to pay tribute to him, his wife Daniela who really has been incredibly brave.

The truth is that we should have never got to here and we're deeply perplexed as to how it happened. KILEY: The Emiratis will see this as a churlish response in a week

that celebrates independence from Britain. But the Hedges case has at least proved that the Emirates are just that, independent of Britain.

Sam Kiley, CNN -- Abu Dhabi.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

CHURCH: A U.S. Senator says there will be a lot happening on Saudi Arabia in Congress this week. Senators are planning for a briefing on Wednesday from the Secretary of State and Defense Secretary about the war in Yemen and the death of Jamal Khashoggi.

Meantime, Jomana Karadsheh reports on a new development in Turkey's investigation into Khashoggi's murder.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

JOMANA KARADSHEH, CNN CORRESPONDENT: For hours know, Turkish investigators have been searching this property in Yalova. This is an area that's about a 90-minute drive south of Istanbul.

The chief prosecutor for Istanbul on Monday released a statement saying the reason for this search is information they've uncovered in their investigation, linking a Saudi national who resides here in Yalova with one of the 15 Saudis who was part of that hit team that carried out the killing of Jamal Khashoggi.

According to the chief prosecutor he says contact happened between this Saudi national and one -- and that member of the hit team a day before the killing of Khashoggi and they believe that is related to disposing of the body.

Now, we've seen sniffer dogs being used. We've seen drones deployed here. We've seen forensic experts searching a well in the garden. They have also -- were digging in the back and seem to be collecting samples.

It has been nearly two months since the killing of Jamal Khashoggi and authorities have not been able to find his body or remains. According to their investigation, he was killed in the consulate and then his body was dismembered.

They've looked at a number of different theories including the possibility that acid was used to dispose of his body. But Turkish officials say Saudi Arabia that is holding the suspects in this case have the answer. And that they have put forward the question asking where are the remains of Jamal Khashoggi and so far they say the Saudis have not been cooperating and they've not provided them with satisfactory answers.

The Saudis have said that the body, his remains were handed over to a local collaborator. Turkey is skeptical about the existence of this local collaborator who hasn't even been identified by the Saudis.

Another key question they say that they have asked the Saudis. It is who ordered the killing of Jamal Khashoggi. Turkish officials are not convinced that this was a rogue operation. They believe this was ordered by the highest levels of the Saudi government as we heard from President Erdogan.

The message from Turkey on this day is pretty clear that while some in Washington and in Saudi Arabia want to put the killing of Jamal Khashoggi behind them and move on, Turkey's investigation is far from over.

Jomana Karadsheh, CNN -- Yalova, Turkey.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

CHURCH: Coming up next on CNN NEWSROOM -- from terror to triumph. The breathtaking arrival of NASA's latest spacecraft on Mars.

[01:49:45] (COMMERCIAL BREAK)

CHURCH: Twitter is getting all shook up over a new claim by Donald Trump. Here's what the U.S. President told a crowd at a rally in Tupelo, Mississippi Monday. It just happens to be Elvis Presley's hometown.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

DONALD TRUMP, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: Well, I am thrilled to be back in Tupelo. I love Tupelo. Home of thousands of hardworking American patriots and the proud birthplace of the king of rock n roll -- Elvis. Elvis -- we love Elvis. I shouldn't say, but you'll say I'm very conceited because I'm not. But other than the blond hair, when I was growing up they said I looked like Elvis. Can you see that? Can you believe it?

(END VIDEO CLIP)

CHURCH: Well, you can judge for yourself. Here's a young Elvis Presley and a young Donald Trump. What do you think?

Earlier this month Mr. Trump posthumously awarded the rock icon the country's highest civilian honor, the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

Well, after a nail-biting descent which NASA dubbed seven minutes of terror, the U.S. space agency has successfully landed a new spacecraft on Mars.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: Touchdown confirmed.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: -- on the surface of Mars.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Yes.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

CHURCH: NASA scientists let out a huge cheer and a collective sigh of relief after the robotic lander touched down. NASA quickly received this first image from Insight after landing on Mars some 225 million kilometers away.

Insight will now begin a two-year mission, studying the planet's interior, using a robotic arm to place instruments on the Martian surface and probing as deep as five meters to gather data.

Let's take a close look at this. And we are joined by Jim Bell, professor of planetary science at Arizona State University. Good to have you with us.

JIM BELL, ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY: Good to be on the show. Thank you.

CHURCH: So of course, the build-up was extraordinary, wasn't it? And once touchdown was confirmed mission control erupted in cheers and celebration. We saw it there. What were you thinking as you watched and waited through those seven-minutes of terror and then, of course, that first image of Mars from the Insight lander?

BELL: Oh my gosh -- Rosemary. It is so hard to try to imagine working on a project with a team of people for many years. Some people working for a decade or more. And it all comes down to this one focus point, you know, where it is -- is it going to survive. Is it going to crash? Will all of your work go up in smoke literally?

And so the tension was just real visceral among those folks. But boy, there's a lot of happy Martians around the world today. That's for sure.

CHURCH: Yes. And of course, I was watching it. It was palpable, you know, just waiting to see what would happen. Could it go wrong? Could it work?

BELL: Right.

CHURCH: And now, of course, that NASA has successfully landed the Mars prob, what comes next. What all might we learn over the next two years of studying and gathering data on the Red Planet?

BELL: Right. This particular mission is a lander. It's not a rover. So it's not going to drive around. It's just going to one spot, a very carefully selected spot where there is a lot of sort of bedrock in this part of Mars and the idea is to do a geophysics experiment, a seismology experiment. Search for Mars quakes and search for evidence that Mars might still be active in its interior.

We don't really know. You know, we think that Mars like the other planets in our solar system has a core, a mantle and a crust.

[01:54:56] But how big is that core? Is it still active like the earth's core? Is it partially active? If it's inactive, when did it go inactive and why?

And one way to do that, the same way that scientists do on the earth is to use seismometers. We look for earthquakes, there's a network all around the world of tens of thousands of seismometers.

And NASA with European colleagues heavily involved in this mission has now -- will deploy a very sensitive seismometer on the Plant Mars and search for evidence of internal activity.

There's also a small like drill device, drill kind of device called a "mole" that will go down to the subsurface, as you mentioned, and measure how much is heat coming out from underneath the subsurface.

So lots of us think that there might water deep underground on Mars, maybe liquid water. We know there's ice. In order to figure out if its ice or water, we need to figure out how warm it is down there. And that's what that heat probe will do.

CHURCH: And how significant is all of this? And what would you say to those critics who suggest that money spent on this mission would be better direct at problems confronting planet earth?

BELL: Well, I mean that's -- many people feel that way. And in an absolute sense, it is a very small fraction in the U.S. NASA's budget is 0.4 percent of the entire U.S. budget. So it's a small fraction of our national wealth. And I think it is important for us to be looking outward, looking at other planets in our solar system to learn about our own planet. As well as to rewrite the textbooks, to educate kids, to give teachers the materials they need to help our kids learn about math and science and geology and astronomy and how our world works and other worlds work.

I personally think it is a great investment, a small fraction of national wealth for these visionary kinds of exploration adventures. And you know, those of us who work with NASA feel that it's really important to give back, to make sure we communicate what these space probes are doing and why it is important.

CHURCH: Jim Bell, I know you had a very exciting day. Thank you so much for joining us. We appreciate it.

BELL: All right. Thank you -- Rosemary, appreciate it.

CHURCH: Ok. Fantastic.

And you are watching CNN NEWSROOM.

I'm Rosemary Church. The news continues on CNN right after this short break. Do stick around.

(COMMERCIAL BREAK)

[02:00:01] CHURCH: More than a third of Europeans surveyed say they know very little about the Holocaust or they've never even heard of it just --