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Pressure on U.K., China Touts Globalization; Millions Face Humanitarian Crises around the World; Interview with Mark Lowcock, U.N.; Polls Show Shutdown Hurting Trump Support; U.N.: Climate Change Catastrophe Looming; Interview with Christiana Figueres, U.N. Climate Chief; Trump Says He Won't Deliver State of the Union Address Until Shutdown Is Over; Footballer Emiliano Sala Sent Audio Message From Plane; Nurse Arrested For Impregnating Woman In Vegetative State; Vatican's Swiss Guard Gets New U.V. Ray Resistant Helmets. Aired 2-3a ET

Aired January 24, 2019 - 02:00   ET

THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT. THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED.


[02:00:00]

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

WANG QISHAN, CHINESE VICE PRESIDENT (through translator): For the Chinese and U.S. economies, I believe they are mutually indispensable. This is a reality. Neither side can do without the other side.

So the conclusion is that there has to be a mutual benefit and win- win. Cooperation serves both interests while confrontation harms the interests of both sides. This is a basic judgment.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

BECKY ANDERSON, CNN HOST: My colleague, John Defterios, listening in on that interview yesterday.

You spoke to a lot of business leaders, a lot of your sources here in Davos after -- what was the response to the vice president's words?

JOHN DEFTERIOS, CNN EMERGING MARKETS EDITOR: Credit to a geographical balance, it was Asia and the Middle East and Europe and, categorically, we like the steady tone, acknowledging there's a problem between the two largest economies in the world, Wang Qishan also suggesting, we're thinking about it differently. Almost poetic, saying we should make a larger pie and not focus on the existing pie and trying to slice it up a great deal. That was a message to Donald Trump.

Interesting over the last two years his president, Xi came in and was embracing globalization and saying we shouldn't retreat; Trump was going to go confrontational.

The sources I spoke to said we're going to get to March and both are going to realize you wont get everything you want at this stage, particularly in the intellectual property rights.

Wang Qishan he speaks with confidence. Very interesting what he did. He said, I'm standing here at my podium. I'm not moving my arms, not making big gestures. He was saying I'm not going to give you any of that. I just want you to listen to what I have to say. A steady hand was the message from China.

They will get a deal because the United States is very important and it deflates equity markets but they won't bend a lot.

ANDERSON: The whole persona and atmosphere of the speech, as you point out, so different to the -- to the Donald Trump narrative and attitude.

DEFTERIOS: I walked in with a CEO over on the promenade.

I said what do you think of Davos so far this year?

He said I really enjoy not having the chaos. That was the message not just because of the security that surrounded Donald Trump last year but more so the lack of predictability.

We're based together in the Middle East. The withdrawal from Syria came out of the blue. This battling with China, the government shutdown and everybody is wondering, what is next?

Last year he promised tax reform, (INAUDIBLE) going to move up and growth will continue. We can plow through all this. Now they're starting to wonder, it's just too much of a roller coaster ride with Trump, I think, is the view from Davos.

ANDERSON: It is an interesting meeting; climate change, conflict, insecurity, poverty all being talked about here as -- as embedded within the kind of wider story of global risk. There was a sense of pessimism at the start of this meeting. The IMF's report that we're not going into recession in 2019 but things are looking tough.

We're also hearing a different drumbeat from the progressive Democrats back in the -- in the U.S., progressive taxation and talk of -- of, you know, the need for more investments in public infrastructure. None of this stuff will get sorted here at Davos when you consider who is here.

But it is interesting that we're beginning to hear these narratives.

DEFTERIOS: The most profound change is where you started this. On the climate change debate, it's almost a lot of debate with no real action. I chaired a panel yesterday on the new energy equation. We spent 40 percent of the time talking about the great energy transition but more so, how do you deal with climate change and the standards international oil companies are being held to today.

The shareholders are saying, you have to show us what your carbon footprint is and what you're doing to eradicate the challenge. I've never heard that before and then acknowledging the cost of solar and wind is going down. And in the next 20-30 years, it's going to be quite a transition.

ANDERSON: That's absolutely fascinating. One reason, quite frankly, folks, we're here, the sessions that John discussed and he moderated yesterday, so important to us in informing how we tell and report on these stories.

Just briefly, are we talking about U.S. companies under -- under -- from their fund managers as well?

DEFTERIOS: In particular, but it is not limited to the United States. But 20 years ago, 10 percent of the S&P 500 overall investment was in energy companies, oil and gas. It is 5 percent today after a decade and that's because of the worries about climate change. So they have to respond to the challenge.

ANDERSON: John Defterios here with me live in Davos as we begin day three.

Leaders talking about various crisis situations around the world and -- and -- and there --

[02:05:00]

ANDERSON: -- are many. The U.N. High commissioner for Human Rights has called the massacre of Rohingya Muslims a, quote, "textbook example of ethnic cleansing." More than 700,000 Rohingya fled to Bangladesh to escape brutal violence and rape at the hands of Myanmar's military.

Myanmar's government denies those crimes. Humanitarian crisis in Syria went ENT in 2019 and will probably go on for several more years. That's according to the U.N.'s humanitarian coordinator for Syria. He said about 12 to 13 million Syrians still need help.

In Afghanistan the ongoing war and an increasing drought are causing misery for millions. The U.N. said people need food, jobs and safe places to live.

And in Yemen, a U.N. sponsored cease-fire in effect. It was signed in December. A top humanitarian affairs official saying people are feeling a little more safe. But it is not enough. Millions of people in Yemen still need help.

With me here to talk about all of this is Mark Lowcock, he's the undersecretary general for humanitarian affairs and the emergency relief coordinator for the United Nations. He made those comments about Yemen.

Sir, I want to get to the comments. But I want to start with something we've been hearing over the past 24 hours.

Is it true that the U.N. envoy, Martin Griffiths, and the chief monitor, Patrick Cammaert, have left disappointed in their efforts, blaming the Houthis for breaking the terms of the Stockholm talks?

MARK LOWCOCK, UNITED NATIONS: We're making progress with everything that was agreed in Stockholm. These things do take time. We have had -- we have had some results in cleaning up some of the (INAUDIBLE) we had in the first phase. There's much less violence in (INAUDIBLE) than there was before the cease-fire.

We always knew this was going to be a long haul. And Martin has just come out of Sanaa; he made an extra visit to move some things forward. Patrick went to a very short notice as you know and was never intended to be there for a long time. Basically we're making progress and there's less violence now in Hudaydah but we do need to accelerate the progress.

ANDERSON: The ministry of foreign affairs says, and I quote, "It is no longer tenable to accuse the coalition of prolonging the war," and let's bring this up, "and obstructing the road to peace. Time for the international community, NGOs and the press to take off the velvet gloves when addressing the Houthis' obdurate behavior. Call a spade a spade. The Houthi militia are undermining the Sweden agreement."

Does he have a point?

LOWCOCK: The truth is there have been violations on all sides. As I said when I last briefed the Security Council 10 days ago, we have had a whole series of issues, particularly about access for the aid agencies. We've been raising with the Houthi authorities. We also raised issues about continued blockages on the ports, Hudaydah, Aden; we're concerned about the uptick in airstrikes over the recent past, as Martin Griffiths agreed with everybody just before Christmas. Everybody needs to change their behavior if we're going to reduce the humanitarian suffering and deal with the conflicts.

ANDERSON: This is not just about aid access, is it. The head of the WFP says the Houthis have been stealing food aid. Stealing from the foods of the mouths of the hungry. That's a crime. He says they have evidence of that.

By negotiating with them, has the U.N. legitimized the Houthis' role and was it a mistake?

LOWCOCK: No; whatever you're dealing with these conflicts or crises you have to deal with whoever is in authority where the people in need are. We did a survey, an independent survey just before Christmas, where we rang up more than a thousand families across the whole of Yemen and asked them if they were getting the help they needed; 95 percent of those people said they were getting the help they needed.

There are always problems and we had, as David said on the show yesterday, raised these problems with the Houthis. We are making some progress in sorting them out. We will be very vigilant. This food is intended to keep the starving alive. And diverting it is not acceptable.

ANDERSON: How have you gotten?

And what happens next?

What is -- we know that there will be further talks, I hear they're going to be in Jordan, when?

LOWCOCK: Martin is working on that now. What we want to do is get real progress in implementing what was agreed in Stockholm. In the meantime, one big priority is there's 50 million people we need to reach with humanitarian assistance in Yemen this year.

Next month the secretary general, Antonio Guterres, will be convening the world leaders in Geneva and trying to raise 4 billion dollars to meet the needs of those people. We have to keep the humanitarian situation stable. Not just to save the human lives but as a confidence building measure that we could move everything else forward as well.

ANDERSON: It's been a pleasure. Thank you for being on and making the time on a very chilly morning. An important discussion, though.

[02:10:00]

ANDERSON: Thank you.

Day three here. A lot going on.

John, climate change, conflict. Insecurity. Poverty, these are things that -- you can genuinely see, as John Defterios was suggesting -- have been embedded within the discussions this year. I've been here on and off for 20 years. I have heard talk of climate change before, of poverty, of insecurity. We always talk about conflict.

But this year it feels like there's a potential for -- for at least discussions about -- about collective action on some or -- or many of -- of these. We'll keep you posted. Those who are here.

(CROSSTALK)

VAUSE: -- comes out of the things, that's the followup, what is the tangible result of the gabfest in the Alps. We'll see. Thanks, Becky.

Whatever Trump is doing Tuesday, he won't deliver the State of the Union address to a joint session of Congress. On Wednesday, the president wrote to House Speaker Nancy Pelosi and said he would deliver the annual address next week as previously scheduled over her objections.

Pelosi did not blink and called his bluff and Trump backed down. Abby Phillips reports on the day of political brinkmanship.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Mr. Speaker, the President of the United States.

ABBY PHILLIP, CNN WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): The State of the Union coming to a screeching halt today.

TRUMP: The State of the Union speech has been canceled by Nancy Pelosi because she doesn't want to hear the truth.

PHILLIP: As House Speaker Nancy Pelosi yanks her invitation to President Trump. TRUMP: We just found out that she's canceled it. And I think that's a great blotch on the incredible country that we all love.

PHILLIP: Pelosi citing the 33-day-old shutdown as the reason.

REP. NANCY PELOSI (D-CALIF.), SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE: The government is still shut down. I still make the offer. Let's work on a mutually agreeable date, as our original date was mutually agreeable, so that we can welcome him properly.

PHILLIP: Her response coming hours after Trump told Pelosi in a sarcasm-laden letter that he was making plans to be there on time, on schedule and, very importantly, on location.

Pelosi's move seeming to catch the president off guard.

TRUMP: I'm not surprised. It's really a shame what's happening with the Democrats. They have become radicalized.

PHILLIP: As sources tell CNN Trump and Pelosi haven't spoken for two weeks, the president predicting the shutdown won't be over anytime soon.

TRUMP: This will go on for a while.

PHILLIP: The White House planned to ratchet up the pressure on Pelosi in the coming days, forcing her to either allow the speech to go forward in the House chamber or cancel it altogether.

But aides are increasingly concerned that alternative venues for a presidential address won't pass muster, especially a campaign-style rally that might be dismissed as just another political speech.

REV. BARRY BLACK, SENATE CHAPLAIN: Lord, as some members of our armed forces seek sustenance at charity food pantries and prepare to miss a second payday, something has to give.

PHILLIP: All this as the real-world impacts of the shutdown are piling up.

Frustrated federal workers and Coast Guard leadership speaking out.

KARL SCHULTZ, U.S. COAST GUARD COMMANDANT: I find it unacceptable that Coast Guard men and women have to rely on food pantries and donations to get through day-to-day life as service members.

PHILLIP: One top Trump economic adviser even predicting this stunning result if the shutdown continues another month.

QUESTION: Could we get zero growth? I just want to nail this down.

KEVIN HASSETT, CHAIRMAN, COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS: Yes, we could. Yes, we could.

QUESTION: We could. OK, wow. All right. Wow. HASSETT: If it extended for the whole quarter, if it extended for the whole quarter and given the fact that the first quarter tends to be low because of residual seasonality, then you could end up with a number of very close to zero in the first quarter.

But, then again, the second quarter number would be humongous if the government reopened.

PHILLIP: Meantime, President Trump doubling down on the showmanship, even rolling out a new slogan to take Republicans into the 2020 campaign, "Build a wall and crime will fall."

As federal workers brace for a second missed paycheck of the shutdown on Friday, he added, "Use it and pray."

All this as new polls show the president may be on shaky ground; 71 percent say the wall isn't worth shutting down the government in a new CBS poll and the president's approval rating has fallen to 37 percent during the shutdown, according to a CNN average of five recent polls.

Asked how the president justifies keeping the government shut down until he gets his wall, counselor to the president Kellyanne Conway focused on semantics.

KELLYANNE CONWAY, TRUMP SENIOR ADVISER: I'm asking why you in the polling questions, respectfully, are still saying wall, when the president has said you can call it whatever you want. Call it steel slat barriers.

QUESTION: He calls it a wall himself, Kellyanne. He called it a wall this morning.

(CROSSTALK)

CONWAY: Well, I was in the Situation Room when he said to Leader Schumer, Minority Leader Schumer --

(CROSSTALK)

QUESTION: He said it was a new slogan --

[02:20:00]

QUESTION: -- when he called it a wall this morning.

CONWAY: Yes, it's a great slogan. Build a wall and crime will fall. We know that's true.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

VAUSE: Donald Trump's former fixer, Michael Cohen, is postponing his public testimony to Congress. He's blaming ongoing threats from President Trump and his lawyer, Rudy Giuliani.

Cohen was scheduled to testify February 7th. Democrats are now considering if Cohen should be subpoenaed. President Trump says the only threat to Cohen is the truth. Here's what Cohen is actually talking about.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

TRUMP: His father-in-law I thought was the guy that was the primary focus.

What did he do?

Did he make a deal to keep his father-in-law out and keep his wife, supposedly, maybe I'm wrong but you can check it.

Did he make a deal to keep his wife out of trouble?

RUDY GIULIANI, ATTORNEY FOR PRESIDENT TRUMP: If the father-in-law is a criminal, I'm telling you, coming from the Ukraine, the reason that's important is he may have ties to something called organized crime.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

VAUSE: Cohen's attorney says due to ongoing threats against his family from President Trump and Mr. Giuliani, this is a time when Mr. Cohen had to put his family and their safety first.

We'll take a short break. When we come back, Venezuela has two presidents but only one of them has the backing of the U.S. and the E.U. What's next for the South American nation in crisis.

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(COMMERCIAL BREAK)

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ANDERSON: If I asked you what the people here in Davos believe are the major risks to the global economy in 2019, likely you'd say asset bubbles and major markets or cyber attacks.

In fact, extreme weather events, failure of climate change mitigation and natural disasters all related to environmental concerns take the top spots in a global risks report released here ahead of the meeting.

Activists say that it should be -- all of those should be front and center at this World Economic Forum, especially as scientists continue to point out the grim news, that time is running out to reverse the drastic effects of climate change.

Christiana Figueres is one of the activists and has helped spearhead the 2016 Paris climate agreement, where 197 countries pledged to keep global warming well below 2 degrees above preindustrial levels.

In a piece she coauthored in "The Washington Post," she wrote --

[02:20:00]

ANDERSON: -- "Climate change is a existential threat to humanity and already a matter of life and death for many. It should be the number one priority and should sit at the center of every conversation in Davos."

The problem is, it may be a talker here but will that talk foster collective action?

I have to say ahead of this and I've been discussing this with other guests, who say we face an emergency crisis here, it is imbedded in conversations here.

Is it going -- are those conversations going to foster collective action is the question?

CHRISTIANA FIGUERES, U.N. CLIMATE CHIEF: I actually think that we are at a very important turning point. It is almost as though, up until now, we had read the first half of the book on climate change. The first half of any book points out what the problems are and the risks and threats.

It is almost as though now we're beginning to turn the page into the second half of the book on climate change, which is, yes, it is an existential threat and at the same time addressing climate change is actually the most important opportunity that we've ever had.

It is actually hard. It holds the potential to be the growth story, even if we have an economic downturn or I would say precisely in the moment of an economic downturn. It is investing in -- in the public infrastructure. It is decarbonizing the economy and creating jobs that will get the economy going and bring us around collaborative work.

ANDERSON: Forgive the pun but is the climate, the global climate for -- for international cooperation, given the populist governments that we see around the world turning their focus towards domestic issues, not global ones, which, in the past, have needed a multi-lateral approach, have we missed the boat?

FIGUERES: Well, yes, there are some but actually they're a minority. They're just very loud but they're the minority. Most of countries and you hear it here as well actually do understand that especially working on climate change, on famine, on all of the global issues, the entire family of the sustainable development, it needs collaboration.

Yes, of course, we always have some who deny that but they do that to their own peril.

ANDERSON: Some include the U.S. president Donald Trump. Let's hear what he had to say on the issue. Let's remind ourselves.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

TRUMP: We don't want other leaders and other countries laughing at us anymore. They won't be. I was elected to represent the citizens of Pittsburgh, not Paris.

(END VIDEO CLIP) ANDERSON: June 1st, 2017. Nothing has changed in Donald Trump's attitude.

FIGUERES: No; 24 hours after, that the citizens of Pittsburgh corrected him about what they really understand to be the threat of climate change and why they're decarbonizing.

And two years later, three years later, the -- the same -- the same -- Mr. Trump has actually flatly denied the report from the government of the United States that says should the United States not address climate change in a timely fashion, it actually will have huge economic consequences for the United States.

So I think there is enough information, if one wants to take the information.

ANDERSON: John Defterios and I were discussing earlier on this hour his -- his -- his observations from those that he's been talking to here, not least the big oil companies. He -- he -- he was explaining something that I was unaware of.

For so many big organizations, their shareholders, big institutional investors are holding them to account when it comes to -- to the energy transition.

That's good news, isn't it?

FIGUERES: It is good news.

The shareholders are doing so because they're concerned about the value of the company in the long term. They really understand we have no other option now but to move over to clean energy.

They're holding these companies to account because they're concerned about the risk of devaluing that company in increasing speed. This is all now about speed. The science is vertical clear about what direction we have to take.

The captains of the economy and that have really understood now finally, this is now going to be about speed, Becky. So before we drown in optimism, I am one that is optimistic. But this is about speed. It is very clear that the last report from the climate scientists has said that, by 2030, we have to be in the position to be able --

[02:25:00]

FIGUERES: -- to show that we have brought the current yearly emissions to one half. We currently emit 40 gigatons per year globally. And then by 2030, 11 years now, we have to be at 20. We have to reduce by 50 percent.

Every decade after that, 50 percent more. We have to cut emissions until we're at net zero emissions by 2050.

ANDERSON: Is that realistic? FIGUERES: Honestly, the other choice is not realistic. The other choice of causing the amount of poverty, of disaster and of economic turmoil is one that the society and the economy would not be able to take.

ANDERSON: Christiana, it has been fascinating having you on. We have the climate change minister from the UAE on up next after what will be a short break. So we can further discuss what you and I have been talking about here with, Dr. Starling (ph).

For the time being, thank you for joining us. John, we're going to chuck it back to you for the time being. We'll be back at the bottom of the hour.

VAUSE: We should say all the private jets which have arrived in Davos, about 1,500 apparently, all those CEOs and that carbon footprint.

ANDERSON: I've got the numbers for you.

VAUSE: We'll look forward to it.

OK. To Venezuela now. The socialist regime is facing one of the biggest threats ever to its hold on power. Tens of thousands of demonstrators filled the streets of Caracas and other cities to protest the second term of Maduro.

The national guard fired tear gas on some of the crowds at the capital. The E.U. and the U.S. and a dozen other countries have now recognized national assembly leader Juan Guaido as the legitimate president.

He swore himself in on Wednesday. Mr. Maduro defied him and accused the U.S. of backing a coup and ordered American diplomats to leave the country.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

NICOLAS MADURO, PRESIDENT OF VENEZUELA (through translator): I have decided to break diplomatic and political relations with the imperialist government of the United States. Out of Venezuela they go. Enough interventionism. There's dignity here. Here there are people to defend this land.

JUAN GUAIDO, INTERIM PRESIDENT OF VENEZUELA (through translator): I swear to assume all the powers of the national executive as the interim president of Venezuela, to secure an end to the usurpation and treasonous government and to have free elections.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

VAUSE: Juan Guaido there, finishing that that report. Short break here on CNN, a lot more when we come back. You're watching CNN NEWSROOM.

(COMMERCIAL BREAK) [02:30:00] JOHN VAUSE, CNN INTERNATIONAL ANCHOR: Welcome back to CNN Newsroom. I'm John Vause with the headlines this hour.

The E.U. and the U.S. and a dozen other countries now recognized Juan Guaido as the legitimate President of Venezuela. The National Assembly leader swore himself in and tens of thousands were out to protest the presidency of Nicolas Maduro. He accuses the U.S. of (INAUDIBLE) and gave American diplomats 72 hours to leave. According to North Korea state media, a personal letter from Donald Trump has been hand delivered to leader Kim Jong-un.

No details on the content. But Kim was said to be very pleased. The two leaders are in the process of finalizing the details of a second summit (INAUDIBLE) set out for next month. A lawyer for a Chinese- Australian writer detained in China tell CNN he's being held for alleged espionage. The details laid out in a letter from Beijing sent to the family of Yang Hengjun who accuses him of using state security. (INAUDIBLE) Yang Hengjun is also a vocal critic of the communist regime.

Here's (INAUDIBLE) Donald Trump has backed down on his battle with the House Speaker Nancy Pelosi over the State of the Union address tweeting late Wednesday he would deliver the speech once the government shutdown is over. Pelosi said the president would not be invited to the House chamber for the address as a tradition until the government reopens. (INAUDIBLE) protests took their frustration over the government shutdown to Congress.

In the Senate office building, demonstrators stood in silence for 33 minutes on Wednesday. One minute for each day of the shutdown. A short time later, a dozen protesters were arrested for demonstrating outside the Office of Senate Republican Leader Mitch McConnell. Air traffic controllers who are working without pay are among those who are feeling the stress.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

TOBY HAUCK, PRESIDENT, CHICAGO AIR ROUTE TRAFFIC CONTROL CENTER: It's got to be 100 percent on 100 percent of the time laser focused. We don't get to make mistakes ever. Two airplanes are coming together at 450 knots, a 900 knot closure rate. Blink your eye and you've got a problem. It's a stressful job, super stressful, and then you add in training or any kind of personal stuff, and then just the conversation about how much longer can we go? It's tough.

If you have a houseplant and you don't water it for 33 days or you neglect it for 33 days, eventually, the plant starts to look beat down, right? That's kind of where we're at. We're -- it's a tough job and things are starting to deteriorate.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

VAUSE: Meantime, a Republican source says if a deal to end the shutdown is not reached soon, President Trump is considering an executive action separate from declaring a national emergency. Even in Donald Trump does actually get funding to build his wall, law enforcement officials in one border town say drug smugglers will always find a way around it. Here's Ed Lavandera.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

ED LAVANDERA, CNN NATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: Leave behind the streets of Nogales, Mexico and take a journey into a world where border security is fought in the darkness underground. This is the labyrinth tunnels and the drainage system underneath the City of Nogales, Mexico that is often used by drug smugglers and human smugglers to get people and drugs into the United States. Local police guide us through the rivers of raw sewage and even down here, the international borderline is painted on the ceiling.

This wall is actually the international borderline and this black patch that you see is actually an old tunnel that was used by smugglers and Mexican authorities have sealed it off. But this is what it looks like underground here. In the last month, Mexican authorities have discovered three new tunnels in this border city, all designed to reach underneath the border wall that already exists here and pop up north of the border.

The most recent tunnel discovered here in Nogales actually emptied out into this area you see behind me. But it actually started deeper inside the city about three quarters of a mile away from where we're standing right now.

TONY ESTRADA, SANTA CRUZ COUNTY SHERIFF: There were two drug tunnels right here.

LAVANDERA: Sheriff Tony Estrada and his Lieutenant Jerry Castillo have spent decades patrolling the borderlands of Santa Cruz County in Arizona and they've seen organized crime cartels adapt to every new evolution of border security.

ESTRADA: We have the world's record as far as tunnels (INAUDIBLE)

LAVANDERA: More than 100 tunnels have been discovered in Nogales since 1995.

ESTRADA: (INAUDIBLE) opportunity (INAUDIBLE) the more difficult you make it, the more creative they're going to be.

LAVANDERA: That's a lot of tunnels.

ESTRADA: It is a lot of tunnels and at some point you wonder if there's going to be a huge sinkhole in this side of the border.

LAVANDERA: As the Trump administration pushes to expand the existing border walls, border authorities predict this will force cartels to expand their underground operations.

SCOTT STEWART, BORDER SECURITY EXPERT: When we're talking about tunnels, it's linked to the dynamics and economics of the drug trade. We're going to continue to see drug traffickers using tunnels, corruption, drones, catapults, anything else to get contraband across that border as long as there's that money to be made there. LAVANDERA: Lieutenant Jerry Castillo says detecting tunnel

construction is incredibly difficult. The cartels have become masters at tunneling. So you can be looking into Mexico --

(CROSSTALK)

JERRY CASTILLO, SANTA CRUZ COUNTY SHERIFF'S Office: And never know.

LAVANDERA: And never know that someone is building a tunnel right under your feet.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Yes.

[02:35:01] LAVANDERA: Two years ago, Border Patrol Operations Officer Lance LeNoir took us inside a border tunnel in California. He's part of a team known as the tunnel rats. Is it by hand, by shovel --

(CROSSTALK)

LANCE LENOIR, BORDER PATROL OPERATIONS OFFICER: Yes. It's basically almost exclusively by hand with power tools.

LAVANDERA: Hundreds of miles away in a New York courtroom in the trial of El Chapo Guzman, the drug kingpin's former lieutenants have detailed how vast amounts of cocaine and weapons have been smuggled through tunnels, but that there's always more than one way to get through a border wall. Lieutenant Jerry Castillo says a wall alone won't stop it.

CASTILLO: It's a cat and mouse game. It's, you know, we would -- we would think that we were on top of the game and all of a sudden something else pops up.

LAVANDERA: It never ends.

CASTILLO: It never ends.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

LAVANDERA: According to Immigration Customs Enforcement here in the United States since 1992, 203 border tunnels have been discovered along the southwest border with Mexico. And this really speaks to one of the things that we've heard repeatedly inside that trial of El Chapo in New York where those people close to El Chapo have described how these cartels continue to evolve and adapt to whatever border security changes are made on the northern side of this U.S.-Mexico border and that they will continue to do that, that they have used trains.

They have used ports of entry to smuggle drugs and they will continue to adapt to whatever changes are made on this side. Ed Lavandera, CNN, Nogales, Arizona.

BECKY ANDERSON, CNN INTERNATIONAL ANCHOR: All right. Well, even though it is freezing as can be there is always a lot of hot air about in Davos. Well, this week we are zeroing in on the catastrophe, the emergency crisis that is climate change and what is being done to fix it. Now, when you think global warming, you think emissions. You think oil. You maybe think the Middle East. But, look, they are actually tiny players when it comes to filling the atmosphere with bad stuff.

China, America, the E.U., India all have way more dirt on their hands. But of course, a lot of fossil fuel does come from the Middle East ever since you're seeing people first began dipping down into that ocean of crude beneath the sands. Well, now, those petrol dollars are helping fueling a new energy revolution, not from below, but from above, the sun. Dubai for example has one of the world's largest solar parks, well, who better to discuss the future of how we will power our planet than with someone pioneering it.

We are pleased to have UAE's Minister of Climate Change and the Environment, with us Thani bin Ahmed Al-Zeyoudi. You said that this is about encouraging people to live like your forefathers back to basics. Explain what you mean by that.

THANI AHMED AL-ZEYOUDI, MINISTER OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENVIRONMENT FOR THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES: (INAUDIBLE) Becky, thank you so much for hosting us. Let me just clarify something before we start. The (INAUDIBLE) not only about the emissions come out from hot carbon on oil and gas. It's about the fossil fuels. Now, first, (INAUDIBLE) mainly the coal which has been polluting the environment for history now.

The main pollution which comes out from the main -- the bigger polluters are coming from that portion. But that does not mean we have to just focus on the coal. The hydrocarbon is something which we and the UAE are looking at as one of the main resources to continue our growth and at the same time we diversify (INAUDIBLE) we supply the (INAUDIBLE) as it's needed.

ANDERSON: So explain how the UAE is uniquely susceptible to changing climate because, you know, this isn't -- by any stretch completely altruistic. I mean you were a Minister of Climate Change and the Environment for a reason. This is about national security, isn't it?

AL-ZEYOUDI: The (INAUDIBLE) environmental protection (INAUDIBLE) it has been imbedded in the whole (INAUDIBLE) since the union in 1971 and has (INAUDIBLE) always taken consideration, the environment and principles and most developments and he stopped the hunting. He stopped the resources over usages back in the 70s where no one around the world was talking about. In the UAE where -- when it comes to climate change is something which going to affect so many sectors.

And we've been taken this topic seriously here and the major transformation, and the way that we're running our economy. Let me just give you an example. So early 20s when we start the power demand of the country is picking up dramatically. So the tragic (INAUDIBLE) that we have to start investing in the clean energy to ensure that we are not disturbing the international supply once comes to (INAUDIBLE) at the same time we are sure that the power supply in the country is as required. So we start investing in the (INAUDIBLE) as well as the renewables and

now we're even breaking the global (INAUDIBLE) when it comes to producing power from hydrocarbon and even completing production power from the natural gas.

[02:40:10] ANDERSON: You announced -- I think it was a couple of years ago now some pretty lofty targets when it comes to the energy transition in the UAE. And I think people were pretty skeptical at the time. That was a vision. How are you getting on in implementing? Give me the numbers and let's talk about implementation.

AL-ZEYOUDI: 2017 -- 2015 when we submitted our indexes to climate -- to Paris agreement and the climate change discussion, the target of our clean energy was 21 percent by 2021. A year later, we revised the number. We increased it to 27 percent by 2022 -- 2021. The construction of the projects are going on. One of the largest single contractor projects in Abu Dhabi (INAUDIBLE) was softly open just two weeks ago and the (INAUDIBLE) opening is going to be a few weeks from now.

The (INAUDIBLE) are going (INAUDIBLE) solar parts construction is on and we're going to hit the target by 2021. The peaceful nuclear program as well as on strike and we're going to fulfill our demand by 2020.

ANDERSON: Dubai's crown prince leading your delegation here actually this year at Davos too. He says benefit human kind. Can you do that and do that profitably? How does it make climate change as it were?

AL-ZEYOUDI: Climate change is an opportunity for us in the country. We look at it as -- we look at the challenges which everyone is looking at as an opportunity to understand brining new ideas through the innovation, through the scale of investments that we do know, even by partnership with nobody. We spoke about our renewables. Now, renewables is very (INAUDIBLE) the idea of -- or the successful -- the projects and experience which we did in the country globally, in Europe, in small islands, and developing nations.

We're going beyond that when it comes to the climate change and the (INAUDIBLE) infrastructure. The infrastructure going back to the old practices. The old practices one doing the master planning and the buildings are very close to each other. So we make sure that the wind is will circulated and they're reducing the temperature around those communities. The shape which even push the temperature down and there's so many master plannings and developers are coming and see, what was the old Arabian designing and what comes to developing the communities and how the (INAUDIBLE) health assurance, we start even thinking the conscience to health.

Not many countries are looking at that. But last year was a distinguished one for us where we start correlating and marching the number of Christians which goes to the hospital with their various (INAUDIBLE) which hurts the country and the region. And we're seeing that there is -- there is a matching delegation over there. Infrastructure --

(CROSSTALK)

ANDERSON: (INAUDIBLE) very briefly. Go on.

AL-ZEYOUDI: Infrastructure is something which as well we did it softly. We - or this major -- the major projects around (INAUDIBLE) has been raised by 1.2 meters above sea level in case there are something (INAUDIBLE)

ANDERSON: I don't think that you are saying that the era of oil is over by any stretch of the imagination. But as I say that there are some pioneering efforts being made and those that we see with our own eyes, when you live in a country like the UAE to be commended. So thank you for coming on. And I'm sure you are as delighted as anybody else that climate change is front and center here. The question is lots and lots of talk about climate change viewers.

Can we get those who are talking about it here to actually effort some collective action to insure that this emergency crisis that those like Dr. Thani talked about with regard to climate change isn't affected anytime soon? Taking a short break. Back (INAUDIBLE)

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[02:46:35] VAUSE: Welcome back, everybody. In his final moments on board to a flight, it seems the football star, Emiliano Sala was calling friends and family about his fears the plane would crash.

Cardiff City's new star recruit and the pilot were flying from France on Monday when their single-engine Piper Malibu disappeared over the English Channel. We have more details now from Patrick Snell.

PATRICK SNELL, CNN INTERNATIONAL SPORTS ANCHOR AND CORRESPONDENT: Well, the search continues for the South American footballer Emiliano Sala who'd recently signed for the English Premier League Club Cardiff City.

Now, the Argentine who'd just been transferred by French Ligue side Nantes to the Wales capital for just under a reported $20 million was traveling along with the plane's pilot from western France when their light aircraft went missing over the English Channel on Monday night.

Now, audio has emerged of Sala on board the flight speaking to his friends in a WhatsApp voice message. We don't know when he made the call. Though in it, he appears to be making sarcastic jokes about the condition of the plane.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

EMILIANO SALA, FORWARD, CARDIFF CITY FOOTBALL CLUB (via telephone): Hello brothers, how are you doing crazy people? Brothers, I'm so tired, I was here in Nantes doing things, things, things, and things. And they don't end -- they don't end -- they don't end -- they don't end.

So, guys, I'm on the plane and it looks like it's going to fall down in pieces. And I'm on my way to Cardiff tomorrow, yes. We start in the afternoon, we start training guys with the new team. Let's see what happens.

So, how are you doing guys? All OK? If in an hour and a half you don't have news from me, I don't know if they would send someone to look for me because they won't find me, but you will know. Dude, I'm so scared.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

SNELL: It's now being well over two days since the plane and those on board went missing. And the authorities say that what began as a search and rescue operation is now a recovery mission.

On Wednesday, efforts to find the aircraft were suspended, saying the decision on whether to resume the search would be made early on Thursday. Patrick Snell, CNN, Atlanta.

VAUSE: Well, the Democratic Republic of Congo is about to mark its first democratic transfer of power in almost 60 years. Despite accusations of fraud in December's voting, Felix Tshisekedi was certified by the National Constitution Court and is set to be sworn in as the new president.

Outgoing President Joseph Kabila, who has been in power since 2001, says he is stepping down without regret. CNN's David McKenzie, live this hour from Johannesburg, said -- So, David if there was this, at least, one call from a disgruntled loser in the election basically saying that the vote was rigged, get out there and protest, and mostly went unheeded. Which I guess is a sign that this will be a peaceful transfer of power.

I think we're having a few problems there with David's audio. I can see his -- here we go.

DAVID MCKENZIE, CNN INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: -- South Africa.

VAUSE: Start again from the top, David, some audio issues.

[02:49:49] MCKENZIE: Sorry about that, John. So, base -- that's all right. So, the issues with this election have been running for more than two years. I think there's a sign -- a sigh of relief within this region that this might be a peaceful transfer of power, John.

And in the last few days, you've seen the shift from serious questions being asked from the African Union and others about the election results. And now, this is all sort of getting a bit quieter. And the latest was the U.S. on Monday saying that this, at least, tentatively they are happy with this announcement from the Supreme Court that certified the results over the weekend.

As you say, there hasn't been any major protests on the streets of Kinshasa and elsewhere. The losing opposition candidate Martin Fayulu has said that he is the president of the country. But it appears in the coming hours that's just going to be shown to be just, of course, not the case. John?

VAUSE: OK, David. I'm glad we got there in the end. If you're taking a problems but worth getting off on. Thank you.

OK, we'll take a short break. When we come back, a lot more news right here on CNN.

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VAUSE: A nurse at a long-term care facility in Phoenix, Arizona has been arrested and accused of impregnating a patient in a vegetative state. 36-year-old Nathan Sutherland was assigned to care for the woman. Last month she unexpectedly gave birth.

Her family says, she's not in a coma has a level of consciousness which includes responding to certain sounds. Sutherland has been charged with sexual assault and vulnerable adult abuse. Police still don't know if other women may have fallen victim to him. But they have living proof of this crime and the breakthrough came down to science.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

TOMMY THOMPSON, POLICE SERGEANT, PHOENIX: Sutherland was a licensed practical nurse or an LPN, who was responsible for providing care to the victim during the time this sexual assault occurred.

On Tuesday, January 22nd, that was yesterday. The scientists and the Phoenix Police Crime Laboratory determined the sample obtained from Sutherland matched the baby.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

VAUSE: Police say, Sutherland is not talking, at least, as of yet he's not talking. And the family of his victim has declined to comment, at least, (INAUDIBLE) word is the baby is doing well.

The Pope's historic security forces, Swiss Guard is known for their brilliantly colored uniforms. Now, they are moving into the 21st century with a modern take on their headgear. Delia Gallagher has the fashion details.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

DELIA GALLAGHER, CNN VATICAN CORRESPONDENT: It's a once-in-a-lifetime moment after more than a century, the Vatican Swiss Guards are getting new helmets. The Swiss Guard headquarters at the Vatican on Tuesday was abuzz unpacking the first wave of 150 new helmets just arrived from Switzerland, as they prepare to wear them for the first time.

The distinctive headgear called a morion has gone through various changes in the 500 years since the founding of the Swiss Guards, the elite army that protects the Pope.

NICOLAS ALBERT, SWISS GUARD: This is the back and this is the front.

GALLAGHER: The previous 19th-century version was made of metal, which Swiss Guard, Nicolas Albert says, was uncomfortable. Especially, when the hot Roman Sun beat down for hours, scorching guards skin. The new model is U.V. ray resistant and made of PVC with hidden air vents to keep the guards cool.

ALBERT: A lot of them were quite looking forward to Verdun because it didn't really like the old helmets. But yes, you were what you get.

[02:55:00] GALLAGHER: The 21st-century design was created by Swiss engineer, Peter Portmann and the 3D printing company which scans the 16th century original to create a prototype, which is then-molded in PVC and painted with a water-based U.V. resistant paint.

It takes just one day to make one helmet, whereas, the metal model took days. The helmets cost about $1,000 each. Paid for by private funds from donors like American businessman Jack Boyd Smith and his wife Laura. Who say they were happy to be part of such a historic change.

JACK BOYD SMITH, DONOR FOR NEW HELMET OF SWISS GUARD: I pay for the helmets. I think it's exciting. You know, change is always good and it's going to be new and modern. But it will still conform with the old -- the old guard so to speak.

GALLAGHER: The Swiss Guards tell me that it's actually a myth that Michel Angelo designed their uniforms. They are from the Renaissance, but it was actually the Pope's at that time who decided on the vibrant reds, blues, and yellows that make these uniforms such a standout today.

Pope Francis, the guards say has not weighed in. Yet on their change of helmet, a small tweak in a centuries-old tradition as the Vatican steps slowly but surely into the 21st century. Delia Gallagher, CNN, Rome.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

VAUSE: You know it seems like a good idea at the time. The Japanese city old, Susaki adopted a cuddly real-life author as its mascot. But now, the cute animal is out of a job after a bad-boy imitator. Meet Chiitan, the unofficial otter, become a really problem on the social media because he did stuff like that -- you know, for cars.

He also did like little awkward sexy pole dancing. Not really sexy. Those the moment when he was the weed whacker swinger. Unfortunately, she dance behavior caused a lot of collateral damage. Residents began confusing him for this year's real-life otter ambassador.

They complain to local officials. And so, one thing lefts for the other, the sea decided it was time to get out of the mascot. Business altogether and the official office contract was not renewed. This dude. I think that guy, he's awesome.

Thank you for joining us. I'm John Vause. After the break, Becky Anderson will have more of our special coverage from the World Economic Forum. And Kristie Lu Stout in Hong Kong. We'll have all the daily news from around the world. You're watching CNN.

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