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Infectious Disease Specialist, Dr. James Campbell, Discusses Drug Trials For Coronavirus; A Look At Countries Around The World Making Life-And-Death Decisions Amid Outbreaks; FL Governor Mandates Self-Quarantine For Visitors From New York, New Jersey, Connecticut; Atlanta Orders Two-Week Stay-At-Home Order After Governor Orders A Stay-At-Home For Those At Risk Compared To Louisiana's Statewide Order; Biden: Listen To Experts More Than The President. Aired 1:30-2p ET

Aired March 24, 2020 - 13:30   ET



BRIANNA KEILAR, CNN HOST: He's with the Center of Vaccine Development at the University of Maryland. He's an expert on respiratory viruses and vaccines.

Doctor, thank you for being with us.


KEILAR: You see these therapies that are being tested in New York today, the Chloroquine and the Zithromax as well as antibodies that are being looked at. What is the prognosis for having anything working soon?

CAMPBELL: The reason why it's very important that we don't just use them, as you said DIY, that we are doing them in studies and what we call controlled clinical trials is because without doing that there's no way to know whether or not they are working.

We typically find drugs that -- or antibodies or vaccines that work for similar diseases or ones that have worked in test tubes or in a laboratory or animal model and then start to test those in people with diseases such as COVID-19.

We, like everyone else, have high optimism moving forward and finding drugs, other therapeutics that'll work. We have to make sure that we are being careful because they all come along with potential side effects.

KEILAR: Is it something that takes months or something can be done experimentally as this virus progresses? What's the timeline here?

CAMPBELL: Given the number of increasing cases across the country, we'll have answers very soon. We've had one drug, which -- or a two- drug combination which has been typically used for HIV, AIDS, that was thought to be a successful drug but was proven not to work for COVID- 19.

We should know within months whether or not the therapy works.

We way we look at it is there's multiple ways of testing this. There's what we call preexposure prophylaxis, before you ever come in contact with the virus, could you get something that might protect you. That might be a drug or the traditional thing most people would think of is a vaccine.

Most of the time when we are getting vaccine for infections, we're giving them way before you are exposed and hoping, in the future, when you are exposed, to prevent it.

There's post exposure prophylaxis, which we hear and others around the country are working on some attacks in that direction, which means you have been exposed but you are in the period called the incubation period between exposure and coming down with the disease.

Can we intervene then with things like antibodies or vaccines or a drug, similar, for example, if you had been bitten by a rabid animal and someone gave you antibodies and he vaccine.

We know we can prevent rabies in those situations. And it is possible that we can prevent COVID-19 with similar approaches.

Then there's the therapy, Hydroxychloroquine, Chloroquine or Zithromax, all of those are moving along in clinical trials and in expanded-use access.

KEILAR: While I have you here and you are an expert on kids and infection, I want to ask you, as the president is considering loosening restrictions on how people keep themselves isolated in order to stop the spread of this, what are your concerns when it comes to children and younger people?

CAMPBELL: The good news, if there's good news here, for children, the severity of disease among children has been much lower than the severity in older people and people with morbid problems with other diseases. That's the good news.

The bad news is it is highly transmittable. This virus, as we can see from the epidemiology, from the numbers, is going up rapidly. It is easily transmitted person to person.

How is it transmitted? It is in your respiratory secretions, meaning it is in your nose and throat, it is in your saliva, it's -- and how do we pass it from there to another person. Through the hands and through the things that we touch.

Keeping distance from one another, not touching surfaces that have not been cleaned after another person has touched them and washing your hands frequently with soap and water when possible or hand sanitizers if you don't have soap and water. All of those are ways to prevent the spread.

We need to continue to prevent the spread to, as they say, flatten the curve and have fewer cases at the same time.

Health systems are getting overwhelmed. I am in Baltimore. We are still on the upswing of our curve but things are getting heated here as well.

KEILAR: It is coming at you and you can see it like a tsunami, I imagine.


CAMPBELL: It is here and getting worse every day. We all have plans for how we cover what happens. We have people who need to be furloughed or become ill because they are in contact and get sick or they are not sure if they have the virus yet. It is very important that our health systems are prepared.

I am working with the pediatricians in our state on trying to prepare and also on helping people with what to do in your office. How to make sure children are getting vaccinated with the routine vaccine while we are in the middle of a COVID-19 epidemic. We don't want to have another problem on top of that --


KEILAR: Right. You can see that. You can see how that could happen. It is a very good point. We are so glad you are working on that.

Dr. James Campbell, thank you for being with us.

CAMPBELL: All right, thanks for having me.

KEILAR: Still ahead, some strong words from the governor of New York as the infection rate there doubles every three days.

And some doctors around the world are being forced to decide who lives and who dies. Could that be America, next?



KEILAR: As coronavirus continues to change everyday life for people across the globe, countries are taking drastic measures to cope. A look at some of the life-and-death decisions being made starting in Spain.


SCOTT MCLEAN, CNN CORRESPONDENT: I am Scott McLean, in Madrid, where the health care system has been pushed to the brink. The virus has killed more than 500 people in Spain in the last 24 hours. More than one of every eight confirmed case is a health care worker.

A shortage of supplies has meant some nurses are making waterproof gowns out of garbage bags. And a shortage of ventilators is forcing doctors to choose who lives and who dies. The state funeral service will no longer pick up bodies of coronavirus patients because they don't have enough protective equipment. Instead, the military is now picking up those bodies and bringing them here to this ice rink which is being used a morgue.

BARBIE NADEAU, CNN CONTRIBUTOR: I'm Barbie Nadeau, in Rome, where there's cautious optimism for the first time in nearly a month. We have seen two days where the number of new cases and new deaths have gone down.

Now the experts say this is not yet a trend. They're not saying the curve is flattening. And there's still an astronomical number of cases here, nearly 64,000 in this country of 60 million people, and more than 6,000 deaths.

But it is certainly giving hope to all those people making personal and economic sacrifices in the lockdown to try to stop the spread.

NICK PATON WALSH, CNN SENIOR INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: I am Nick Paton Walsh, in in central London, in a very deserted Trafalgar Square, where you get a sense of how widespread the restrictions put in place by Prime Minister Boris Johnson really are.

Most shops are closed. You are allowed out for medicine and exercise and food but no other reasons.

Unfortunately though, he says, if your job is essential, you can't still go out. And some people, during rush hour, seem to be clogging various arteries here in the city.

Real concerns, though, this advice, this demand was strict enough. The police seem to have the power to detain all dispersed. But really, a lot of people out here. And they say the capitol is experiencing a peek very soon.

WILL RIPLEY, CNN SENIOR INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: I am Will Ripley, in Tokyo, where the 2020 Summer Olympics are now moving to the summer of 2021.

Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe had a phone call with the International Olympic Committee president, Thomas Bach, and made the request to push the games back after days of mounting international pressure from athletes and nations saying that it won't be safe or practical to host the games at the end of July.

Now a massive and unprecedented undertaking never before in the history of the modern Olympics have the games been pushed back. They have been cancelled but this is all new unchartered territory.


KEILAR: Thank you so much to all of our correspondents.


Up next, the governor of Florida takes drastic action to fight off coronavirus, ordering travelers from three different states to self- quarantine.



KEILAR: Amid the growing threat of coronavirus, Governor DeSantis has mandated all travelers arriving to Florida from airports in New York, New Jersey and Connecticut have to self-quarantine or isolate for 14 days.

We have Rosa Flores live for us at Miami International Airport.

Rose, the governor has been more pressure action by closing beaches statewide, for instance, and imposing a statewide lockdown or the shelter-in-place. How exactly can this be enforced?

ROSA FLORES, CNN CORRESPONDENT: The governor is saying with law enforcement, Brianna, he's saying this is how it will work.

Law enforcement and members of the Department of Health will meet passengers from Connecticut and New York and New Jersey at airports. They'll get screened and temperatures tested and they'll gather information from these passengers.

And that's when these 14 days quarantine orders will be issued to these individuals and breaking that order would be breaking Florida law.

Take a listen.


GOV. RON DESANTIS (R-FL): It is actually a criminal offense if you violate the quarantine orders. So people can end up being held accountable here in the state of Florida if they break the law.


FLORES: And according to that order, a violation of the quarantine is a second-degree misdemeanor punishable of up to 60 days in prison.

All of this is happening as more and more governors across the country are issuing shelter-in-place orders. And the governor here in Florida is getting criticized for not issuing one.

State lawmakers are measuring him to issue a shelter-in-place order and even the "Miami Herald" editorial board are publishing a scathing editorial asking the governors of Connecticut and New York to share their strategies with the governor here in the Sunshine State.


But, Brianna, Governor Ron DeSantis maintains he's not issuing that order. Among other things, saying that it's because not every quarter of the state has been impacted by the coronavirus -- Brianna?

KEILAR: Rosa, thank you for the report from Miami.

Right now, there are more than 40 percent of all Americans who are living in states with stay-at-home orders. These restrictions are being imposed in 16 states across the country.

The city of Atlanta becoming one of the latest cities to impose restrictions with a two-week stay-at-home order. The mayor's decision went farther than the governor of Georgia, who only ordered the elderly and those at risk to stay home.

Let's talk to CNN National Correspondent, Dianne Gallagher. She's in Atlanta for us.

Diane, tell us about this order from Atlanta compared to the rest of the state. And also talk to us about Louisiana in your mind?

DIANNE GALLAGHER, CNN NATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: Yes, Brianna, the difference here is basically the mayor in Atlanta said what happened did not go far enough, so she issued that state-at-home order, saying, only get takeout from restaurants, please only go to essential places, and essentially stay home for the next two weeks.

In Georgia, the governor only limited large gatherings to nothing more than 10 people. He also increased how much SNAP benefits recipients would receive, and said, essentially, we need bars and nightclubs to close.

In Louisiana, there's a much different situation. There's a stay-at- home order for the entire state. This morning, the Louisiana governor sent a letter to President Trump requesting a major disaster declaration.

According to the governor, the rate of the coronavirus case growth in Louisiana is faster than any state or country in the entire world right now. Their per capita case diagnosis is third to Washington and New York right now, Brianna.

They are dealing with quite a bit at this moment. And 1300 cases that have been diagnosed already had more than 40 deaths in that state. The governor said if they don't get help soon, Brianna, their hospitals will be at capacity within a week.

KEILAR: Within a week.

Diane, thank you so much for that update. Dianne Gallagher.

We do have breaking news continuing with New York Governor Andrew Cuomo a strong new warning not just for New York but this is for entire country. He says New York is the canary in the coal mine.

Plus, the president reveals a date for when he wants the country to reopen. It may surprise you. Stand by for that.


[13:57:26] KEILAR: Former Vice President Joe Biden speaking out on the president's response to the coronavirus this morning. Here's what he said on "The View" a short time ago.


JOE BIDEN, FORMER VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES & DEMOCRATIC PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE: The number-one thing I'm most concerned about is misinformation. Listen to the scientists. Listen to the doctors. Listen to what they have to say. I would respectfully suggest that you should have Dr. Fauci on a lot more than the president, or anyone who's not an expert like Fauci.


KEILAR: CNN Political Correspondent, Arlette Saenz, is in Philadelphia for us.

Arlette, tell us what else Biden said here.

ARLETTE SAENZ, CNN POLITICAL CORRESPONDENT: Brianna, Joe Biden did this interview with "The View" from the basement of his home where they set up a live studio for him.

The former vice president talked about the need to focus on medical experts and their advice. He also pushed back on the argument from President Trump who suggested the cure cannot be worse than the problem.

Former vice president said that the current focus needs to be on flattening the curve and ensuring that the virus no longer spreads.

He also pushed back on a suggestion from Texas Lieutenant Governor Dan Patrick, who suggested that older Americans may be willing to sacrifice their safety and health in order for the economy to get back up and running.

The former vice president said he doesn't agree and people all over the world are suffering right now, and the economy in the future will be able to bounce back as well as workers.

Biden also gave insight into how he's spending his days off the campaign trail. He's having -half hour briefing with members of his public health advisory committees, as well as briefings with his economic team about the impact of the coronavirus.

But one challenge for Joe Biden right now is breaking through all of this coronavirus news. You heard him be quite critical of President Trump's responsible to the coronavirus. But Biden also has been trying to get his own message across.

On many of -- on several major TV markets on the east coast, his view -- his appearance on "The View" was preempted due to local news conferences about the coronavirus outbreak.

So that is something that is a challenge for the Biden campaign, getting his message out at this time -- Brianna?

KEILAR: Arlette, thank you so much for that.


I'm Brianna Keilar. This is CNN's continue special coverage of the coronavirus pandemic.