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CNN 10

Russian Military Activities in the Arctic; Debate Over Fluoride in Bottled Water; CNN Hero Series

Aired April 8, 2019 - 04:00:00   ET

THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT. THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED.


CARL AZUZ, CNN 10 ANCHOR: Happy Monday or at least hey, it`s Monday. I`m Carl Azuz for CNN 10. We`re headed up north on today`s show. You mean

like Michigan? Farther. Saskatchewan? Farther. We`re taking you to a part of Russia that`s above the Arctic Circle. A place where Russia has a

new military base, one of 475 military sites that the nations said it`s built in the past six years. Dozens of them are located along the nation`s

Arctic coast. Several countries claim parts of the Arctic as their own and Russia wants to dominate the region.

Why? Several reasons. One of them is oil and gas. Scientists say the Arctic has huge reserves of these resources beneath its ice. It`s rich in

minerals and fish. It`s also the site of the Northern Sea Route, a shipping lane that significantly reduces the time it takes to sail or ship

goods from Europe to Asia. The route passes through Russian territorial waters and that country wants to control it. It`s worked to develop the

Northern Sea Route and as of this month, Russia requires foreign ships that use it to give notice, carry a Russian official aboard and pay increased

transit fees.

Russian President Vladimir Putin calls the Arctic the most important region that will provide for the future of his country. All this has caught the

attention of the U.S. The Coast Guard wants to build a new heavy ice breaker and the American government is discussing its own Arctic strategy,

but in several ways its rival across the Bering Sea appears to have a head start.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

FRED PLEITGEN, CNN INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: Racing north across the frozen Arctic Sea on a Russia army chopper. The Russians are making a huge

effort to upgrade their military infrastructure in the Arctic. Several of their bases are already fully operational and right now they`re flying us

to one of their most modern ones. They call this base Northern Clover. The Russian army has already deployed its coastal defense rockets here and

specialized Arctic anti-aircraft systems built to perform in the cold.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE TRANSLATED: This complex is adapted for much harsher weather conditions of the Arctic. It works in temperatures as low as -50

degrees.

PLEITGEN: It`s all part of Vladimir Putin`s long term strategy to dominate the Arctic. This base has a clear mission, to defend and enable Russia`s

interests in the Arctic north. The Northern Clover base is in a strategic location in Russia`s Arctic far east. It seems remote until you look at

the world from the top and see that this space is one of Russia`s closest to U.S. territory. The base can house up to 250 soldiers. Aside from its

weapons arsenal, it also has high powered radars to make sure America and its allies don`t come close.

Russia is pouring major resources into its Arctic endeavor. It`s the only country with a fleet of nuclear ice breakers to open up and control Arctic

trade routes that could make trade between Asia and the west much faster and cheaper. And Russia is already tapping into natural resources in the

Arctic like liquid natural gas. Even deploying floating nuclear power stations to fuel its Arctic ambitions.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE TRANSLATED: Our base performs radar control, monitors the airspace, secures the Northern Sea Route and eliminates damage to the

environment.

PLEITGEN: While Moscow is expanding and fortifying its position in this vital area, America and its allies lack even the same ice breaking power of

Russia`s fleet. Fred Pleitgen CNN on Kotelny Island in Russia`s Arctic North.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

AZUZ: 10 Second Trivia. In the early 1900s, Frederick McKay became known for his research into what? Fluoride and teeth, compression and engines,

X-rays and bone health or telegraph and wiring. McKay was a dentist who`s work examined the effects of fluoride on teeth.

He noticed that too much fluoride caused stains on the teeth of children in part of Colorado but it also protected their teeth from decay. A debate

over this continues to this day. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is considering a lower limit on the amount of fluoride that`s allowed in

bottled water. Fluoride is often added to bottled and tap water to prevent cavities and this is in addition to the fluoride that`s added to toothpaste

and mouthwash and provided at dentist offices. Currently the FDA allows bottled water with added fluoride to contain between .8 and 1.7 milligrams

per liter. The new standard would limit that to .7 milligrams of fluoride per liter.

But too much fluoride, especially for children who`s adult teeth are still forming can lead to a problem called dental fluorosis when white patches

form on teeth. In extreme cases this can cause pits in the teeth and some studies outside the U.S. have suggested that pregnant women with higher

amount of fluoride in their bodies can have children with lower IQ scores. Some scientists say the new FDA limits on bottled water with fluoride don`t

go far enough, that the limit should be lower. The American Dental Association, which supports adding fluoride to water, says the FDA`s

proposal would still work to prevent tooth decay. The new rule has not been finalized yet.

In Los Angeles, California it`s about one mile from Judge Craig Mitchell`s office at the county courthouse to the area where the city`s largest

homeless population stays. It`s known as skid row and that`s where since 2012, hundreds of people have taken strides with the Skid Row Running Club.

Part of the reason why Judge Mitchell is a CNN Hero.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

JUDGE CRAIG MITCHELL: It`s a dangerous place. People approach me asking if I want to buy drugs. I`ve been physically assaulted. I`m a superior

court judge. When I run from the courthouse to the Midnight mission on either side of every sidewalk, I personally look at hundreds of people who

are living on the street or in temporary shelters. It`s grim and it`s not getting better.

Hey there.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: Good morning. How are you?

MITCHELL: Good morning.

Back in 2012, I started a running club with people who are recovering from addiction and homelessness. We have another 15 miler before the marathon.

OK. So really do your best to make those long runs. It started out very humbly, two to three runners.

OK. Let`s do it.

But as the program grew over the years, we now will bring 30 to 40 runners out on any given morning. We run now three days a week. Then we do our

long runs on the weekends, everybody`s welcome. Running is a mechanism for the participants to build relationships. When word got out, people came

out of the woodwork, lawyers, social workers, people from all different walks of life were in intrigued with the idea.

This is the one time I`m at the front of the pack.

We have used the core group of people to provide a tremendous number of opportunities for our runners who are in recovery.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Here we come. The Midnight runners.

MITCHELL: OK. Good job.

We affirm. We listen. We support. Before the marathon everybody gets new shoes. OK. (inaudible) It shows what open minded people who really care

about each other, how they can treat one another and it`s a lesson in and of itself. No matter how bad your heads going or what`s going on, show up.

Things will happen. You think you got it hard, show up. Things will happen.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I got two job offers in Seattle.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I just want to say thank you so much for all that you`ve done. You`re amazing.

MITCHELL: There`s so many individual stories that keep me getting up at 3:30 in the morning. The admission committee carefully reviewed your

application and concluded that you would be a wonderful addition to the conservatory. (inaudible). People who have attended college. People who

are now pursuing professions.

With respect to count two, the court imposed 25 years to life. I address some really horrible crimes. It`s a wonderful solve to what I have to do

here in court.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

AZUZ: Time to suit up and dive into our 10 out of 10 segment. You are looking at what will be the deepest pool in the world. It`s currently

being built in a town about 30 miles from the capital of Poland. It`ll be 45 meters or 148 feet deep. It will hold three times the amount of water

of an average 25 meter pool. It`s got 1,100 tons of steel to contain it and it`ll have a tunnel and hotel rooms for people who want to stay dry

while they watch others swim.

You`ve got to really plum the depths to build a "dive" like that. Oh sure, some won`t jump in thinking they`re too "pool for school" but others would

be "fish out of water" if they didn`t strain their funds, "drain" their piggy bank and "sink" their money "chlorine" to a trip that lets them get

in the "swim" and "speedo" down to the bottom of a "well" that makes a splash and "soaks" them in a "scuba unfiltered" fun. Going deep for news

and puns. I`m Carl Azuz.

END