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Macron Wants Cathedral Rebuilt Within Five Years; Nearly A Billion Dollars Pledged For Rebuilding; Millions Cast Ballots In World's Biggest Presidential Election; Financial Reports Show Top Democrat Fundraisers; Mounting Expectations Biden To Run; France Vows to Rebuild after Fire Engulfs Paris Icon; Husband of U.S. Soldier Killed in Combat Deported; World's Biggest Boy Band BTS Breaks YouTube Record. Aired 1-2a ET

Aired April 17, 2019 - 01:00   ET


[01:00:00] JOHN VAUSE, CNN INTERNATIONAL ANCHOR: -- promised to rebuild it. Now the French President has vowed Notre Dame will be better than it was before and reconstruction could be done within five years. Most experts believe we could take three times longer than Emmanuel Macron has promised.

And their voting on the biggest most complicated one-day election in the world. The latest from Indonesia where nearly a quarter of a million candidates are competing for 20,000 positions including president. While at the U.S., a crowded field of Democratic presidential hopefuls are competing for campaign donations and right now that old Democratic Socialist from Vermont is showing the newbies how it's done.

A televised address to the nation from the Elysee Palace, French President Emmanuel Macron believes the badly damaged Notre Dame Cathedral can be fully rebuilt and restored within the next five years. At best that's considered an ambitious timetable. Even so, some of France's old moneyed families are dipping into their vast fortunes donating hundreds of millions of dollars to help cover the cost of restoration expected to be in the billions.

Meantime, investigators still don't know what started Monday's fire but for now continue to believe it was accidental, not intentional. We begin our coverage with CNN's Melissa Bell reporting in from Paris.


MELISSA BELL, CNN PARIS CORRESPONDENT: Tonight, the full scale and extent of the damage the iconic Notre Dame Cathedral becoming clear as investigators sift through the rubble after a devastating fire on Monday evening that engulfed the landmark in flames leaving onlookers stunned.

Paris prosecutors starting an investigation into the cause of the fire but they believe that it was accidental. Experts are now identifying vulnerabilities in the infrastructure attempting to preserve what's left and evacuating nearby buildings until it's deemed safe.

Overnight 400 firefighters battling more than nine hours to bring the fire under control pumping water from the sin River to combat the flames. Inspectors say the fire began in the attic and spread across the ancient beech wood beams in the cathedrals roof which collapsed along with the spire. Remarkably it seems that much of the interior has survived.

Striking photos show the huge gold cross shrouded in smoke still hangs over the altar and pews still stand in the aisles. The chaplain of the Paris Fire Service who helped victims after the city's terrorist attack in 2015 is again being hailed as a hero after rushing into the burning Cathedral to salvage priceless art and artifacts.

Like the crown of thorns believed to have been placed on the head of Jesus are being stored in the Paris City Hall and the Louvre Museum to be preserved. The famous stained-glass rose windows also appear largely intact. The 850-year-old landmark was already being restored when the fire began wrapped in scaffolding up to the spire.

Architects admit it will take months to comprehend the scale of the reconstruction. The French President tonight vowing to have it rebuilt within five years.

EMMANUEL MACRON, PRESIDENT OF FRANCE (through translator): We will make the Cathedral of Notre Dame even more beautiful. We can do this.

BELL: International companies and private citizens already pledging hundreds of millions of dollars to fund the restoration as tourists and citizens mourn the loss of a monument.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I was passing by it several times a day every day for years and never got used to it. I guess it's never going to be the same again.

BELL: And again here in Paris this evening more outpourings of emotion as hundreds of people gathered for another vigil this time going from (INAUDIBLE) church here to the edge of the cordon as close as they could get to Notre Dame whilst inside the efforts are continuing overnight once again to try and get to the bottom of precisely how secure the edifice is as France looks now towards its reconstruction. Melissa Bell, CNN Paris.


VAUSE: Let's head to Los Angeles now with CNN's European Affairs Commentator Dominic Thomas. So Dominic, the French President said that with a straight face, Notre Dame can be rebuilt in five years. Here's a few questions which could take them five years to answer before anyone lays a brick. Is this building half destroyed or half preserved? And depending on that answer, the next question will be do they restore it, preserve it, repair it, or rebuild it because all those options may sound similar but in this case they all mean something very different.

DOMINIC THOMAS, CNN EUROPEAN AFFAIRS COMMENTATOR: They are and I think it's also extraordinary to see why this. I mean, clearly after this moment the job of the head of state is to reassure the people that this monument that was so dear to them will continue to exist in some kind of shape or form.

What I find absolutely extraordinary is this -- is this rush to just sort of -- to make this kind of statement. This is an opportunity to I think completely rethink the strategy about how one would go about redesigning and rebuilding this building. There are of course original components that go all the way back to the 13th century. But it is a physical structure that has evolved over time with a you know, copper, and stone, and metal, and so on.

[01:05:16] And it might actually be an extraordinary opportunity for them to think about the ways in which you could actually you know, rebuild this building using sustainable materials in a more eco- friendly way. And it would seem to me that in the 21st century, to be searching for a forest that you can destroy in order to restore this roof is -- doesn't somehow and seem right or to do it justice particularly coming from a president who let's not forget you know, not long ago stated let's make the planet great again.

So I think that that's one important component. And the other one is to take some time to think about and the ways in which these sort of heritage sites of which there are dozens in France listed under the UNESCO regulations and so on and so forth also need an serious attention and to revisit the state's role in maintaining these historic sites.

VAUSE: Well, in the words of the former Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel, never let a crisis go to waste. Here's a little more from the French President addressing the nation from the Elysee Palace.


MACRON (through translator): Throughout our history we have built towns, ports, structures. Many have been burnt or were destroyed by wars, revolutions, mankind's mistakes. Each time, we have rebuilt them. The fire of Notre Dame reminds us that our story never ends and that we will always have challenges to overcome. What we believe to be indestructible can also be damaged.


VAUSE: You know, if you listen to the tone of Macron, it's like 1940 all over again, is the evil Nazi invasion. He's rallying the people of France to come together and it's working because you know, from now the opposition political parties have declared a truce. There's this feeling of shared loss which is sort of mistaken for national unity.

You know, but as much as Macron wants to wrap himself in this reconstruction project, long term it seems this kumbaya moment will not solve his political problems.

THOMAS: No, they're not going to. And in fact you know, it's a very delicate moment, obviously. People are shocked in many ways. It's too early to start thinking about the greater political realities of this. People are grieving, people are mourning. But the fact is that process has already started. In fact, there's already been significant scrutiny of this major gifts

that are being promised for the process of rebuilding the structure that have come from some of the richest people in France, you know, billionaires, individuals that have benefited and exponentially from Emmanuel Macron's tax reform and tax concessions to major corporations.

And I think people are at a moment when in France, there are these exacerbated tensions between different social groups, the Yellow Jackets, and struggles and so on and so forth that of course Emmanuel Macron's appeal to achieve reconciliation at this time is going to come under you know, greater scrutiny as people will point to the fact that there are these tremendous social and inequalities.

And as much as monuments and history are incredibly important, France is also dealing with some other very significant and human problems that are impacting the population. So you can see how difficult it is to navigate these difficult situations.

VAUSE: It's interesting you raise the fact that these huge sums of money are just coming. And let's take a look at the list of the families who are you know, digging deep into their vast wealth here. This is the wealthiest of the wealthy handing over euros like they're living in the Weimar Republic and they're buying a loaf of bread. You know, suddenly they've discovered the very beating heart of French culture. Listen to this.


JEAN-CLAUDE TRICHET, FORMER GOVERNOR, BANK OF FRANCE: For me it is the heart and the center of France and also of course, I have to say that the fact that this Gothic architecture which was born around here was generalized all over Europe. So as part of the I would say, global legacy of architecture, so all this makes you know but myself very moved, my family very moved, my grandchildren, my children very moved.


VAUSE: Where they all been? The Cathedral has been slowly falling apart for decades. The French Government has been the owner and landlord Notre Dame since 1905. It's constantly being at odds with the church of the cost of maintenance. Two years ago, the church is so desperate for money it appeals directly to U.S. donors. Where were all these wealthy people and their hundreds of millions of euros willing to pony it up.

THOMAS: Yes. I mean, it's something that is going to come under serious scrutiny. Not only that, but one of these billionaires (INAUDIBLE) that runs his incredible art collection valued at somewhere around a billion dollars and was on Twitter today asking that this particular site be re-categorized as a national treasure, traditionally reserved for art objects so that greater tax concessions could be provided to these corporations for providing this kind of money. And so this has already ignited a significant and debate and discussion in the internet space and so on too. And of course then the greater question is what happens to all those other spaces. Yes, the Notre Dame is such an iconic and site, but there are many other larger in some cases older cathedrals located around many of these northern cities from (INAUDIBLE) you name it, that are in absolutely awful conditions and that the state has been resistant to invest money in rebuilding.

The irony of this of course, is that these are the major sites that attract tourists to France. Some ten percent of French GDP goes towards tourism. And so it's also going to be a time for the state to rethink its responsibility to this. And it's not going to be able to rely on donors throughout time to support these kinds of initiatives.

But yes, you're absolutely right, what is it about this particular moment and that has galvanized these individuals to donate and so much money and that is going to come under significant scrutiny in the days and weeks to come.

VAUSE: Just very quickly, it seems Macron sort of also taking the head of this project. He's sort of ratcheting himself in the reconstruction. He wants to be the leader or the president that gives Notre Dame back to the people. And you know, this is a very fine line that he's walking.

THOMAS: It is a very fine line. And this is a president that's been working a very fine line in terms of his general relationship to the people. He is a president that is considered aloof from the concerns of the people with sort of royalist you know, inclinations and whose discourse has really alienated many people in French society.

Many would argue that he has not handled the Yellow Jackets conflict and standoff in a very positive way. And so positioning himself as the defender of French history and of architecture and buildings is obviously going to expose him to greater scrutiny for the ways in which he has failed the greater concerns you know, of so many significant segments of the French population that do have genuine grievance in terms of how his policies have impacted him -- them.

VAUSE: Yes, absolutely. Dominic, thank you. Good to have you with us. We appreciate your thoughts.

THOMAS: Cheers. Thank you, John.

VAUSE: In London, more than 300 arrests from days of climate change protests. Demonstrators tried to paralyze the scene by blocking Waterloo Bridge, Marble Arch and other main areas and central market. They're demanding the U.K. as well as others to cut carbon emissions to zero. Protest are planned this week in 80 cities across 33 countries all organized by the British climate group Extinction Rebellion.

Voting is underway in the world's largest presidential election. Across Indonesia's 17,000 Islands, almost 200 million people are eligible to vote and was considered the world's most complicated single day election. 245,000 candidates are running for more than 20,000 government positions and that includes the office of the President.

Political Analyst Kevin Evans joins us now from Jakarta. So Kevin, we've got Joko Widodo, the incumbent, a very strong leader, consistently in the polls, but apparently this is still a large number of undecided voters which you know, much like last time could make this a much closer result against the challenger he defeated five years ago.

KEVIN EVANS, POLITICAL ANALYST: I think that's right. I sometimes think that this new term that we often hear is the lean-to candidate so a lot of people who voted for Brexit for example wouldn't say so, they did. Some people might not vote for Mr. Trump, they did. So there's a bit of a feeling that perhaps the lean-to candidate in this election is the challenger.

But the bottom line on polling that's come out even including the undecided is that the incumbent still sits above the magic 50 percent line. So it'll be a significant challenge for the -- for the challenger to pull that back.

VAUSE: When Joko Widodo was first elected five years ago, there are all these comparisons made you know, the former U.S. President Barack Obama. It seems he may be lost a little of that gloss this time around. And his challenger Prabowo was linked this time to Donald Trump because he's running this campaign which some say is a fear campaign. He's appealing to the sense of nationalism. So what's at stake here for Indonesia with result of this election?

EVANS: Probably more than meets the eye and less than meets the eye. So at the most hyperbolic end, there are some that argue that President Joko represents the last bastion of defense in favor of the pluralist version of Indonesia, whereas his challenger represents the onset of further for one of a better term Islamization of Indonesia.

I think as always it's a lot more subtle than that and I think people miss quite a lot of the important developments that are taking place if they'd tried just to bifurcate with merely those two elements to the debate.

[01:15:08] VAUSE: So, what would you say, are there more important elements here that -- you know, we already understand just looking on from around the world?

EVANS: Well, within the Islamic communities, there are different views on where the country goes forward. A number have been mobilized toward defending pluralism. In a way that perhaps, they were a little more reticent about doing.

A number of activists from the middle classes have suddenly realized that the traditional pluralist view of Indonesia actually needed to be defended in a more aggressive form than they have been willing to do for the last two decades.

And from the other side, of course, there's a lot of discussion about equity. So, in addition to what it would have been the kind of the Trump-esque kind of elements to the campaign, is actually also the railing against the top one percent.

So, Prabowo happily admits that he's part of that one percent. I guess a bit like Mr. Trump. But there's also an argument that after these years, there needs to be a more equitable distribution of income and opportunities, particularly, for the aspirational middle classes.

VAUSE: Kevin, we appreciate you being there. We appreciate the update. Of course, you know, this is going to go on for all day. They're hoping to have some kind of result, I guess, within a couple of hours of polls closing. We appreciate the analysis though, Kevin. Kevin Evans, there in Chicago.

Still to come. Hundreds of millions of dollars pledged to rebuild Notre Dame. Still ahead, this hour, the priceless treasures that would make the Cathedral, the crown jewel of Paris.

Also, in a crowded field of U.S. Democratic presidential candidates, money matters. For who's bring in the most cash, whose struggling, and who's burning through the money.


VAUSE: Get another popcorn, the U.S. Attorney General expected to release the Mueller report on Thursday. Former and current White House officials are set to regretting it. President Donald Trump insists the report, at least, based on the four-page summary from the Attorney General exonerates him on allegations of collusion with Russians and obstruction of justice.


DONALD TRUMP, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: Well, it showed that it's a total phony. I don't have to say that -- I mean, you just take a look at the conclusion. There can't be anything there because there was no crime, there was no anything. The crime was committed by the other side.


VAUSE: It could be something there because aides are worried the report will present credible descriptions by named officials of a White House in upheaval in chaos. A Republican source, says if that happens, Donald Trump will go bonkers.

Until the Democratic candidates running for the U.S. presidency in 2020 is large, to say the least. And to stay in that race for the long haul, you need a lot of cash. And by that measure, there are some leaders who are starting to emerge. Leyla Santiago has details.




WARREN: I believe in this, we got to make it happen. Go to, put in five bucks.

SANTIAGO: On social media, 2020 campaign e-mails all about the money, because it matters. President Donald Trump whose reelection efforts started the day he was sworn into office, has raised $30.3 million from January to March. It's the strongest fundraising quarter of his presidency.

TRUMP: We're going to have a great election.

SANTIAGO: The president's early fund-raising advantage prompting a note of urgency from the Democratic National Committee. Blasting out an e-mail with a subject line that reads, "We must keep pace with Donald Trump's campaign." Adding, "It's all hands on deck."

Official financial reports made available this week show a top tier now beginning to form among Democratic candidates. Leading the pack, Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders.

SEN. BERNIE SANDERS (I-VT), PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE: We have raised a considerable amount of money in -- you know, the last six weeks since we've been in the -- in the campaign. And I'm proud of that. And our average contribution used to be $27. It's gone down to $20.

SANTIAGO: According to the latest FEC filings, in the first quarter, Sanders raised $18 million. California Senator Kamala Harris, $12 million. Former Texas congressman, Beto O'Rourke, more than $9 million. And South Bend mayor, Pete Buttigieg, $7 million.

Behind them, the crowded field of Democrats on the 2020 campaign trail, scrambling to keep up. Some candidates who did not pull in as much boosted their numbers by transferring leftover money from previous campaign accounts into the presidential committees.

Meanwhile, those rejecting money from political action committees are using it to court voters.

REP. BETO O'ROURKE (D-TX), PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE: That's the way that we are running this campaign. No PACs, no lobbyists, just human beings, our fellow Americans, we'll make up. What I hope will be the largest grassroots effort this country has ever seen.

SANTIAGO: While no Democratic candidate is anywhere near having Trump totals, they are all aware that the road to the White House will require more support and enthusiasm in the form of dollars.


VAUSE: Leyla Santiago, there. Joining us now from Los Angeles, CNN political commentator, and Democratic strategist Dave Jacobson. I remember you.

DAVE JACOBSON, CNN POLITICAL COMMENTATOR: Thanks for having me. It's been a while. VAUSE: It's been a while.

JACOBSON: It's good to see you.

VAUSE: It's nice to see you too, mate. OK. At this early stage, money talks. And you know, Donald Trump, he looks like he's doing particularly well. But, you know, combine Democrats, in this side of race, always done in many though, since the last quarter.

And the best comparison is the 2008 primary, it was a crowded field back then, a lot of candidates running. Same time, the election cycle combined, they've raised just over $85 million. And just inflation and all that, and it's pretty much a wash.

So, you know, apples are apples. The problem is this election, right now, political community comes from small-dollar donors. And that's where Trump and Sanders are masters at it.

So, where does that leave the rest of Democratic field? If they cannot get the same sort of -- you know, small numbers, small-dollar donors to pony up are. I think they're going to be out luck?

JACOBSON: Well, look, I think more broadly, there's two schools of thought. Number one, is that like money doesn't matter, right? Like, Donald Trump theoretically could've won of Republican nomination just by your media. Right?


JACOBSON: And, by the way, at this point in the cycle, Jeb Bush was the money front runner, and Hillary Clinton was the front runner in 2008. None of those folks won. Right?

The other school of thought, potentially is that money is cyclical. Those who are raising lots of resources are going to fuel more news coverage because they're perceived front runners or the top tier of those running in the race. And those -- the extra news coverage and getting their brand and their message out there is going to then- propel them in polls, which then, like a cycle, helps them to raise more money. So, it sort of creates this merry-go-round effect.

VAUSE: Where do you stand? What do you think?

JACOBSON: Well, look, I think -- I think, it's the merry-go-round effect. I mean, look, the reality is, we're going to talk right now about Bernie Sanders. Why? Because he raised the most amount of money. And you'd mention small-dollar donors. I think that's significant. Why? Because he can sustain over the long haul.

If you look at the individual contributions that Bernie Sanders received from individuals, 84 percent of those were less than $200. That means that he can hit up those donors again, and again, and again. And sustain a month's long, year's long -- even campaign all the way potentially to the convention.

And that's critical. These low dollar donations are very, very important. Because, what we saw last cycle with the binary choice of Bernie Sanders, the low dollar funded campaign versus Hillary Clinton. That she was hitting up a lot of the heavyweight donor class who can only max out at $2,700 a pop. Once they give, they are done.

Now, they can raise money from their friends, and family, and neighbors. But once they hit that high threshold, the contribution limit, they're done.

VAUSE: Yes. OK, so --

JACOBSON: Bernie Sanders can hit these folks up repeatedly.

[01:25:00] VAUSE: So, in this calculation so far, no mentioned Joe Biden, the former vice president if he -- you know, if he decides to run, obviously, everything changes. The president has made this prediction. He tweeted, "I believe it will be crazy Bernie Sanders versus sleepy Joe Biden as the two finalists run against maybe the best economy in history of our country." Really? "And many other great things. I look forward to facing whoever it may be. May God rest their soul."

You know, OK. Earlier this month, there was a film crew spotted outside Biden's childhood home in Scranton. POLITICO reports, where there's leak about Biden taping a Spanish-language ad in Florida. So, you know, declare already get in.

But you know, just like generals fighting the last war, is Biden the right candidate for the last election?

JACOBSON: Well, if you look at the early polls, and again, they are very early. But even Fox News put out a poll, John, just on Sunday. Showing Biden beating Donald Trump, 47 to 40.

And in fact, the Democratic socialist, Bernie Sanders was even beating Donald Trump. 44-to 41 in that same poll. So, I think it's clear that Donald Trump has -- the American people have soured on Donald Trump. He's become toxic. Americans are sick and tired of the crisis to crisis mentality of the White House, you know.

And so, I think they're looking for change. And it's undoubtedly going to be a referendum in this election against the commander in chief Donald Trump. And that's why I think you're seeing these Democrats consistently pulling ahead of the incumbent president.

VAUSE: If you wonder that change, there's probably no candidate who'd be a bigger change from Donald Trump than maybe Pete Buttigieg. OK? Back in January, the first major story, New York Times ran about him, they included an e-mail that pronounce for his last name. He was that much of unknown no one. And he pronounced it as boot-edge-edge.

And he is about not of the frontrunners now. He has raised seven million dollars, not a lot in itself, but -- you know, it's a significant chunk of cash for someone who is from South Bend Indiana, no one knew up until -- you know, a couple of weeks ago.

JACOBSON: Yes, that's totally right. I mean, the reality is, I think anything can happen. Right? Like conventional wisdom has been thrown out the window. Like Donald Trump is president. Nobody thought how it happened. You know, and by the way, like nobody thought Barack Obama in 2007 was going to ultimately become president of the United States.

And so, I think, you know, it's plausible, this guy clearly has been proven to be a prolific fundraiser. $7 million in such a short time span as a local mayor is nothing short of jaw-dropping.

And it's clear that he's the flavor of the week. The question is, is he going to be the flavor of the month? Is he going to be the flavor of the quarter? And perhaps, more than that. That's the big unknown. Right?

And I think, also, when we get into these debates and we talk about specifics, you know, the question is, is he going to have sort of a breakthrough moment to stand out and sustain this momentum. That's the big unknown.

VAUSE: If he was elected as president, he would have more military experience than any other presidents since George H.W. Bush.

JACOBSON: And I think it's amazing. I mean, I think that is a key asset. I mean, ultimately, it's those independent swing voters in those purple states. And those states that recently flipped red to blue, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin. And you know, his ability to talk about being a veteran and fighting for our country, and being a patriot, I think that is a key asset that he ought to use in his campaign capitalize on it, and I think he will.

VAUSE: OK, one last thing on Mayor Pete, you know, Donald Trump wants to label all socialists -- all Democrats as socialists here because of the Green New Deal and Medicare for all.

Buttigieg, it seems to be able to take on that argument and turn it back on to Trump and the Republicans in a very calm and measured way. Here he is, listen to this.


MAYOR PETE BUTTIGIEG (D-IN), PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE: Well, I think the reason we're having this argument over socialism and capitalism is that capitalism has led a lot of people down.

I guess, what I'm out there to say is that it doesn't have to be so. I believe in Democratic capitalism, but the Democratic Party is extremely important. Having that framework of a rule of law -- of fairness, is actually what it takes for markets to work.


VAUSE: It's not this on a number of issues like family values, and Christian values. And you know, he's taken this, and really challenged Vice President Mike Pence on a number of this issue. And right now, he seems to be leading Democrat able to do that. JACOBSON: I think that's right. I mean, he's got a very optimistic and uplifting message, which I think the country needs right now. There's too much division and chaos and extremism.

And I think the reality is that coming from the Midwest, he's able to talk about these issues and present a different tone and perhaps we've seen over the course of Donald Trump's presidency.

I think the devil is going to be in the details. When it comes out to the specifics, when he rolls out sort of his blueprint, that's going to be the real barometer about whether or not this message is able to resonate.

But on the flip side, I'll tell you, John, Bernie Sanders was on Fox News the other day and got a standing ovation when he talked about Medicare for all.


JACOBSON: And, by the way, like this is an issue consistently that polls where the majority of Americans actually support the issue including Republicans. And so, I think that's going to be a key issue that continues to sort of have broad appeal and be part of this discourse as we move ahead.

VAUSE: Yes, we're out of time. But Democrats sweep the House in 2018, not on the Russia report of Mueller, or Trump's at whatever tax taxes, they won it on health care. So, you know, it's an important indicator for what's coming up next year.

JACOBSON: Absolutely.

VAUSE: Dave, as always. It's really good to see you. Thanks for being with us.

JACOBSON: Yes, likewise. Thanks for having me.


VAUSE: Pleasure. OK. We'll come -- when we come back, it stood for more than eight centuries with gargoyles, saints and angels. We'll take a look at what makes Notre Dame Cathedral one of the most significant buildings in the world.


VAUSE: welcome back everybody. You're watching CNN NEWSROOM.

I'm John Vause with the headlines this hour.

Millions across Indonesia are heading to the polls in what's considered the most complex single day election in the world -- the voting for president as well as national provincial and local lawmakers. More than 240,000 candidates are running for more than 20,000 elected positions. Investigators say they do not think the fire which devastated the Notre-Dame Cathedral in Paris was intentional. There are still potential weaknesses though in the building's structure. The French President Emmanuel Macron would like to see the Paris landmark rebuilt better than before within five years.

The Notre Dame Cathedral represents France like few other monuments. And now that the smoke has cleared, there is reason to hope. Much of the Gothic structure was saved and as Phil Black reports returning it to its former glory is the focus of the nation.


PHIL BLACK, CNN CORRESPONDENT: How do you measure the profound value of one old building to a nation or to the world? Perhaps when people stop in the street trip to weep and pray because of its partial destruction, when the French president openly shares that grief.

EMMANUEL MACRON, FRENCH PRESIDENT (through translator): Our efforts to save it are broadcast everywhere.

BLACK: Notre Dame is among the most famous of famous buildings. 13 billion people visit every year. Countless more stand before it, tilt their heads up and gaze at the extraordinary vertical scale, the vast rose windows, and the many ornate sculptures guarding its exterior -- gargoyles, saints, and angels. All the features that make it a masterpiece of the gothic style.

But few visitors saw this -- a 2018 special broadcast by local network France Deux showed these images of the centuries-old woodwork supporting the roof. There's so much oak here, it's known as the forest of Notre Dame. The same timber structures that would just a few months later feed a fire that threatened to destroy the whole cathedral.

Notre Dame, Our Lady of Paris, has stood since the 1200s, a building in constant evolution, as artists and craftsmen altered and repaired the structure and its decorations. The towering timber spire now lost to the flames was added in the 1800s.

[01:35:00] often assemble and reflection of French political power, the cathedrals was vandalized through the French Revolution, while Napoleon Bonaparte used it to reinstate monarchic rule with his coronation as emperor. Later, French Republican leaders, the nation's presidents were honored here too.

This was service was for military hero and statesman Charles de Gaulle. Notre Dame survived the violence and occupation of war, more recently terrorist attacks in Paris not saw it become a focus for the nation's grief.

An inspiration for artists across many art forms (ph) -- none more important than Victor Hugo's novel published in English as "The Hunchback of Notre Dame".

Before the flames, time and weather were the cathedral's determined and powerful enemies. Desperately needed restoration work was already underway. Now saving Notre Dame has become a critical goal for all of France. In a place famed for beautiful old buildings, one stood up above all others as an icon of the nation's story and the French people are not ready to let it go.

Phil Black, CNN -- London.


VAUSE: Kevin Murphy is professor and chair of the Art History Department of Vanderbilt University. He joins us this hour from Nashville, Tennessee.

So Kevin -- on Tuesday, the French president made what seemed to be quite an optimistic prediction of how long the reconstruction and restoration project will take. Here he is, Emmanuel Macron. Listen to this.


MACRON: I tell you tonight, with strength, we are a nation of builders. We have so much to contribute. So yes, we will rebuild Notre Dame even more beautiful. And I want that to be done in the next five years. We can do it.


VAUSE: But according to CNN's own reporting, the full restoration of Notre Dame Cathedral will take between 10 to 15 years. This is according to the head of the group of companies for the restoration of historic monuments. A spokesman told us, "This will require a lot of work since beyond shoring and reinforcement, it will be necessary to build a scaffolding with an umbrella to be able to cover the entire roof that went missing to ensure protection against weathering. So do you see this as being a five-year job like the French President, up to 15 years or maybe even longer than that?

KEVIN MURPHY, VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY: Well, I think that's a question that can be answered when more is known about the state of this building. That five years is very optimistic of a timeframe. I certainly hope that that would be realized. But, you know, it's such an enormous (AUDIO GAP). My suspicion is that it might take longer than that.

VAUSE: They are also some very unique complications, which are already, you know, coming to light here. For example, trying to match (ph) some of the construction materials. The roof was made of beechwood beams over 800 years ago. There are no longer trees of that size in France. This is according to the vice president of the French Heritage Society when asked if any trees in Europe were big enough for the beams. It could be imported to Paris. He said he said I don't know.

You know, how much leeway will they have to move away from those original specifications? Maybe not use wood, use steel or something else, I don't know. MURPHY: Right. I mean that's a decision that they will have to make. Not only is that timeframe wrong because of the (AUDIO GAP). There are also the philosophical issues that they will have to address such as, the one that you just brought up, which is really important.

Do they stick to the actual materials and the technology that was used before? Or are they going to embrace newer technology that may be more realizable on a short timeframe.

And as you point out, in terms of the wood, I mean that's an important concern whether that material is even available today.

VAUSE: I guess at least the original specifications of the cathedral survived to this day, but beyond that there's also this incredible digital replication or replica which was made four years ago by professor at Vassar University.

It will be especially helpful in rebuilding the ceiling, because the ceiling, amongst other things, has continually changed over 800 years. As well as a whole of other details which haven't really actually been recorded anywhere.

Another example is the interior columns, which don't light up at the western end of the cathedral. So there's whole lot of, you know, little minute details which really in and of themselves will be incredibly important.

MURPHY: So that digital project is really important for providing a real image of the building as things (ph) stood before the fire. And what you point out is really important that the building is a living thing, not an object that was completed at one time and left as it was, but in fact it evolved over the course of time.

[01:39:54] And the only way that we can know about what it was before the fire, is through the documentation that was produced most recently and that is the digital documentation, which I think will be so useful.

VAUSE: It also seems that, you know, just in general terms, there is a right way to rebuild a historical building and a wrong way. The Venice Opera House burned to the ground back in 1996. It reopened eight years later. It was rebuilt to the original 19th century design, but some criticize that as just being garish, and maybe, you know, they missed a chance her to choose maybe a more modern design.

And then you have Britain's winter castle, again fire the cause of all the damage, this time in 1992. Five years later a year ahead of schedule, restoration was finished to widespread approval even the Queen was said to be quite pleased with the final result.

One of the lessons here, on the eve of what will likely be one of the biggest and most challenging restoration the world had ever (AUDIO GAP).

MURPHY: Well, (INAUDIBLE) allowed decision to be made about the building before it (AUDIO GAP) a plan. And the restoration of Notre Dame has been controversial since the 19th century.

So (AUDIO GAP) will be, are those only a restoration restored, or do they attempt to go back to an image of the original building? So that will have to be resolved. You know, no matter what direction they move in, there are bound to be controversies (AUDIO GAP) that are made.

So if you imagine that process itself, it will take quite a long time to resolve, and it will always be irresolvable because there are few people on both sides.

VAUSE: Yes. It sounds like they'll spend five years just deciding on, you know, how it should be restored let alone actually restoring because as you say, a lot of important decisions to come.

MURPHY: Right.

VAUSE: Professor -- thank you so much for your time.

MURPHY: You're very welcome. Thank you.

VAUSE: She was in America hero, a soldier who died serving her country, and years later, a grateful nation deports her widowed husband back to Mexico. Details after the break.


VAUSE: Prosecutors have recommended four to ten months in prison for actress Felicity Huffman. This is for her role in the U.S. college admission scandal. She pleaded guilty last week to conspiracy to commit fraud and that she took part in a scam to improve her daughter's scores on a college prep exam. A judge will ultimately decide Huffman's fate most likely when she's back in court in just over a month.

[01:45:05] The widowed husband of a U.S. soldier killed in combat is fighting to stay in the United States, fighting to stay with his 12- year-old daughter. Immigration agents deported him to Mexico last week. And while he's back on Americans soil for now, his cases, as Nick Watt reports, is far from over.


NICK WATT, CNN CORRESPONDENT: A gold star spouse back on U.S. soil after a harrowing few days in Mexico, deported, this 12 year old daughter left behind in Arizona.

JOSE GONZALEZ CARRANZA, GOLDSTAR SPOUSE DEPORTED TO MEXICO: My daughter, she lost his mother and then probably -- (INAUDIBLE) but she never see his father again, too.

WATT: His wife Barbara Vieyra died serving her country, this country. And this country deports the husband she left behind. The story first broken by the "Arizona Republic" newspaper.

EXEQUIEL HERNANDEZ, ATTORNEY FOR JOSE GONZALEZ CARRANZA: His wife paid the ultimate price and somebody said today he wasn't the one who died. the whole family suffers that. And I think if you tell that to a military family, they'll be offended.

WATT: According to his lawyer in 2004, Carranza crossed illegally from Mexico. Three years later, he married Barbara Vieyra, a U.S. citizen from Mesa, Arizona. She then joined the army.

CARRANZA: She wants to get as better education, get a future so that we can give a better future to his daughter.

WATT: But she was killed in Afghanistan in 2010, aged just 22. An aid station later named in her memory.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: A daughter, a mother, a sister, a friend an Americans soldier and a hero.


WATT: Carranza's lawyer says his client who had not applied for U.S. citizenship was granted parole in place after his wife died. It's for military family members, basically a guarantee they won't be deported.

But the lawyer says, ICE reopened Carranza's case last year. That he was sent a notice to appear in court but it was sent to an old address. So he missed that court date and ICE showed up at his home last week.

CARRANZA: A bunch of officers arrived to my car. Point me with weapons, you know, screaming to me.

WATT: His lawyer filed a motion to reopen the case as a "stay" on the deportation was issued but he says, Carranza is deported anyway.

Arizona congresswoman Anne Kirkpatrick today telling CNN "The story his arrest is just another example of the President's inhumane immigration policies. The Gonzalez-Carranza family has sacrificed so much for our country, and they should have never been treated this way.

In the meantime, Carranza's lawyer says he is not quite sure why ICE went ahead and deported this client. And he's also not sure why they let him back in.

Nick Watt, CNN -- Los Angeles.


VAUSE: We'll be back after this.


VAUSE: Let's put some myths about sleep to bed. Researchers say we have a lot of misconceptions and that might actually be affecting our health.

Here's a couple of them. Adults need fewer than five hours of sleep. Drinking alcohol helps you fall asleep, watching TV in bed helps you relax.

I do all of this.

Hitting the snooze button is ok.

Apparently not all that stuff is true. This is all according to new research. As long as it's longer, as long as it's healthier (ph), you should make a guard night sleep a priority. I do try and it never works out. Best of luck to you.

[01:50:02] BTS, the biggest boy band in the world and they just dropped a new album. In case you did not know these K-pop superstars are the hottest music acts on the plan right now.

A short time ago, they held a news conference in Seoul promoting their new album which is called, "Map of the Soul: Persona", their last album was the first a K-pop to top the U.S. charts. They're fresh off of a big appearance on SNL, (INAUDIBLE) over the weekend.

So how hot are they? Well, so hot the group smashed a YouTube milestone. More than 78 million views of their new single in 24 hours. And they say they're grateful for everything.


UNIDENTIFIED MALE, BTS MEMBER: We made our own path not because we came out of the blue and dropped into where we are today. We're standing here thanks to the road laid by many artists who came before us.


VAUSE: Bob Lefsetz, is the author of the "Lefsetz' Letter" an e-mail news letter read by everyone who's anyone in the music industry. Bob is also host of (INAUDIBLE) live on Sirius satellite radio.

So Bob, before we talk about what's driving this group to success. Maybe take a step back and explain to me what they are. Because when I saw the music clip for the first time I thought it was part of a video game.

BOB LEFSETZ, AUTHOR, "THE LEFSETZ LETTER: Well, you know, Korean boy bands have been around for years. They just never broke in America. Certainly, you know, in Korea and all over Asia it's a big thing.

So what they've done is they've taken the boy band formula and added dynamite and really amped it up, ok. He originally had boy bands like New Kids on the Block, then Lou Pearlman (ph) had Nsync and Backstreet Boys and they really got into the dancing and they amped it up. Then we had One Direction from the U.K. Which came out of a television show.

These guys put together all those elements -- the poppy songs, the dance moves but they also have meaning in the songs. Search the people in the young people and many cases girls because they have a lot of love boy bands to. They are addicted to the experience. The young people live online that they look this stuff up all the videos even though they've singing in Korean they have English translations. there's a lot of messages about loving yourself and mental health and it really resonates with the disconnected world.

VAUSE: Ok. Well, here's part of their performance on "Saturday Night Live" over the weekend. Here it is. Watch this.


VAUSE: Now, let me quote using you. In your newsletter you write of BTS "What kind of crazy, (INAUDIBLE) world do we live in where a Korean boy band sings to track and blows away every living performance on SNL this year.

Ok. This -- do you stand by that claim? Are you standing by that claim here and now?

LEFSETZ: I am standing by that claim. It was a visual experience.

VAUSE: Ok. Hold that just for a moment because I want to play to you just a very brief clip of Gary Clark Jr. on SNL just over a month ago.


VAUSE: Ok. Bob -- I don't know who you are anymore.

LEFSETZ: Gary Clark Jr, is an excellent guitar player. He's a lot of (INAUDIBLE) but he can't write a hit song headstrong to save his life.

He recovers "Third Stone from the Sun (INAUDIBLE) It was done by Jimi Hendrix. That's interesting. Otherwise, I've seen I multiple times. He just doesn't have memorable music.

VAUSE: I knew I'm going to get creamed on this. Continue.

LEFSETZ: With these Korean boy bands and they don't even go into the music as perfected.

VAUSE: Ok. With that in mind though, the reviews are in on the latest release of the year. So I'll start with this guy, Bob Lefsetz, who I once knew.

He writes, "It won't set the world on fire but at least it's not offensive."

From the "Hollywood Reporter, "The album has its share of catchy songs that feel impersonal and world on fire police is not offensive. The album has its share of catchy songs."

And "Rolling Stone" writes "It could be listless at times" but the magazine notes it's succeeding anyway". It's usually a general agreement that musically at least the latest album, it's a bit like store bought birthday cake. It's good but nothing great.

And I guess in comparison, the Beatles had "Yellow Submarine". LEFSETZ: Yes. Well, it certainly don't put them in the same sentence

as the Beatles and the BTS. Especially as they both begin with B.

But what this proves is the mainstream music business which is all hip-hop does not reach the audience at large. So we have a whole scene that was literally excluded from the media, excluded from the charts. It was burgeoning this act with selling out a winner, finally matured and they have right track and it's blowing up at the album.

01:55:00] You know, we'll sell a couple of hundred thousand copies (INAUDIBLE) and the Billboard makes their but it's a huge thing so it shows that there's more music people want to listen to other than hip hop. And then there's other than things with electronic beats.

VAUSE: You say don't compare them to the Beatles but there are people out there comparing them to the Beatles.

LEFSETZ: Well, those people obviously didn't listen to the Beatles.

VAUSE: Yes, good point. I mean the Beatles, you know, they wrote great songs, everybody could see it everybody can play. It was like you want to compare (INAUDIBLE) from high school to Michelangelo. I don't think so.

VAUSE: Ok. This does though seem to be K-pop at the moment. There's a girl version of BTS, a group called Black Pink stole the show at Coachella last weekend. And the week before that, their new single "Kill this Love" has the most number of views members in 24 hours. On YouTube almost of 57 million hits.

That is, Adele (ph) was blown away by BTS a week later and their new single "Boy with Luv". The only thing that I can say about that is that if YouTube hits are a measure of musical talent, then what do you make of this guy.

Listen to this.


VAUSE: That's Psy "Gangnam Style" k-pop 3 billion hits and counting. Do you equate musical talent with YouTube hits.

LEFSETZ: You know, this is a funny thing. We had Reggae songs that had some traction before reggae became a big thing. Psy was the progenitor. It was really about the video more than the song where the Korean boy bands, Korean girl bands -- it's about the music first and then they build the DM saying (ph) and the other issues in the Penumbra.

So yes, he was the first one there but it's not of the quality of these boy bands.

VAUSE: Bob, as always, you know so much more about music than I ever will and that is why we had you on the show. Thank you. It's good to see you. LEFSETZ: Always great.

VAUSE: Appreciate it.


VAUSE: And thank you for watching CNN NEWSROOM.

I'm John Vause.

Please stay with us. A lot more news continues here on CNN right after a short break.


[02:05:04] ROSEMARY CHURCH, CNN ANCHOR: Rebuilding Notre Dame. Hundreds of millions of dollars in pledges are already.