Return to Transcripts main page


Lawmakers Voted to Condemn Racist Tweets by Trump; Apollo 11 Marks 50 Years in History; European Commission Elects New President; New Rule Slowing Migrants Coming to the Border; North Korea Back to Testing Nuclear Weapons; The 100 Club, The Stories Of Five Historic Brands. Aired 3-4a ET

Aired July 17, 2019 - 03:00   ET


[03:00:00] PAULA NEWTON, CNN ANCHOR: -- resolution condemning Donald Trump's racist comments.

Puerto Rican police versus crowds of protestors. It's been like that for days as demonstrators in San Juan demand the governor leave office immediately.

And a historic moment for the European Commission as Ursula von der Leyen becomes the first woman to win the presidency.

Hello, and welcome to our viewers joining us from around the world. I'm Paula Newton, and this is CNN Newsroom.

In the aftermath of Donald Trump's racist tweets, the House of Representative held a debate that underscored the deep partisan divisions in U.S. politics.

Now the House eventually voted to condemn the president's tweets targeting four minority lawmakers. The vote fell largely along party lines with the resolution saying it strongly condemns President Trump's racist comments, that have legitimized an increased fear and hatred of new Americans and people of color by saying that our fellow Americans who are immigrants and those who may look to the president like immigrants should, quote, "go back to other countries."

President Trump, though, made no apologies for his tweets and remains on the attack.

Abby Phillip has more from the White House.

ABBY PHILLIP, CNN CORRESPONDENT: President Trump demanding loyalty from his party as he moves to re-brand is racist attacks against four American lawmakers of color who he told to go back to their countries.


DONALD TRUMP, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: It's up to them, go wherever they want or they can stay, but they love our country. They shouldn't hate our country.

(END VIDEO CLIP) PHILLIP: Trump now shifting the debate to past statements of some of the freshman progressive Democrats.


TRUMP: If you look what they have said I have clips right here the most vial, horrible statements about our country, about Israel, about others.


PHILLIP: While on Twitter, Trump denying the tweets were racist, adding, "I don't have a racist bone in my body," and telling his party not to show weakness by voting in favor of a resolution in the House condemning the comments.

While some Senate Republicans like Iowa Senator Joni Ernst have called Trump's attacks racist, the majority leader offered a general call for return to civility.


SEN. MITCH MCCONNELL (R-KY), MAJORITY LEADER: From the president, to the speaker, to freshmen members of the House, all of us have a responsibility to elevate the public discourse. Our words do matter.


PHILLIP: McConnell refusing to say if he would use the phrase go back but insisting Trump isn't racist.


MCCONNELL: The president is not a racist. And I think the tone of all of this is not good for the country.


PHILLIP: In the House lawmakers following suit and falling in line.


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: Were the president's tweets that say go back racist?

REP. KEVIN MCCARTHY (R-CA): No. I think it is about ideology. This is about socialism versus freedom.


PHILLIP: But Trump's tweets never mention socialism at all, instead he claims the four Democratic women who originally came from other countries should go back to the corrupt crime- infested places they came from.

Counselor to the president Kellyanne Conway defending her boss by taking a page from his playbook.




CONWAY: Because I'm asking you a question. My ancestors are from Ireland in Italy.

FEINBERG: Kellyanne, my own ethnicity is not relevant to the question I'm asking.

CONWAY: No, no, it is.

FEINBERG: I'm asking --


CONWAY: Because you are asking about, he said originally. He said originally from.


PHILLIP: Meanwhile, his husband George Conway writing in a new op-ed that "Sunday left no doubt. Naivete, resentment, and outright racism roiled in a toxic mix have given us a racist president."

Kellyanne Conway later went on to Twitter to try to explain what she meant in that exchange with a reporter Andrew Feinberg. She said "This was meant with no disrespect; we are all from somewhere else originally."

Abby Phillip, CNN, the White House.

NEWTON: Now there are only four House Republicans voted for the resolution, 19 Republican lawmakers did in fact criticize the president's tweets, though most avoided labeling him as racist, instead calling them inappropriate, destructive and divisive.

Now one Democratic presidential candidate is not mincing words on what she thinks about President Trump's tweets. Senator Kamala Harris sat down for an exclusive interview with our Kyung Lah.


KYUNG LAH, CNN CORRESPONDENT: You are the daughter of immigrants, a sitting member of Congress, a woman of color. How do you view President Trump's tweets?

SEN. KAMALA HARRIS (D-CA), PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE: I think it is un- American, un-American, it is unbecoming of the president of the United States, I think it defiles the Office of the President of the United States. It is irresponsible. It is hateful. It is hurtful. And he has taken the presidency to a new low.

[03:05:03] LAH: It's personal for you as well, you just shared a story here in Davenport, Iowa about being told to go back to where you came from. Can you share this?

HARRIS: Of course. But it's not one time, I've -- who many of us have been told that. And when -- and I purposely then at that event I ask people to raise their hands and many hands went up.

It is, for the president of the United States -- you know, it's one thing to hear it in a school yard or on the street, it's another thing to hear that from the president of the United States.

And this is yet another example of the fact that the current occupant of the White House does not understand the responsibility that comes with that office.

The president of the United States has a very powerful, powerful voice and tool, which is that microphone. And it should be used in a way that reflects the strength of the office, the strength of the office should be to lift people up and not beat them down, but this president, I guess, thinks that he become stronger by those who he pushes down.

Well, that's not reflective of who we are as a nation. It is not reflective of the values that we have as Americans. It is not reflective of our history, much less our vision for our future.

LAH: Do you take this personally as a daughter of an immigrant? You have written about how --


HARRIS: I take it personally as a member of the United States Senate.

LAH: If we could turn to what the four members of Congress urged for people who are listening to not get distracted. How do you not get distracted? How do you not fall into his trap where he controls the narrative with a tweet like this?

HARRIS: I have said it many times, this president purposely I believe distracts and attempts to distract by flame throwing because the reality of it is, he has done nothing to help working families in America, he passed the tax bill benefiting the top 1 percent and the biggest corporations of our country.

He has conducted trade policy by tweet in a way that farmers are looking at bankruptcy and auto workers are looking at the potential for their jobs to be gone by the end of the year.

The American consumers paying $1.4 billion more a month and everything from shampoo to washing machines because of his so-called trade policy which I call the Trump trade tax, and he has not done anything to build up the infrastructure of our country. And all that comes with that in terms of improving in elevating the condition of working families. And so, what does he do? He wants to distract by starting a whole

lighting fires around the issues of race and ethnicity. It's disgusting.

LAH: Is this a turn, there is so much rage about this, is this a turn for you?

HARRIS: There is so much that is disgusting about this, I think it is a turn for this president, that it could not get any worse, apparently yes, it just did. How low can he go?

LAH: Can he get lower?

HARRIS: I don't know, but he needs to go back where he came from and leave that office. And so that's why I'm running with the intention of making sure there will not be four more years.

I don't think that we can survive having a president of the United States who uses whatever voice he has in a way that is about dividing and fueling hate in our country. The American people will not tolerate that. I know that. I know who we really are as a country. The American people will not tolerate this kind of hate from their president.


NEWTON: Harris was on a day long campaign swing through Iowa. She is among the long list of Democratic presidential candidates condemning President Trump's tweets as racist.

Now with thousands of asylum seekers waiting at the southern U.S. border, the Trump administration is so far moving forward to implement new asylum rules even as advocacy groups go to court to try and block that plan.

CNN's Nick Paton Walsh has the details.

NICK PATON WALSH, CNN SENIOR INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: This is the first day of this new rule being in implementation at the U.S.-Mexico border, that basically says if anybody who isn't from Mexico has traveled through Mexico to get to that border crossing, then they are essentially ineligible for asylum in the United States.

Now as expected, it is being challenged by human rights groups and advocates in the courts in California, whether they'll be successful or not we'll see in the days ahead.

But we're hearing from those working on the border that some of the post frankly has done nothing but e not done much but inspired confusion. Nobody really knows what it will do to the practical act to try and get into the United States.

[03:10:01] And largely (Ph) in asylum case, and certainly at one border crossing, it appears that the U.S. border patrol haven't stopped asking people to approach and present themselves to put forward an asylum case. It will present nothing but confusion going forward. Human rights

groups frankly saying that this is against the law and it encourages those migrants in Mexico to put themselves through increasingly more desperate moves just to get into the United States.

Now you heard from President Trump he praised Mexico's efforts to slow the move of migrants from Guatemala and Central America up to the U.S.-Mexico border, the U.S. frankly, has done all it can to slow down the practical journey of these people in their hundreds of thousands.

But it's this legal move that while it may make that very difficult and dangerous journey frankly pointless if people aren't simply able to technically apply for asylum. And Donald Trump also had some harsh words to Central American nations to particularly Guatemala.

There have been pressure on Guatemala to implement a third safe country agreement with the United States. That basically means, if you are a migrant trying to get to America and you are in Guatemala where the journey stops there, you should apply for asylum in Guatemala.

Guatemala has resisted that, Donald Trump someone inaccurately said that for a year now they've start sending aid to Central American nations, so they change their mind. It's a lot less time but now they're saying there have been aid restriction puts in.

But a lot of activity here. The State Departments, and it seems presidential level as well now, trying to finally find a solution for what Trump sees as the chaos at the southern border.

Some say, frankly, it's his making that certainly, there's a slowing now of migrants moving north and an increased level of risk they have to endure just to get there.

Nick Paton Walsh, CNN, Mexico City.

NEWTON: In Puerto Rico, Governor Ricardo Rossello says he is not stepping down despite calls of days of protests calling for his resignation.

Now the backlash going back to text messages with members of this inner circle elite filled with profanity attacking politicians, members of the media and celebrities.

And just days ago, former members of the governor's administration were arrested for corruption.

Our Guillermo Arduino has more on the political scandal rocking Puerto Rico.

GUILLERMO ARDUINO, CNN CORRESPONDENT: A mostly peaceful demonstration outside the governor's mansion in San Juan erupts into chaos. Protestors set fire to trash bins, riot police launched tear gas into the crowd, which has swelled to thousands since Saturday.

This is an angry escalation in days of demonstrations demanding the governor resign, but he is defiant. At a news conference, Governor Ricardo Rossello says "I will continue my work and my responsibility to the people of Puerto Rico," refusing to step down despite the scandal turning full-blown political crisis.

Stirring the outrage are leaked private chat between Rossello with his inner circle. In nearly 900 pages made public by the Center for Investigative Journalism, profanity laced remarks disparage women, vilified journalist, use homophobic slurs, mock government officials, and discuss arresting political opponents.

Just days earlier, the FBI arrested former officials from Rossello's administration on charges of corruption accused of misusing federal funds to the U.S. territory, funds that Puerto Ricans desperately need.

Many are still struggling to recover after hurricane Maria devastated the island in 2017, aggravated by a financial collapse and bankruptcy for weary Puerto Ricans. News of two damning scandals is galvanizing outraged towards leadership.


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE (through translator): We want to force the resignation of the governor. He does not deserve the job he has, and the people have spoken even if the legislature does not care about the people, they are there because of us. And we're showing them, reminding them we pay their wages.


Guillermo Arduino, CNN.

NEWTON: Now we are hearing reports that Sudan's military council and opposition leaders have signed a political accord. Now that would cement their power sharing deal aimed at creating a Democratic government.

The two sides are working on a constitutional declaration which is expected to be signed later this week, that's according to news reports.

Sudan's military council ousted the longtime president following weeks of massive protest. Demonstrators vowed to stay on the streets until a civilian government was in power.

OK. So, a big change is coming to Brussels. This is the woman, the European parliament-backed to take the E.U.'s top job. We will show you how she overcame resistance to replace Jean-Claude Juncker.

[03:14:54] Plus, Pyongyang is warning nuclear and missile tests may restart soon. Why Kim -- pardon me -- why Kim Jong-un is saber- rattling now just weeks after a surprise meeting with Donald Trump in the demilitarized zone.

(COMMERCIAL BREAK) NEWTON: A big change at the top of the European Commission. Germany's outgoing defence minister is to be the new president. Ursula von der Leyen will be the first woman to take the post after winning European parliament support to succeed Jean-Claude Juncker.

Now CNN's Erin McLaughlin has more.

ERIN MCLAUGHLIN, CNN CORRESPONDENT: She was the dark horse candidate the name few saw coming, the European Council's choice for the E.U.'s top job. Forced upon a fractured European parliament which to put forward a list of preferred nominees but no one could command a majority.

And so, unexpectedly, Ursula von der Leyen's name was put forward. Her overarching message the need for unity.


URSULA VON DER LEYEN, PRESIDENT-ELECT, EUROPEAN COMMISSION: If we are to go down the European path, we must first rediscover our unity. If we are united on the inside, nobody will divide us from the outside.


MCLAUGHLIN: Von der Leyen was perhaps not the obvious choice to be the first female to lead the E.U. She just resigned as Germany's defence minister, a position widely regarded as the poisoned chalice of German politics.

The mother of seven, a doctor educated at the London School of Economics, she was fond of singing. Her childhood nick name, the little rose. She entered local politics in 2001, positioning herself to the left of Angela Merkel's Christian Democrats.

But her candidacy for the commission presidency was supported by Europe's hard-right. Yet, another potential stumbling block to securing majority within a pro-E.U. parliament.

But little by little von der Leyen went over skeptical MEP's, promises to help strengthen its hand and deciding her successor in five years' time and a commitment to new and ambitious green targets.

She didn't please everyone. Some refused to support her on principle, outraged by back room deals that led to her candidacy.


VON DER LEYEN: Are you going to be like previous commissions the left took of those member states? Or are you going to be the pit bull that I would like you to be? That's what I need to hear.


MCLAUGHLIN: In the end, she crosses the line by only nine votes and that's a very slim majority, uncomfortably close in the words of one diplomat making it that much more difficult for the commission to push through its legislation. Von Der Leyen's priority now, getting the support of more pro-E.U. MEP's.

Erin McLaughlin, CNN, London.

NEWTON: Donald Trump insist there is progress with North Korea despite a new warning that it may restart nuclear and missile tests.

CNN's Brian Todd reports.

BRIAN TODD, CNN CORRESPONDENT: It now appears all of this --


[03:19:59] TRUMP: Stepping across that line was a great honor.


TODD: -- may have been for naught. Just two weeks after their historic meeting at the DMZ, and President

Trump's short stroll into North Korea, North Korea's dictator Kim Jong-un appears to be threatening to start testing his nuclear weapons again.

In a new statement, Kim's foreign ministry calls the joints U.S.-South Korean military exercises planned for next month a breach of the main spirit of what President Trump and Kim agreed to in Singapore, and says "We are gradually losing our justifications to follow through on the commitments we made with the U.S."


MICHAEL GREEN, SENIOR ADVISER, CENTER FOR STRATEGIC AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES: Kim Jong-un has been friendly and smile with Donald Trump but what we are seeing with these statements is a more normal North Korean negotiating techniques, which is to point a gun at the other guy's head, and say do what we want to we will, you know, launch missiles and test nuclear weapons. So, it's all about leverage.


TODD: President Trump seemed unfazed about the new threat.


TRUMP: The relationship is very good. I think we made tremendous progress on North Korea. And again, time is not of the essence, but any good thing is what ultimately happened.


TODD: Kim's regime apparently doesn't see it that way, calling those U.S.- South Korean military drills, quote, "a reversal of war aimed at militarily occupying our republic by surprise attack."

It's not the first time Kim's regime has objected to the joint military exercises, but why does the regime always frame them as practice for an invasion? (BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

GREEN: One reason is they are paranoid. I mean, the entire North Korean regime is based on paranoia. But the other reason is they want to try to use that as a leverage to get the U.S. to weaken its readiness, to weaken its alliances.


TODD: Despite the pageantry and promise at the Singapore summit last year when Kim made his initial vague promise to get rid of his nuclear weapons, despite the dramatic images at the DMZ, and words of friendship, by CNN's count, North Korea has made no fewer than 12 direct or implied threats since Singapore to pull out or walk back from the diplomatic process, even as Kim appears to maintain his personal connection to Trump.


DEAN CHENG, SENIOR RESEARCH FELLOW, THE HERITAGE FOUNDATION: I think that the spin that is occurring from Pyongyang is any concessions that do occur or because of their threats. Second of all, there does seemed to be this belief on the part of Kim Jong-un that he and Trump may actually have some kind of relationship.


TODD: Still, analysts say, while North Korea may not be planning to get rid of its nuclear program anytime soon, the idea it could restart testing soon may be less of a solid promise and more of an empty threat.


GREEN: I think they probably won't do it; China would come down on them very, very hard. For now, they're getting a bit of a pass from the Chinese because they're engage in dialogue.


TODD: While President Trump shows patience toward North Korea, his aides are sending a tougher signal to Pyongyang.

A senior administration official telling CNN those U.S. sanctions are going to stay in place until Kim Jong-un fulfills his commitment to completely denuclearize.

That official also telling CNN those joined U.S.-South Korean military exercises are not about to be canceled, saying they're purely defensive in nature.

Brian Todd, CNN, Washington.

NEWTON: OK. It's been 50 years since the world watch and waited as Apollo 11 began in a historic world- changing mission. A look back at one of the greatest moments in history. [03:30:00] (COMMERCIAL BREAK)

NEWTON: It give you chills, huh. It was 50 years ago Apollo 11 was launched changing the course of the space race.

Just a few days later, it became the first manned spacecraft to land on the moon fulfilling U.S. President John F. Kennedy's goal.

Now a NASA's Apollo 11 spacecraft was launched from that Kennedy's Space Center. Astronauts Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins were on board, and two of them becoming the first men to land on the moon.

Here's a look at exactly how it unfolded.


JOHN F. KENNEDY, FORMER PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other thing, not because they are easy but because they are hard.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: This is Apollo (Inaudible) control, we passed the six-minute mark in that compound for Apollo 11, the flight to land the first man on the moon.

Ten, nine, ignition sequence starts, six, five, for, three, to, one, zero. All engine (Inaudible). We have a lift off.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Once a spacecraft rockets out of earth orbit, the moon is a three-day journey.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Forty-five degrees, roger.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: We copy it down, eagle.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: The eagle has landed.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Roger, twin quality, we copy on the ground.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Through especially made television camera viewers in many nations on earth were able to watch the astronauts as they walk and work on the moon.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Let us go to the new world together, not as new world to be conquered but as a new adventure to be shared.


NEWTON: Hard to believe 50 years. Now finally, it's July 17th and do you know that means, I don't know that means, I'll be honest. But apparently, it is, have a look at that, world emoji day.

You'll want to be on the lookout for more inclusive and diverse emojis that are coming later this year at Apple and android devices. They include interracial couples, same sex couples, and people with disabilities. Now the designs also cover animals, including the sloth, flamingo, orangutan, and the skunk. I guess we could use that for certain stingy things, right? World emoji day is only five years old. Emojipedia founder Jeremy Burge created, yes, I want to inform you, it is a made- up holiday. And he created -- kind of cute though, I like using them.

Thanks for joining us. I'm Paula Newton. The 100 Club is up next. But first, I'll be back with the check of the headlines. You are watching CNN.


PAULA NEWTON, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Hello. I'm Paula Newton and this is CNN News Now. Sudan's military council and opposition leaders have signed the political accord that cements their power sharing deal in the creating a Democratic government. Now the two sides are working on a constitutional declaration which is expected to be signed later this week.

The U.S. House has condemned Donald Trump's tweets telling four minority lawmakers to go back to where they came from. Republicans defended the president insisting he is not racist after a heated debate the House approve the resolution largely along party lines.

Five years after Eric Garner's death, the U.S. Justice Department says, it will not bring charges against the office that accused of killing him. Pardon me, the officer that was accused of killing him. Persecutor's say, they couldn't prove that Daniel Pantaleo acted willfully when he choked Garner, and his last words I can breathe became a rallying cry in the Black Lives Matter movement.

Floods, spun by monsoon rains have devastated parts of India, Nepal, Bangladesh, and Pakistan. Millions are affected and many are left with nothing, their homes and belongings swept away and more than 100 people have been killed.

That's your CNN News Now, the 100 Club is next, you're watching CNN the world news leader.

CYRIL VANIER, CNN ANCHOR: I'm Cyril Vanier and this is The 100 Club. Finding long-lasting success as a company can be elusive, the ones that managed to survive for more than 100 years all have one thing in common, the ability to adapt. Over the next 30 minutes we will tell you the stories of five historic brands and how they found ways to change with their times while staying true to their core.

STEPHEN CHELIOTIS, THE CENTER FOR BRAND ANALYSIS: The core is you got to provide quality products and services and beyond that sort of remaining the business for 100 years you got to listen to what you're customers wants, adapt, refresh, and constantly evolve the organization. You cannot stand still.

VANIER: Appleton rum is one of Jamaica's premier brands, the art of a good pour is something they have mastered for more than two and a half centuries. All rum is made from sugar cane, but not all sugarcane is equal, here

and then Nassau valley of Jamaica, the country's oldest sugarcane farm is the source of one of the world's best known rum brands, Appleton Estate.

JOY SPENCE, MASTER BLENDER, APPLETON ESTATE: We are a unique geographical area here at Appleton, because of these hills surrounding the valley, we have daytime heating and every day at about 2:33 we have daily showers of rain.

This is where the process all starts for rum, on the sugar cane, it is crushed, you get juice, we boil that juice, until it get crystals of sugar suspended in this dark thick liquid of molasses and we separate the sugar from the molasses and the molasses is used as a starting material for making our rum.

VANIER: Rum production on the Appleton Estate began in 1749, the Estate has seen several owners over the years, but the brand really took off after it was acquired by J. Wray and nephew in 1916, a Jamaican rum company started by John Wray and his nephew Charles Ward.

CLEMENT LAWRENCE, CHAIRMAN, J. WRAY AND NEPHEW: We are the oldest continued operation estate in Jamaica as we speak, so, you know, that would make us one of the oldest estates in the world.

VANIER: The company says production soared in the 1940's when the rum makers created Appleton Estate special, a dark blend intended to substitute for whisky which was in the shortage during the World War II, since then the chemistry and artistry of rum blending has become a staple to the brand.

[03:35:00] SPENCE: You select difference styles of rums, difference percentages, different ages to create these flavors, it is almost like an artist with different palette colors where you create your masterpiece on your canvass.

VANIER: As the brands master blender, Joyce Spence has been creating masterpieces at Appleton's since 1997. At the time the former chemist was the first woman to hold that position in the industry.

SPENCE: But it is a male dominated profession, usually passed down from father to son, and usually family own, so it was an amazing achievement for me just to be a normal employee of the company and achieving this.

VANIER: Spence's name is on every bottle of an Appleton Estate rum, which is distributed in over 50 markets globally. In 2012 Appleton's parent company J. Wray and Nephew was purchased by an Italian spirits company Campari group. Campari says they have had high single digit growth in their Jamaican rum category since the acquisition, but see opportunity to do even more.

CHELIOTIS: I think the problem with rum is that it is not overly fashionable at the moment, we have had the rise of gin, we are now having probably the rise of tequilas. Rum is yet to have its big rise, but that said in this spirits industry everything is cyclical until at some point rum will have its time.

SPENCE: The most important thing about Appleton Estate, Jamaica rum is that is a premium range of rums, and this is where that section of the rum category actually growing now, where consumers know, recognizes that you can enjoy rum in the same way you would find scotch or cognac.

VANIER: So after more than a century of churning out premium rum from these cane fields, Appleton Estate believe consumers will develop a new appreciation for their age old blend.

Now think of some of your most powerful memories, how many of those can be triggered by a scent telling stories through our sense of smell is exactly what fragrance company Caswell-Massey has been doing for more than 250 years.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: I think what is really fascinating to especially as we create new fragrances is having a certain amount of storytelling.

VANIER: Fragrance Company Caswell-Massey began in 1752 as a (inaudible) in Newport Rhode Island founded by a Scottish doctor named William Hunter, it is considered one of the oldest continuously running companies in American history.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: It is truly an American original, we are the oldest beauty brand in America by any stretch, then we were founded before the country was founded.

VANIER: The signature number six cologne debuted in 1772, today it is regarded as the first American fragrance and was the favorite of none other than George Washington himself.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Basically George Washington was our first celebrity endorser for our company, but he likes the fragrance and enough that he bought it and he wear it and made it popular among other people and because of his kind of heroic stature in the country, it made that fragrance and our company well-known around the young United States.

VANIER: In fact the company has a rich presidential history, the fragrance Jockey Club first hit the market in 1840 and more than 100 years later became a favorite of U.S. President John F. Kennedy.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: You know what's incredible here also is that we have these handwritten recipes that go back 260 years, we've benefit having these incredible archives of recipes, but we're also in this world where you can access a lot of different things and you can create beautiful things on your own.

VANIER: As the business grew from Newport to New York City, the first Manhattan base store opened in 1854 in the Fifth Avenue hotel. Over the years the company changed hands from family to family, partnership to partnership, but the products remain largely the same.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: In the late 1800s the company was taken by Caswell and -- the Caswell family and the (inaudible) family together and there was a failing out and at that time because of the dispute over the company there was a lot of documentation of the fragrances and formulations of the company had and if that hadn't happened, while it was a difficult time in ultimately John Ross Caswell took on business with William Massey and that is the company we have today.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: To be part of the story of the company and to put my little touch on it, that is pretty cool.

VANIER: Laurent Le Guernec, is a senior perfumer and one of the people responsible for both honoring Caswell-Massey's long heritage and moving it forward, to do that Laurent uses technology to capture sense from nature in ways we couldn't do before.

LAURENT LE GUERNEC, SENIOR PERFUMER, CASWELL-MASSEY: We have been able to do that with botanical garden, you know, we use a technology called living, that captures the smell of living flowers and recreate them as close as possible as we can. You don't damage nature and you already discover new things, you know, things that you actually cannot either way both to extract the flowers you would not get the same result that when you just capture what the flower small like in nature.

We don't talk about the company in the past tense, we try not to talk about how great we were or what we used to do we like to talk about what we are doing today and what we are doing in the future. We are still pursuing new ingredients, new methods of creating fragrance and you know, new frontiers. That is something that it's been part of the company throughout its history for the entire three centuries that we had been around and I think it has really been one of the secrets to the success of the company.

VANIER: Our next company was founded in Britain, but today makes a product that spans 88 countries and comes in 30 languages, and if you are looking to learn you have come to the right place.


VANIER: Before smartphones and search engines we had this, encyclopedias crack one of these open and you can learn just about anything, page 362, number symbolism, but for 250-year-old encyclopedia Britannica, staying relevant means turning the page and moving online.

The dark cramped archives that encyclopedia Britannica feel like hallowed ground.

THEODORE PAPPAS, EXECUTIVE EDITOR, BRITANNICA: It is very rewarding to work for a company that has a pedigree going back to half centuries.

VANIER: Theodore Pappas has been executive editor for more than 20 years he says being surrounded by this much history never gets old.

PAPPAS: We have business records and logs, minutes of boards meetings, going back to the late 19th century. So it is really quite an array of a mere in essence of the history of the West.

Encyclopedia Britannica was founded in Scotland in 1768 and its found in mission was rather straightforward, to bring reliable and useful information not to narrow educated class, but rather to the masses.

What Encyclopedia Britannica did and I think way ahead at a time was to understand -- actually bitesize information can also be very powerful.

VANIER: The first edition was not without controversy.

CHELIOTIS: One article in particular posed a particular problem for Britannica in 1768, and that was the article on midwifery, Britannica's detailed illustration, three pages of them were the most graphic images of child birth and the women's anatomy ever mass distributed and King George III himself denounced Britannica and encouraged all loyal citizens of the crown to destroy the offending article.

VANIER: In fact, Britannica's own first edition is missing the entire article. Pappas say the original owner probably followed the advice of the king. By the early 1900s Britannica became an American company and in 1932 began employing door to door salesman to help boost sales during the great depression.

[03:45:07] PAPPAS: Door-to-door salesman became the mainstay of the company. It was virtually set on with the (inaudible) for decades.

VANIER: Determined to make education a priority, Britannica films began in 1943 and more widely shown in classrooms across the U.S. and U.K. until the internet replace them.

PAPPAS: The mission remains the same as it did in 1768, interestingly the very first sentence Britannica ever published on page one, paragraph one, line one, of volume one of the first edition states, utility out to be the principal intention of every publication and that has not changed, it was just as true in the 18th century as it is in the digital world of the 21st.

VANIER: What they do hasn't changed, but how they do it is very different, adapting to a digital world has been Britannica's greatest challenge in its 250 year history.

PAPPAS: We created the first digital encyclopedia, (Inaudible) Nexus in 1981, the first multimedia CD in 1989, and we've launched the first encyclopedia on the internet in 1994 which was seven years before Wikipedia.

VANIER: Britannica stopped printing encyclopedias in 2012 and today 100 percent of revenues come from its digital products through online advertising and subscriptions.

CEO Karthik Khrishnan, admits it is a struggle to compete with free. But he says Britannica's advantage is a reputation built over time.

KARTHIK KHRISHNAN, CEO BRITANNICA GROUP: Who are you going to trust, are going to be happy with an answer that shows up from somewhere in the internet that you can vet, trust is a new algorithm, the fact that the internet is besieged with proactive misinformation I think the world is moving back into trusted sources of information.

VANIER: In 2018, Britannica's celebrated 250 years in business with a special anniversary edition honoring the past, but still looking far to the future.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: Welcome to Britannica's guardians of history.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: We are now talking about artificial intelligence. And using Britannica concept and voice activated products. We feed off our past in order to get a momentum for the future and that is very exciting.

VANIER: Our next two companies are deeply rooted in childhood nostalgia were fun is the ultimate goal, these brand started in America and created a product that brings smiles to faces around the world.


VANIER: This is The 100 Club, our look at global brands that had been around for 100 years or more, when you think of American chocolate the name Hershey's comes to mind, the companies chocolate bars have been shared around the world since guess when, since American troops went abroad in World War II, and today Hershey's makes 2.8 billion chocolate bars a year.

MICHELLE BUCK, CEO, THE HERSHEY COMPANY: Whether it is Hershey's or Reese's or Kit Kat, or your peppermint patty, everybody has special memory, a moment that they remember that involves one of our great brands. When you talk to consumers we are the top of the most loved brands list, along with Netflix, Apple, Amazon, Hershey. A brand has been around for 125 years right up there with the most contemporary brands that are in the marketplace today.

VANIER: Beloved by most for their chocolate, the Hershey Company was originally created by Milton Hershey in 1894, as a subsidiary of the Lancaster Caramel Company.

[03:50:03] UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: When he is making caramels, he is making lots of different varieties, but he is also starting to think about kind of the next stage of his business as well. And he thinks it is in chocolate, he sees some chocolate making equipment at the 1893 Colombian exhibition, he buys two pieces there.

VANIER: And in 1900, the Hershey Company officially broke away from making caramels.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: So in 1900, Mr. Hershey sells the Lancaster Caramel Company to his greatest competitor, $4 million and then starts to focus on chocolate full-time. So he retains the rights to the Hershey chocolate company and starts experimenting with the formula for milk chocolate. VANIER: While production began on the Hershey bar in 1900, another

quintessential company treat did not make its debut until seven years later in 1907.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: So in 1907, Milton Hershey launches a new product, Hershey's kisses. So they are just little conical pieces of solid milk chocolate, just pop t in your mouth, at the time the word kisses was a general confectionary term for any bite sized piece of candy, so in 1921, he trademarks Hershey's chocolate kisses so that he kind of dominates the market and he is the only one allowed to use that term.

VANIER: The demand for these foil wrap treats hasn't waned since, 15.1 billion kisses are made every year worldwide and they are still one of the primary chocolates made at the company's headquarters in Hershey Pennsylvania, the factory here makes 72 million kisses a day, but the switch to solid chocolate was just one step in Milton Hershey's plan to grow his candy empire. In 1963, Hershey acquired the HB Reese Company, today the Reese's peanut buttercup is the company's most popular candy.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I think the absolute key to longevity is adaptability, it is knowing what is truly your core and what needs to remain the same and then where you need to adjust to the marketplace as it adapts around you.

VANIER: For Hershey's, part of that change includes adapting to our growing digital consumption, in 2019 emojis will be featured on the classic Hershey bar, changing the look for the first time since 1900.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: We are really focused on pushing ourselves to have a healthy degree of dissatisfaction that keeps us innovating, experimenting, trying new things.

VANIER: In the 125 years since Milton Hershey made his first chocolate, Hershey's has become America's top confectionery company and it seems sticking to the classics while exploring the potential of our digital era will be the recipe to success for the next 100 years.

So (inaudible), razmatas, robin's egg blue, names that can only come from one place, our next company has been making our world more colorful for more than 100 years and has built a name as the go to brand for every inner child. This is the story of Crayola.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: When I talked to anybody and I tell them I worked at Crayola, they always have a story to share, about their first box or first 64 count box, or the 24 count box that is for school.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: I remember I was in an art class, when I was in the second grade, and part to me was always a little bit intimidating, but I got into class, I started creating some things and what was really cool, no matter what was actually on the paper, if you are a little kid to you there is a story that goes to that.

VANIER: Crayola, the name synonymous with crayons, actually began 116 years ago under a different name, the Bennie and Smith. The company's founders, in 1903 the Crayola brand was born with the first box of crayons, an eight colors.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: They were selling chalks in schools and we notice that the kids can have any colored whack sticks to color with. Crayons existed back then, there were just usually just used by artist and too expensive for families to afford and so they wanted to create a wax crayon that would be affordable for kids to use in the classroom, and we still have those eight colors still in our eight count box and it in 1903 and they sold for a nickel.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: The best way for a brand to corner market is to invent that market and clearly the pack of crayons, that is Crayola, they created that.

VANIER: In 1958, the brands signature's 64 count box of crayon with a built in sharpener was introduced.

[03:55:09] It remains incredibly popular today, and it is still made here at company headquarters in eastern Pennsylvania, in fact nearly all of the world crayons were made here, from 13 million per day, and 152 colors. Crayola is now more than crayons, there are paints, coloring books, colored pencils, and of course markers. The first box also starting with eight colors debuted in 1978.

SMITH HOLLAND, CEO CRAYOLA: I think the longevity of the company, right? The whole notion that what we do is kind of timeless, right? The world changes a lot, the way we deliver our products changes, but the core essence of what we do, helping parents and teachers raised Crayola with kids, that's always been around, that will always be around and that's kind of cool, because if you look at the kind of the history of business with the top companies are to tend to change lot, right? But we have kind of a timeless mission as long as we adjust to that we could continue to thrive.

VANIER: In 1984 the Hallmark Company purchased Crayola's still under the name Bennie and Smith and it stayed that way for more than 20 years.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: In 2007 we went from a Bennie and Smith and we formed Crayola LLC and the reason we did that was just to reflect our number one brand. I mean, everyone knew Crayola products.

VANIER: The last 116 years have not come without challenges and Crayola relationship with our increasingly digital society will be key to the brand next 100 years, but so far the company seems to have found a sweet spot across both worlds.

HOLLAND: We are kind of good old fashion tangible play, so from the technology perspective and a digital perspective, we want to embrace both, we want to offer these new products that include digital experience in a real authentic way, but at the same time lean into the importance of physical all traditional play and the role in that place. As long as we do that, everything is going to be OK.

VANIER: Five very different companies that have survived and succeeded for more than 100 years, Appleton rum, the oldest, dates back to 1749, Caswell-Massey was founded in 1752. Encyclopedia, Britannica has been educating the masses since 1768. Hershey began making chocolate in 1894, and Crayola has colored our world since 1902.

We move forward to profiling more 100 year old companies on the next edition of The 100 Club, I'm Cyril Vanier, thanks for watching.