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Anderson Cooper 360 Degrees
Border Disorder; The White House Shuffle; Captive for a Decade?; Science of Alcoholism; Unexpected Science
Aired March 28, 2006 - 23:00 ET
THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT. THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED.
ANNOUNCER: The president's chief of staff calls it quits. Was he sacrificed for the critics? Who's next? And will this stop his plunging poll numbers?
And, hiding in plain sight. Alcoholism in America. Does science explain why men are three times more likely to drink than women? Dr. Sanjay Gupta is here to take your calls.
From across the U.S. and around the world, this is ANDERSON COOPER 360. Live from the CNN studios in New York, here's Anderson Cooper.
ANDERSON COOPER, CNN ANCHOR: Well, from out of the shadows, to the Senate floor, the fate of at least 11 million people in America is about to be decided. As protests continue, the full Senate will soon begin debating sweeping immigration reforms that will change the very face of the nation.
By a 12 to 6 vote, the Senate Judiciary Committee has approved a bill that would give millions of illegal immigrants citizenship. But to get citizenship, illegal immigrants must get their green cards, undergo and pass criminal background checks, learn English, pay a $2,000 fine and back taxes as well.
By and large, Democrats support that idea, but many Republicans do not. And that is putting the president in the middle of a battle, a battle that is threatening to tear the GOP apart. All the angles tonight.
We begin with CNN's Dana Bash.
DANA BASH, CNN CONGRESSIONAL CORRESPONDENT (voice over): On one side, Republicans who say illegal immigrants broke the law, get taxpayer benefits without paying taxes, and allowing them to stay sends exactly the wrong message.
SENATOR GEORGE ALLEN (R), VIRGINIA: I think if you reward illegal behavior you'll get more illegal behavior.
BASH: Prosecute, this hard line GOP camp says, and tighten America's borders, even with a wall, if necessary.
Then the other side of the Republican immigration divide, including the president. Those who say illegal workers should be able to stay in the U.S. legally because they're doing jobs Americans won't do.
SENATOR LINDSEY GRAHAM (R), SOUTH CAROLINA: We have to recognize that for several generations, people have made America home. And we've accepted the benefit of their labor.
BASH: But like anything in politics, there are shades of gray. Senator John Cornyn is a Texas Republican, searching for a middle ground. He says illegal immigrants should be able to work in the U.S. legally, but only if they return to their country of origin first.
BASH (on camera): How worried are you about the deep divide within your own party over this issue?
SENATOR JOHN CORNYN (R), TEXAS: I really am not worried about it. I think it's actually healthy.
BASH: You think it's healthy?
CORNYN: I do think...
BASH: In an election year it's healthy for the Republicans...
CORNYN: Well, you know, that's the problem in America, we're always having an election, so.
BASH (voice-over): Easy for him to say. He's not up for election this year, or among a handful of Senate GOP colleagues maneuvering to run for president in 2008. The political pressures are dizzying, from conservative radio...
UNIDENTIFIED MALE, "The Rush Limbaugh Show": What you really have going on here is a bunch of criminals that are protesting the law.
BASH: To grass roots lobbying...
UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: Doctor (inaudible) does not support any form of amnesty or (inaudible) programs.
BASH: One irony is that many conservatives fiercely oppose a new guest worker program because they felt burned on the issue by their hero, Ronald Reagan.
Twenty years ago he signed amnesty for some illegal workers, then didn't stop the flow of more illegal immigrants. And conservatives cringe that some Republicans are aligned with their nemesis, Massachusetts Democrat Ted Kennedy.
SENATOR TED KENNEDY (D), MASSACHUSETTS: The president deserves a credit for talking about these issues. He comes from A border state, so he understands them.
BASH: One big White House concern is that GOP opposition will anger Hispanic voters the president has courted feverishly. His share of the Latino vote grew from 35 percent in 2000, to 44 percent in 2004. NORMAN ORNSTEIN, AMERICAN ENTERPRISE INSTITUTE: Now the immigration bill looks like a ticking time bomb that could destroy the emerging Republican Hispanic coalition.
BASH (on camera): Those competing election year pressures, conservative demands for a hard line, and potential backlash among Latino voters Republicans need, leave many openly skeptical any compromise on immigration can be reached this year.
Dana Bash, CNN, Capitol Hill.
COOPER: So you've just heard what some of the top Republicans on Capitol Hill have to say about illegal immigration, but what does the president think should happen to those at least 11 million people?
Today in an exclusive interview with "CNN ESPANOL," he gave his answer. Here's the president in his own words.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
GEORGE W. BUSH, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: I'm interested in comprehensive immigration reform that includes not only border security, but also a temporary work plan that recognizes there are hard working people here doing jobs Americans won't do and they ought to be here in such a way so they don't have to hide in the shadows of our society.
The fundamental issue, by the way, it seemed like to me on the guest worker plan, is that somebody get to the head of the line when it comes to citizenship. And my answer is no, they ought to get in line, but they don't get to get to the head of the line. And that's where that some of the tension about the debate is taking place right now.
I've called upon both the House and the Senate to pass a comprehensive bill, and a comprehensive bill means to make sure you include a guest worker program as part of a comprehensive bill. I happen to believe a guest worker program recognizes reality here -- what's taking place in our economy today, but it also -- a guest worker program is part of border security.
I mean, rather than have people sneaking across the border to come and do jobs that Americans won't do, it seems like it makes sense for people to be given an identification card that they can come and use to do a job on a temporary basis. So they can to back and forth freely with this tamper-proof ID card and not have to sneak across. So that our Border Patrol agents on both sides of the border are really dealing with, you know, drug smuggling or gun smuggling or terrorists trying to sneak into the country.
It's impractical to fence off the border, but it is also realistic to give our Border Patrol agents tools to be able to do their job. We ought to enforce our borders. (END VIDEO CLIP)
COOPER: Well, many people don't like the president's solution. Among them, CNN's Lou Dobbs. Today in a pretty fiery debate, he and former Mexican Cabinet Member Juan Hernandez clashed over the immigration issue. I began the debate by asking Lou why he doesn't like the proposed law that would put illegal immigrants on the path to citizenship.
LOU DOBBS, "LOU DOBBS TONIGHT": The fact is this has been tried before. The fact is there is nothing that would suggest, if we put together amnesty for every single illegal alien from every country in the world right now, we still have no way to stop another 12 million or 20 million from crossing our borders over the next five years...
JUAN HERNANDEZ, FORMER MEXICAN CABINET MEMBER: But Lou, you're still knocking down -- how about a solution, my friend?
COOPER: Well, Juan, what's your solution?
HERNANDEZ: Well, I think that we have 12 million people, that if a five-point criteria is taken, that most Americans would legalize them, like McCain and Kennedy are saying...
COOPER: You're talking about a five-point criteria? What are you talking about?
DOBBS: Let me give you my solution because it doesn't take long...
HERNANDEZ: Good. I want to hear it.
DOBBS: You ready? Secure the borders for the protection of the American people. That's a responsibility of our Homeland Security Department.
HERNANDEZ: Impossible to do.
DOBBS: It is not impossible.
HERNANDEZ: If we don't work with Mexico, with our friends, we will never secure it.
DOBBS: This is America, remember, my friend? This is not Mexico. It's still possible in America to protect this country and to preserve it...
HERNANDEZ: If working with our neighbors...
DOBBS: Secondly... HERNANDEZ: Can we agree on that?
DOBBS: Secondly. I'm sorry?
HERNANDEZ: Working with our neighbors.
DOBBS: Oh. you're the one who said that this isn't Mexico's problem, not me, partner.
HERNANDEZ: No, but I'm asking you, if we work with Mexico...
DOBBS: Oh, I would love to work with our neighbors. I'm one of those people who supported NAFTA in 1993 because I thought...
HERNANDEZ: Good for you.
DOBBS: ... if it was going to enrich anyone, my God, enrich your neighbor.
COOPER: Let's hear Lou's solution, though. You say...
DOBBS: The solution is this. Follow the Kyl-Cornyn legislation. Secure the border...
HERNANDEZ: Send them home -- 12 million...
COOPER: Let Lou finish...
DOBBS: Let me finish. And to -- and to begin -- first of all, if it were possible, it's not even possible given the low level of our personnel in working in citizen...
HERNANDEZ: I agree.
DOBBS: ... and immigration services. But the fact of the matter is, we've got to begin there. We can come to a rational humane solution to this issue. But we can't do it with a double speak and the utter subterfuge and obfuscation that is passing for politics on Capitol Hill right now and at 1600 Pennsylvania.
DOBBS: This is nuts.
HERNANDEZ: Up to there, amen.
COOPER: So, Juan, what is wrong with Lou's solution? Securing the border and then figuring out a humane policy?
HERNANDEZ: Once again, with regard to securing the borders, we need to work with Mexico. We're never going to have a secure border. We're not going to put a wall for these hundreds and hundred thousands of miles. We have to work our neighbors. We need to think now for the future. Canada, United States and Mexico...
DOBBS: Juan, let me ask you this...
HERNANDEZ: ... working as a block, a secure block and by the way, an economic block...
DOBBS: We can't...
HERNANDEZ: Not one nation...
DOBBS: You're the one...
HERNANDEZ: ... three nations...
DOBBS: ... that we couldn't even secure through two ports of entry, one on the Canadian border, one on the Mexican border. Through ports of entry, we could not even stop the passage of radioactive material. And now we're going to extend the perimeter?
I have to say to you partner, I love Mexicans, I love Mexico. I love Canadians and I love Canada. But the responsibility is this country's. We are the country that is in the crosshairs. We have the bull's eye on our back...
HERNANDEZ: But if we close...
DOBBS: Not Canada, not Mexico, and we can't even secure our borders and you're suggesting we extend it...
HERNANDEZ: If we close ourselves off totally...
DOBBS: ... to Mexico and Canada?
HERNANDEZ: ... then the terrorists have won, Lou. If we become...
DOBBS: Oh, come on...
HERNANDEZ: If we become a different type of a nation that doesn't open its borders to immigrants, we will lose what makes this nation wonderful...
DOBBS: What have immigrants, illegal or otherwise, got to do with border security? That is utter -- utter nonsense.
HERNANDEZ: No, Lou. Most U.S. Americans love the way this nation has been for centuries. A welcoming...
DOBBS: This country hasn't been...
HERNANDEZ: It solves problems, by the way...
DOBBS: Do you want this country to be what it was 100 years ago? Fifty years ago? Do you want us to roll back time? Or do you want to be futuristic?
COOPER: Lou, let me ask you...
DOBBS: I want to live in the present. The present in this country is under dire threat. And we have a president...
HERNANDEZ: But we're not in dire threat...
DOBBS: ... a Congress that are permitting the vulnerability of our people...
DOBBS: And that has to stop.
COOPER: In your opinion, what is different between the illegal immigration that we're seeing now on the Mexican border and immigration in our history? I mean, everyone always says America is a land of immigrants...
COOPER: You say what is happening now is different.
DOBB: It's different because of scale, first of all. We're talking about 3 million people a year moving in to this country illegally...
HERNANDEZ: No, no, no.
DOBBS: You say, oh no, but that is the estimate...
HERNANDEZ: 300,000. You just missed it by one zero, Lou.
DOBB: I'm sorry?
HERNANDEZ: Just missed it by one zero -- 300,000.
DOBBS: Are you kidding? Juan, you live in a fantasy world. But I'm going leave you to your world and continue with an examination of ours.
And the fact of the matter is, that the illegal population of this country, if it's at the upper level, the estimate is, this -- size of the state of Ohio...
HERNANDEZ: That is true.
DOBBS: ... The population of the state of Ohio.
HERNANDEZ: That is true.
DOBBS: That is a shift of six to 10 congressional seats within our Congress. This has immense implications. And we have understand what we're doing.
COOPER: Juan, can any country in the world tolerate, whether it's 300,000 or 3 million undocumented people crossing over a border? Can any country sustain that and tolerate it?
HERNANDEZ: Definitely they can tolerate that. On the contrary, it is enriching our nation. We are building this nation with the immigrants. We are giving health services, education. This is the nation that...
DOBBS: We are...
HERNANDEZ: ... that millions of people -- 12 million that are working in the dark. We need to bring them out and not criminalize them but on the contrary, dignify them.
DOBBS: OK. Tell me where the dignity rests. People are crossing our borders illegally. They are burdening our school systems. They are depriving our citizens of an education. Half of the Hispanic students, half of the black students in southern California, nationwide, are dropping out of high school. We are paying through Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid, about $100 billion a year. We're suppressing wages because of illegal immigration for working men and women in this country who belong here as U.S. citizens. We're suppressing their wages.
Those in Mexico who are here illegally are shipping back $20 billion a year in remittances. It is the number one source of revenue for Mexico. Ahead of oil, for crying out loud. Is this any way for Mexico to behave as our neighbor? And I say to you it is not.
COOPER: Well, you can join Lou Dobbs tomorrow, as he travels to Mexico. The special "LOU DOBBS TONIGHT, Broken Borders" report begins Wednesday at 6:00 p.m. Eastern.
And 360 is also going on the road to cover "Battle on the Border. We will be live from Arizona-Mexican border beginning tomorrow at 10:00 p.m. Eastern.
Just ahead tonight, a top man in the White House steps down. So what does Andy Card's departure change? Maybe not so much. Will it be enough for the critics? We'll find out. New details from Republican insiders. We'll have that story tonight.
COOPER: Well, it would have been interesting if you actually heard him speaking. But you'll hear him speak a little bit later on.
How does alcohol do what it does? And what does science tell us about who is vulnerable?
Across America and around the world, you're watching 360.
COOPER: So not a shakeup perhaps, but a pretty strong tremor. After more than five years on the job, one of the longest tenures on record, White House Chief of Staff Andy Card stepped down. Resignation offered and accepted. He will be replaced by Budget Director Josh Bolton. And said the president today, he'll be missed.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
BUSH: Andy is respected by his colleagues for his humility, his decency, and his thoughtfulness. They have looked to them as a leader and a role model. And they, like me, will miss him.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
COOPER: Well, the resignation takes effect on the 14th of next month. The announcement drew praise for Mr. Card and Mr. Bolton from both sides of the aisle. But grumbling, as well, especially from some Republicans who were looking for a bigger shakeup than this.
I talked about it earlier today with CNN's John Roberts and John King.
COOPER: John King, a lot of Republican critics, baying for fresh blood in this White House. Will this satisfy them?
JOHN KING, CNN SENIOR NATIONAL CORRESONDENT: No, not at all. In fact, I talked to a very senior Republican strategist, very close to this White House, and he called this replacing "Tweedle Dee" with "Tweedle Dumb."
Republicans say this is not enough, Anderson. Their main point is that the president needs a new person, a new person of stature in his inner circle. Josh Bolton for Andy Card replaces one long-time Bush adviser with another long-time Bush adviser. It is not enough to satisfy the Republicans. You can only imagine the Democrats want more, too.
COOPER: John Roberts, what about that? When Ronald Reagan got in double in his second term, he brought in Howard Baker, who had a, you know, a former Senate. Should this Bush have brought in somebody with connections to Capitol Hill? JOHN ROBERTS, CNN SENIOR NATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: A lot of people I talked to today say that it's pretty much a wash. Andy Card and Josh Bolton. I mean, they're somewhat interchangeable. Andy Card perhaps has a little bit more experience in the public sector than does Josh Bolton. Josh Bolton is a brilliant guy, a terrific manager. But as John King said, a long-time Bush insider. He's a guy that likes to keep a low profile.
COOPER: John King, do you think this is the last change we're going to see?
KING: I do know this. Josh Bolton has already signaled to the Republicans around town that he wants to listen to their concerns. This is what he will hear, Anderson. He will hear him say the president needs to change his management style. The president needs to think whether he wants to have Karl Rove, Dan Bartlett and the other Texans who have been with him since day one in his inner circle or whether he's willing to bring in somebody new to the inner circle.
Now, I know the president's thoughts on this from talking to those senior aides. They say the president believes he has precious time to waste here and he doesn't want to have to get used to somebody new.
COOPER: John Roberts, I mean Cheney and Karl Rove both have so much power in this White House. Was Andy Card in that inner circle that John King talks about?
ROBERTS: Oh, Andy Card was the anchor at the center of the circle. He was the pinnacle of stability at that White House. He was the guy who made the trains run on time. And he had the personalities like Dick Cheney and Karl Rove operating around that, but he was at the very center and he's the guy that really kept the president grounded.
Josh Bolton is cut from very much the same cloth. As they said, he's a tremendous manager. I don't know that he'll have the same sway over the president as Andy Card did. Simply because, you know, Card's a wise fellow who was there for Bush 41. Josh Bolton, while he's very close to the president, may not carry that same sort of credibility.
COOPER: Well, John King, I mean, if the president's biggest problem is Iraq, how much can this move help the White House on that issue? It doesn't seem like much.
KING: Well, that is the view of the White House, Anderson, in that they don't think changing personnel is going to change their fundamental problem, which is the war in Iraq.
They did realize, though, and they give Andy Card credit. They say he realized that we were going to keep asking this question, Republicans were going to keep demanding change at the White House until there was some change at the White House. Will this be enough? Most Republicans at this point say no.
COOPER: John King, I'm interested in something you just said, though, that the White House acknowledging the problems they have with Iraq. What do they see the problems with Iraq as being? Is it a perception problem? Is it the media's reporting? Is that the problem? Or is it just events on the ground not going their own way? I assume it's not a policy problem that they see.
KING: They think it is mostly events in Iraq and media coverage. They -- look, they blame the media. They say the media is not covering the positive stories. They also acknowledge that the only way you're going to convince the American people progress is being made is to pull U.S. troops back, let the Iraqi troops do the most -- most of the security work. Not just some of it, not just this raid or that raid, but most of it. And get the government up and running. Get the unity government -- they've been bickering about this for months.
The Bush administration realizes that is the only way. They're hoping that between now and the November election, they can make substantial progress. But Republicans are increasingly nervous.
COOPER: John King, John Roberts, thanks.
COOPER: New developments today in a young woman's shocking story. Tanya Kach, remember her? She says she was held captive by a security guard for 10 years. Were other children propositioned by him as well? We'll look into the reports of that.
Plus, the signs of alcoholism. How alcohol works its magic or evil in the body. We're taking a look at alcoholism in America, all this week. "Hiding in Plain Sight." Call us with your questions tonight, 1-877-648-3639. Dr. Sanjay Gupta will be here taking your calls. That's 1-877-648-3639.
COOPER: Developments today a creepy, unsettling case involving this guy. No, it's not Kevin Nealon from "Saturday Night Live" or Danny Tario. It's Thomas John Hose, a former security guard who allegedly took then 14-year-old Tanya Kach prisoner, kept her in his home for the last past 10 years.
Today, there are reports that parents of some other children are now coming forward with allegations about Hose. We'll get the latest in a moment.
First, here's Tanya Kach's story in her own words.
TANYA KACH, MISSING FOR 10 YEARS: I was just looking for love. And, you know, I didn't -- I was going through a rough time, you know, teenage years. And I met him and he was like, you know, don't worry, you know. I love you. I'll take care of you. So I was in a room -- a bedroom for 10 years. I didn't see the light of day. I mean, I did through the windows, but I didn't go out, didn't see people.
I started reading books and I'd have to turn the TV down real low, turn the radio down real low and then he finally got a TV that I could put headphones in, and the radio, where I could put headphones in, you know. And I just sat around. Sometimes I'd go to sleep in the afternoon, just to pass the time.
There were times when I would threaten to leave and there were times he would threaten to kill me. Just not many, but and there were times that he would pull a guilt trip on me.
For four years I wore hand me downs from him and his son for year -- for up until 2000. And after all those years, I guess, you know, I was a little unrecognizable, I could go out every now and then buy clothes.
I mean, I won't out here and there from 2000 on, but it was few and far between. But to actually be out and talk to people, I mean it was a luxury for me. I like people. I like talking to people. But I couldn't say nothing.
But finally they kept pursuing it, which meant they cared. And then I broke down and then had to tell. But I asked him, don't let me be on the streets. I just want my dad and my mom and my family.
I didn't get to go to school. I didn't graduate. I didn't have a sweet 16. I didn't get to go to the prom. I didn't get to find real love.
COOPER: Well, Jill King Greenwood is a reporter for the "Pittsburgh Tribune-Review." She's been covering this story since the beginning. She's talked to Tanya and we spoke with her earlier.
COOPER: So, Jill, today you reported that the parents of five other children say that their kids were propositioned by Thomas Hose. How seriously are those accusations being taken?
JILL KING GREENWOOD, REPORTER, PITTSBURGH TRIBUNE-REVIEW: Well, the parents actually approached a store owner in McKeesport with their concerns.
He contacted the police. They apparently never filed any kind of an official complaint or talked to the police about it. The police chief says that he's only aware of one parent with a concern like this.
But that parent has actually never come forward to them officially. So they're sort of in a sit back and wait mode for these people to come to them and air their concerns.
COOPER: Yes, because I mean the police have released a statement, saying they haven't gotten reports like these. Are they going to be investigating this?
KING GREENWOOD: They're actually -- they're waiting for people to come to them and say that, you know, my child has said this or that or I have this concern or that concern. Until that happens they're really not doing -- you know, anything to go out and find these people because they say the people need to come to them.
COOPER: You know, just when you think this case cannot get any more bizarre.
Yesterday, a woman is charged as an accomplice in it, and she's a beautician who helped dye this girl's hair and let her stay at her house. What is her story?
KING GREENWOOD: Yes, Judy Sokil (ph). She's 57. She's a former beautician. She was a friend of Mr. Hose's. Her house was kind of like a local hangout for kids in the area, teenagers.
COOPER: Oh great.
KING GREENWOOD: Yes. And she apparently admits in the affidavit, and Tanya collaborates this, that she cut Tanya's hair, which is normally very long and blond, very short and dyed it red and allowed Tanya to hang out, sort of hide away in her house for the -- on and off for a few weeks after she disappeared.
And she admits that she knew that Mr. Hose was having sex with Tanya in her house and she knew it was an inappropriate relationship, but she allowed it to happen, and she never came forward and said what she knew or where this girl was at.
COOPER: You know, it's so interesting when adults look at adults having sex with children and they call it a relationship. I mean, it's such a bizarre thing. It sort of boggles one's mind, how this woman could have allowed them to have sex, even in her house, according to the complaint. Is that correct?
KING GREENWOOD: Yes. Yes. She says that she allowed them to meet up at night in her house and she knew they were having sex.
COOPER: Have you learned anything more about how Tanya lived in that house and how Thomas Hose's parents apparently didn't even know she was there? I mean, that -- I simply cannot wrap my mind around how someone can be living in a bedroom for 10 years, going to the bathroom in a bucket, and parents in a home not even know about it.
KING GREENWOOD: It's pretty unbelievable. But the police say they believe her story. That she pretty much was locked in this bedroom for the majority of these 10 years, up until, you know, the last maybe 10 months. And that she was -- she went to the bathroom in a bucket. She was told to tiptoe around the room and avoid the creaking floorboards. And when he parents would come upstairs, she was told to hide in a closet. She ate mostly peanut butter and jelly sandwiches and bottled water that he brought her. And she was only allowed to watch TV or listen to the radio with headphones he provided her. She was pretty much in isolation.
COOPER: There's -- I mean, there's got to be more to this story. I mean, it just doesn't pass the smell test. You can't live on peanut butter and bottled water for 10 years and going to the bathroom in a bucket. To me, it is just -- I mean, I know the police are taking it seriously and, you know, clearly something was going on, but, you know, or maybe there were a lot of people living in that house in denial or something, but it's the strangest story I've heard in a long, long time.
This guy, Hose, his bail has been raised. Where is he now? And what happens to him then?
KING GREENWOOD: He actually -- he got out today. He posted the bail. He has electronic ankle monitoring. He went back to his parents' house in McKeesport. We had reporters out there that saw him arriving with his attorney and reuniting with his parents, and he had no comment. He's living back in that house again.
COOPER: OK. So he's living with his parents and he's -- I guess he's not working at the school anymore?
KING GREENWOOD: No. They suspended him without pay the day of his arrest.
COOPER: The other thing -- I was reading an article of yours, which I just -- I -- still boggles my mind, is that there are all these young girls at the school who thought this guy was charming and attractive?
KING GREENWOOD: Yes, yes. According to Tanya, everybody thought he was cute. Everybody, you know --
COOPER: I mean, he is literally the definition of creepy. You look at the pictures of him and it's like -- it's like a "Saturday Night Live" skit.
KING GREENWOOD: She says that everybody had a crush on him and everybody flirted with him and he flirted back equally. She says she told me this morning actually that he made a lot of sexual comments to girls a the school, as well as teachers. And you know, that it was well known that he was very friendly.
COOPER: I mean, again, it's just -- it's unbelievable. I keep repeating this. How is -- I know you talked to Tanya. How is she holding up? I mean, whatever of her story is true, whatever actually happened, this must just be an unbelievable week for her.
KING GREENWOOD: Yes. She's -- Tanya's in good spirits. She's really happy. She seems a little tired. She's, you know, done the whole media circuit and she's very, very happy to be back with her father. That was her main concern. She's reunited with her mother.
And she told me this morning that she's relishing the little things, like going to bed when she wants to, getting up when she wants to, going and coming as she pleases. You know, watching TV, listening to music and especially talking on the phone. Her father said she's like a teenager again, she's on the phone so much.
COOPER: Well, it's just -- it's -- I've never heard anything like it.
Jill King Greenwood, appreciate your reporting. Thanks.
KING GREENWOOD: Thank you.
COOPER: Coming up ahead on 360, "Hiding in Plain Sight," our alcoholism series continues tonight with a look behind the bottle, beyond the glass and into the body. How exactly does alcohol harm us? And how much does it take to do damage? 360 MD Sanjay Gupta investigates. And we'll be taking your calls and questions about alcoholism. Sanjay will stay around to answer them. The number to call, 1-877-648-3639. All that coming up on 360.
COOPER: We are going to be taking your calls very quickly on alcoholism, questions you may have for Dr. Sanjay Gupta.
It's a problem really, hiding in plain sight in this country and around the world, and one we're focusing on all this week. Alcoholism in America, the science of this sickness, tonight. From the moment you take a sip, alcohol begins its assault on your body in ways both large and small, depending on how much and how often you drink.
Here's 360 MD Sanjay Gupta.
DR. SANJAY GUPTA, CNN SENIOR MEDICAL CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): 61-year-old Richard Preston the has been part of this scene for most of his life, sitting at the bar, having a few laughs with friends.
RICHARD PRESTON, CONSUMED 10 DRINKS A DAY FOR 30 YEARS: I was drinking whiskey with water. And I would have a good 10 a day, and sometimes more. It was just my way of life.
GUPTA: A life with lots of alcohol. Richard says he started drinking heavily at age 18 when he entered the military. Since then, he could always be trusted to have a drink in hand.
But Preston says he never missed a day of work and never felt out of control until four years ago.
First it was a bloated belly and weight gain of over 30 pounds. Then, he began to feel disoriented and confused.
PRESTON: Once I went wacky, I went wacky. I had no idea where I was, who I was, and I didn't care. It was a -- it was a terrible period in my life.
GUPTA: After 30 years of heavy drinking, Richard Preston's liver was finally failing.
DR. MILAN KINKHABWALA, NY PRESBYTERIAN WEILL CORNELL: The liver is the target organ that's in charge of taking care of all of the alcohol that you drink.
GUPTA: His liver went from healthy and pink, like the one in this picture, to scarred and shriveled, like this one, barely functioning.
Richard retained fluid. Toxins built up in his bloodstream and in his brain, causing the confusion. His liver could no longer process what he drank.
DR. MARK WILLENBRING, NATIONAL INSTITUTE ALCOHOL ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM: About 30 percent of people with alcohol dependence will eventually develop alcoholic liver disease.
GUPTA: Liver disease may be one of the most severe consequences of heavy drinking, but alcohol has profound affects on the entire body, even from the first gulp.
WILLENBRING: That's what we call a promiscuous molecule, because it's very small and it goes all over the brain and it affects multiple nerve systems.
GUPTA: Blurry vision, lowered inhibitions, lack of balance, dulled senses and slower reflexes. Alcohol makes serious changes to your brain in the short and the long run.
WILLENBRING: When you bathe these neuroreceptors and the brain receptors in alcohol over time, the receptors adapt to that. They change in response to being constantly exposed to alcohol.
GUPTA: Constant drinking can create cravings and increase tolerance, but for some people, their drinking limits can be in their genes.
Explaining why a beer may have no affect on one person and may have another stumbling with the first sip.
WILLENBRING: Nonalcoholic boys of alcoholic fathers have a greater tolerance to the effects of drinking. And so even though their blood alcohol might be the same as somebody who is really feeling drunk, they won't feel drunk. In my ways alcohol dependence is like asthma. The risk is about 60 percent genetically determined and about 40 percent environmental.
GUPTA: Men are two to three times more likely to develop alcohol dependence compared to women. And the latest research shows if you have an alcoholic parent or sibling, your chances of becoming an alcoholic are four times greater than someone with no family history.
PRESTON: My mother and father were heavy drinkers and my older brother. I came from a family of drinkers. No two ways about it.
GUPTA: For Richard Preston, it was a failing liver that finally made him quit drinking. And the only reason he's still alive is because of a liver transplant just three years ago -- and not a moment too soon.
PRESTON: When they removed my liver, they said that it was so bad that I really only had about two weeks to live.
I sit there and I drink my iced tea and they joke. You know, like one of the guys tells me that, you know, you don't buy a new car without driving it. You know, you got a new liver, try it out. I said, well, I'm not trying this one out. This one's good.
GUPTA: Trying out a new way of life. A life without alcohol.
COOPER: It's incredible, Sanjay, that he was just two weeks away from losing that liver.
How can you tell if you've crossed that line between drinking heavily every once in a while and actually being an alcoholic?
GUPTA (on camera): Well, most people like numbers, Anderson, so let me give you a couple. For men, they say if you're drinking over 14 drinks a week or four drinks a day, that's going to be too much. For women, about seven drinks a week or three a day is too much.
Of course, it's different for person to person. A couple of things to be mindful of -- if you develop the shakes, for example, in the morning from early signs of withdrawal, that could be a sign as well.
When I was in medical school, they actually gave us four criteria to ask our patients if we were concerned about alcoholism. They were called the CAGE criteria. C stood for, does a person try to cut down on their drinking? Do they become annoyed when people tell them to cut down on their drinking? Do they feel guilty about their drinking? Or do they use alcohol as an eye opener? And that was the CAGE phenomenon. It's hard sometimes to figure it out, but most people sort of know when it's getting dangerous for them.
COOPER: But, I mean, also, isn't it a question not just of how much you drink, but what role it plays in your life and if it interferes with your daily life?
GUPTA: Yes, absolutely. And that's part of where the CAGE thing comes in. People who are alcoholics, oftentimes they say they want to cut down on their drinking because they notice that their activities of daily living have been effected by it, but they also get annoyed when other people tell them to stop drinking. Those are some of the classic criteria.
COOPER: All right. Our audience, no doubt, has a lot of questions about this. Questions you'd like -- if you do have questions and you want to put them to Dr. Sanjay Gupta, you can give us a call. The number is 1-877-648-3639, 1-877-648-3639. Specially- trained volunteers, highly-paid volunteers, are standing by right now to take your call. We'll be right back.
COOPER: It is a problem, "Hiding in Plain Sight," alcoholism. And tonight, we're answering your questions about it. The toll free number is 1-877-648-3639. 360 MD Sanjay Gupta is here to take your calls.
We have on the phone, James from South Carolina. James, thanks for calling. What's your question?
JAMES, SOUTH CAROLINA (on the phone): Yes, Doctor. If someone has an alcohol issue, can hypnosis or medication stop the cravings?
GUPTA: Yes, that's a good question, James. Thanks for asking it. There's really three different patterns of medications.
One is to actually change your brain in a way. They say that your brain adapts to alcohol, especially if you start drinking at an early age. So one form of medication actually changes some of those adaptations in your brain.
The other is to actually reduce the cravings themselves.
And the third form of medication is just something that makes you get sick when you drink alcohol so you just sort of stop wanting it.
Haven't heard as much about hypnosis, although a lot of people are using that as well. I don't know how effective that is and it probably varies person to person, James.
COOPER: How much, in terms of treating it, is -- I mean, is your mind and your will power?
GUPTA: Well, you know, Anderson, that's an interesting question because people talk about alcoholism as a disorder. Other people classify it as a disease. They say there are people who get an extraordinary high from alcohol that others don't get, which makes them crave it even more. And that would classify it more in the disease category. Others say it's simple disorder that you can train your mind to not need. It's a little controversial there, but there are medications to treat either way, you know. Either the brain adaptation or just the cravings themselves.
COOPER: Roberta in Wisconsin, you have a question. What's your question?
ROBERTA, WISCONSIN (on the phone): Yes, good evening, Anderson and Dr. Gupta. My question is this. Are there any medical tests that are in the process of being developed or have been developed that can help determine those who may have a greater physiological predisposition to test for alcoholism or alcohol abuse that they are not able to stop on their own?
ROBERTA: Thank you.
GUPTA: Interesting. Most of the tests are actually psychological. You know, what we were talking about earlier, you know, if -- are you trying to cut down? Or do you get annoyed? Do you feel guilty? Those sorts of things.
But there is an interesting test out there, measuring what's called alcohol dehydrogenate, which is an enzyme in your blood that actually breaks down alcohol. If you don't have enough of this enzyme, alcohol hits you a lot harder. And that's the only test they really have out there, I think, so far in terms of determining how alcohol is going to affect any given individual.
COOPER: We've got another call from Kate in Georgia. Kate, thanks for calling.
KATE, GEORGIA (on the phone): Hi Anderson, hi Sanjay. I was wondering, if you have lived with an alcoholic in your past, will that maybe like strengthen your symptoms of alcoholism a little bit more or something?
GUPTA: If this person was a relative -- was this person a relative?
KATE: Yes, my father was an alcoholic.
GUPTA: Yes, there's been a lot of studies on this specific issue. And what they have found, in fact that first degree relatives, be they a parent or a sibling, has a significant effect on the likelihood that somebody could become an alcoholic. About four times more likely than someone who does not live with an alcoholic relative. So -- or has an alcoholic relative, I should say. It doesn't matter whether you live with that person or not. There does appear to be a genetic component to this.
So, you know, somebody who's concerned about that should obviously monitor their drinking a little bit more closely than someone who does not have alcoholic relatives.
COOPER: And certainly Kate calling in, I mean, who sounds relatively young. I mean, if at a young age you recognize that some around you have that problem, you know, that's a good thing. I mean, it's a good thing to be able to say, you know what, I see this problem in the people around me and this is not something I want -- I don't want to go down that road.
GUPTA: Absolutely. And you know, it can work both ways, you know, and some of this is so new, Anderson. It's fascinating really to think about the fact that we used to think about alcoholism as a frailty of one's willpower. And now there's a lot more evidence saying that there might be an actual disorder component to it that might be genetic even, to take it a step further.
So, if someone can recognize this in their relatives and actually do something about it at a young age, a lot going for them. You got to remember 50 percent of people under the age of -- before you hit the age of 21, 50 percent of people who are going to become alcoholics, have already shown some alcohol dependence.
COOPER: There's also a lot of groups for young people growing up with parents who are alcoholic. They can find that on the net. I want to thank all of our viewers for calling in. Appreciate it. Really good questions. A lot of talk about this on the 360 blog. You can log on and add your comments as well.
In other news, an amazing discovery that could mean victory over a common, but often deadly bacteria. That story is coming up.
Right now, Erica Hill, from "HEADLINE NEWS," has some of the other business stories we're following right now -- Erica.
ERICA HILL, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Hey Anderson, the Fed raised interest rates a quarter percentage point today, as expected. But that still didn't stop stocks from sliding. The Dow was off 94, closing at 11154. The NASDAQ fell 11. S&P was off eight.
Consumer confidence, though, heading in the opposite direction. It's higher now than it's been in four years, according to a survey released today. But while consumers remain optimistic about the present, they are concerned about the future, especially when it comes to the job market.
And if you're concerned about an audit, this is one time when it may be good not to be a millionaire. It turns out millionaires are five times more likely to be audited than the average taxpayer. That's according to IRS. In all, fewer than 1 percent of individual tax returns were audited in 2004, Anderson. Of course, it never hurts to, you know, maybe be honest and just double check the math, just in case.
COOPER: Yes, just in case. Erica, thanks.
It's a scientific discovery that could change the world, literally. Made by a young scientist who unleashed a previous unknown power of good old yogurt. A remarkable story next on 360.
COOPER: So this is a story about germ warfare, but it's not the kind we usually think of. The germ that we're talking a here is E. coli. It can be found in undercooked meat or unwashed lettuce. It causes horrible intestinal illness. It can also kill people. Seventy-three thousand people fall ill, and about 61 die from E. coli every year here in America. Two million die worldwide each year from diseases that cause diarrhea, including E. coli.
Hope, actually, though, may be on the horizon. The recent discovery of a new protein could be the long sought antibiotic that could kill E. coli like none before.
It is amazing news. Even more amazing, is who made the discovery.
Rob Marciano has the story.
(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE) ROB MARCIANO, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): For three years, here in the labs of the medical school at the University of Maryland, one researcher was on her way to making what could one day be hailed as a lifesaving discovery. Just as stunning, perhaps, is no one thought she would do it.
Doctor Alessio Fasano.
DR. ALESSIO FASANO, UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND, SCHOOL OF MEDICINE: I thought it was very naive.
MARCIANO (on camera): What was your reaction when the first test came back?
FASANO: I was extremely surprised. And I asked her to repeat the experiment over and over again. And when the results were consistent, then, you know, I really started to believe that she was after something.
MARCIANO (voice-over): Dr. James Nataro is a pediatrician who heads the university's infectious disease lab, where the discovery was made.
DR. JAMES NATARO, UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND SCHOOL OF MEDICINE: It's a tremendous breakthrough as far as we're concerned.
MARCIANO: It's like catching lightning in a bottle. Scientists had spent 30 years working on the problem. And yet, this researcher managed it herself.
NATARO: She did the experiments on her own. She did the experiments -- she did the science on her own. She conceived the original idea. She certainly knew the question to ask and knew the people to approach to get help. That's what a scientist does.
MARCIANO: But hardly what you'd expect from a 16-year-old. Her name is Serena Fasano.
SERENA FASANO, DISCOVERED HOW TO KILL E. COLI: If I let this go, it would be fine, right?
MARCIANO: In fact, who could have guessed her journey would begin here at home with her dad, the same Dr. Alessio Fasano?
S. FASANO: It all started with this. This came from my refrigerator.
MARCIANO: That is a container of vanilla yogurt.
S. FASANO: My freshman year I thought, well, if yogurt contains probiotics and probiotics are so good for you, I wonder what would happen if I put yogurt onto the bacteria.
MARCIANO: So three years ago, for her high school science fair, Serena mixed ordinary vanilla yogurt with pure E. coli, an aggressive bacteria that she got from her father's lab. S. FASANO: This are the results of my freshman year.
MARCIANO: The results were shocking. Take a look at her Petri dishes. The yogurt had killed the E. coli.
S. FASANO: So I found out that an everyday thing that we're eating has this negative effect on E. coli. Very basic. Very simple.
MARCIANO (on camera): Maybe to most adults, but, you know, you were 14 at the time. So what was the next step after that?
S. FASANO: So then I started doing a whole bunch of research. I wanted to figure out exactly what was going on when we eat yogurt, what happens, why does it kill bacteria.
MARCIANO (voice-over): It took two and a half more years, but she finally found what so many other scientists over so many years had missed, there is a good bacteria in yogurt that secretes what had been an unknown protein that's poison for E. coli. A final test proved she was right.
(On camera): So when you saw these purple and blue lines show up and you knew it was a protein, what was your reaction to that?
S. FASANO: I knew that I had it. I just screamed. It's probably the most exciting thing that has ever happened to me in my life. It was very, very cool.
MARCIANO (voice-over): So cool, the 16-year-old got a patent. And Dr. Nataro says because Serena's protein comes from yogurt, he hopes it can quickly be developed into an antibiotic. But he admits...
NATARO: It takes a long time to develop a product. A lot of testing. Testing has to be done slowly. You really have to test to assure the safety. There are a lot of hurdles we still need to overcome.
MARCIANO: Serena says despite her accomplishment, things haven't changed that much for her.
S. FASANO: My life is normal. I swear. But everything else around here still works the same. I still got curfew, I still got rules and I can't do whatever I want quite yet.
MARCIANO: And though Serena's discovery could some day save many lives, she was truly driven to save just one -- her mom. Serena's mother has multiple sclerosis.
(On camera): Your mother has M.S.?
S. FASANO: Yes. She's probably my biggest inspiration through everything. I want to research M.S. I want to -- I want to find a cure for M.S. And even if I don't, because I know that sounds like, you know, I'm saying I want to save the world, I want to at least attempt to. MARCIANO: Big ambitions, but given what she's already achieved, who wouldn't believe in her?
Rob Marciano, CNN, Baltimore.
COOPER: An amazing story. More of 360 in a moment. Stay with us.
COOPER: Tomorrow night we'll be on the Arizona-Mexico border. I hope you join us for a special edition of 360.
"LARRY KING" is next, with Country Music Stars Naomi Judd, Martina McBride, Leanne Womack and Travis Tritt.
Thanks for watching.
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