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The Global Brief with Bianca Nobilo

Russia, Ukraine Sign Deal In Turkey To Export Grain; Illegal Migration Surging In North Africa To Europe; HHS Response To The Monkeypox Outbreak; 13-Year-Old Makes History as Youngest Black Person to Get. Aired 5-5:30p ET

Aired July 22, 2022 - 17:00   ET




BIANCA NOBILO, CNN HOST: Hello and welcome. I'm Bianca Nobilo in London and this is the Global Brief. First, Russia and Ukraine strike a crucial grain

deal with a far-reaching effect. We'll look at how it might help the global food crisis.

Then the deadliest journey in the world as illegal migration surges in the Mediterranean. We'll hear from a smuggling Kingpin. Plus, from monkeypox to

polio. We'll review this week's Top Health headlines that much more coming up you now.

An agreements for the world. That's what the UN Secretary General says after Ukraine and Russia signed a deal on grain exports aiming to alleviate

the global food crisis. The deal seeks safe passage through the Black Sea for tens of millions of tons of grain shipping from three Ukrainian ports.

But it's never as simple as simply putting pen to paper. The ports are littered with mines and Russia worries that incoming ships might carry

weapons. The war has shut down vital food exports with the agriculture industry also paralyzed. Land has become battlefields. And there are

reports that Russian forces are burning crops.

To discuss the global impact, let's bring in our team around the world. Nic Robertson in Kyiv, Nada Bashir in Istanbul, David McKenzie in Johannesburg

and Matt Rivers in Mexico City.

Nic, starting with you, the UN Secretary General told CNN earlier that he hopes Ukraine can start exporting in two weeks. If ships can go in, how big

is that if?

NIC ROBERTSON, CNN INTERNATIONAL DIPLOMATIC EDITOR: It seems to be at the moment, or reasonably certain if there's the commitment, and I think at

this initial phase, both sides Ukraine and Russia are committed to trying to make this work. Some sunken ships have to be removed from blocking

harbors, the mines that are in the way, some of those will have to be moved and the Ukrainians are going to put some of their pilots on the boats, on

the cargo boat so that they can get out through specific shipping lanes.

So, I think the start of this looks good. But really there are so many differences and so many tensions that are still at play here is nothing

really about it can be taken for granted.


ROBERTSON (voice-over): In Istanbul, the biggest diplomatic breakthrough in Russia's war against Ukraine, a deal to ease Russia's stranglehold on

Ukraine and get its grain 1/5 of the world's supply to market.

ANTONIO GUTERRES, UN SECRETARY-GENERAL: It will bring relief for developing countries on the edge of bankruptcy and the most vulnerable people on the

edge of famine.

ROBERTSON: Since the war began, Russia has attacked and blockaded Ukraine's ports burnt wheat fields, stolen harvest from farmers. Until now, Russia

has been holding the world's grain hostage. The new deal aims to end that by creating safe shipping channels, using Ukrainian pilots to navigate

through sea mines. Implementation overseen by Turkey includes inspecting cargoes.

Russia's defense chief and Ukraine's infrastructure minister sign the deal, but not with each other. Separately with the UN. Tensions remain and the

deal fragile with no hard ceasefire at ports, an adviser to President Zelenskyy's chief of staff tweeting in case of provocations and immediate

military response.

DMYTRO KULEBA, UKRAINIAN FOREIGN MINISTER: Ukraine does not trust Russia. I don't think anyone has reasons to trust Russia. We invest our trust in the

United Nations as the driving force of this agreement.

ROBERTSON: Speaking in Istanbul, Russia's defense chief indicating what they got from the deal. The UN lifting restrictions on their food and

fertilizer exports, despite their responsibility triggering the current calamity.

Ukrainian officials say 20 million tons of grain has stuck in port and exports could begin in days, likely using chips stuck in port since the war



ROBERTSON: So what agricultural experts here are hoping that happens is that the ships do get out the ones that are in port and they get out

successfully and there's no incidents because that way they say that will encourage international shipping companies and their insurance to insure

more ships to come in and pick up the rest of the grain and then that way, this deal that's expected to last about 120 days.


In that way it can be successful. But really, with the land war raging, there's a lot that can go wrong. But that's the hope right now.

NOBILO: And Nada, the Middle East is heavily reliant on Ukraine's green supply. The deal was signed in Istanbul, with President Erdogan playing a

huge part in these talks. Is the deal going to provide any relief for the region in the short term?

NADA BASHIR, CNN REPORTER: Well, look, Bianca, there is a real sense of urgency here. And that has been reiterated today by President Erdogan as

well as the UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres. We've seen over the last few months meeting after meeting, summit after some concerns being raised

about this global food crisis as a result of this war in Ukraine. And that is the hope now this will ease and alleviate those pressures to some


Multiple countries in the region, as you mentioned, highly dependent on those grain exports, not only from Ukraine, but also from Russia. We're

talking about countries including Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, and Yemen, all of these countries, of course, grappling at the same time

with pretty severe economic crises. So they are highly dependent on these grain exports.

And as we see the prices soaring and the limitation on these imports, they are facing a real struggle. So there is a growing sense of urgency there in

order for this deal and this agreement to be implemented as soon as possible in order to alleviate those pressures for those in need most in

the Middle East.

The UN, the World Food Programme has repeatedly warned that millions of people are facing or could face starvation as a direct result of this war

in Ukraine pushed into famine like conditions. So there is a real concern there.

President Erdogan today I spoke at the signing ceremony, he said that he was proud that Turkey was able to pave the way to alleviate this global

food crisis in some way in order to push through with this agreement. We heard from a senior UN official this morning saying that they are aiming

for a monthly exporter of about 5 million metric tons of grain from Ukraine.

But all this rests upon the implementation of this agreement and Turkey is set to play a central part in the implementation of this deal. We heard

earlier from the official said, there would be that Joint Coordination Center overseen by Turkish officials alongside others from Ukraine, from

Russia, from the United Nations.

But we heard from a senior UN official speaking this morning describing that operation in Istanbul as the heartbeat of this operation. So they are

clearly playing a significant role here. Turkey will continue to play that significant role.

And have to say, Bianca, this is really a diplomatic win for President Erdogan. For months now, he has been engaged in those direct talks with his

counterpart in Ukraine and Russia and the United Nations. And you know, he has faced some backlash for maintaining those channels of dialogue and open

negotiation with President Putin. But clearly, this has yielded some pretty significant results.

NOBILO: And David, this war is crippling already dire food insecurity situations for vulnerable countries, especially in Africa. What other

support are those countries getting?

DAVID MCKENZIE, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Well, Bianca, the issue here is that ultimately, while there are discussions going on in Istanbul, this is a

crisis that impacts real people across the world. And it's not just in the Middle East and North Africa, parts of Central Asia. We just got back from

Tunisia, which Nada mentioned there and people are struggling off the back of already, inflationary pressure and political instability. There is a

feeling that the impact of the blockade of grain in that country would have been extremely severe if it continues.

And then you have a situation like Somalia, Ethiopia, other countries, which are dealing with potentially famine, like conditions. The head of the

World Food Programme just a few short months ago said that the blockade is like declaring war on food security across the world.

So this will be welcome news. I think the proof will be in if those ships can leave the port, as Nic was saying, and leave it in significant numbers,

because just a small amount of grain leaving Ukraine won't have a significant impact.

I think it's also worth looking forward in the story. If the grain gets out, that is extremely useful for these countries. But Ukraine itself has

been hit by the conflict in a very real way when it comes to food production. And that will be something that impacts these countries going

forward. So the war itself, even without the blockade is impacting the long term food security of the world.

You heard that Russian representative mentioning the issue of fertilizer, and while that doesn't get as much attention that's also very important.

People in Kenya and other parts of East Africa and North Africa have all been telling me that the lack of supply of ration particularly fertilizer

in terms of their own growth of food has been a severe impact on the amount of food that they can produce.


So all in all, this conflict has had a severe impact. And it will continue, even if this blockade is lifted. Bianca.

NOBILO: And last but absolutely not least, Matt, much of Latin America is also seeing a food price and fuel crisis. How are people responding there?

MATT RIVERS, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Well, what we know Bianca is that this crisis in Ukraine, Russia's invasion in Ukraine has really put already

difficult situation with inflation across this region that much worse. So according to the World Bank across 2022, we are expecting inflation to go

up in part because of supply chain issues because of commodity prices going up as a result of the crisis in Ukraine.

But also what we're seeing really have a huge impact on people's lives here is food prices and fuel prices. We've seen a lot of protests in places like

Ecuador, Panama, Argentina, and we're expecting those kinds of things to continue.

And when you consider inflation across the region already at 7 percent according to the World Bank by the end of 2021, likely to go even higher.

And we're talking about food and fuel, in Latin America that has an outsized impact. So across Latin America and the Caribbean, about 40

percent of average household consumption is spent on food and fuel.

So when those prices go up, it has an outsized impact, and then you're talking about those pressures, hurting even more the most vulnerable

populations in this part of the world, that of course, being poor people in urban centers, and we know that Latin America is replete with major urban

centers, Mexico City, Sao Paulo, et cetera, et cetera, tens of millions of people who are low income earners are feeling the impacts of high food

prices, high fuel prices, even more than other parts of the world would.

And, you know, most experts agree if you're going to make a significant impact and help people it would take in the very short term, lots of

government spending. And experts that we've spoken to have said, look, they just don't see an area or an opportunity, given the current state of

government finances across this part of the world to really spend the kind of money that would have a huge impact on people's lives.

And even in places like Ecuador, like Panama, where they have put gasoline cap, gasoline price caps in place that hasn't quelled popular discontent.

And so if we're looking into the fall, if we're looking into the winter, and the question is will we see social unrest continue? Protests continue,

as one expert told me, the answer isn't really don't matter is if they're going to continue. It's when.

NOBILO: Nic Robertson, Nada Bashir, David McKenzie, and Matt Rivers, all stars, thank you so much for keeping us company on a Friday night.

Now, as David mentioned, he recently traveled to Tunisia where illegal migration to Europe across the Mediterranean Sea is surging once again. CNN

got exclusive access to a smuggling Kingpin. And here is David's report.


MCKENZIE (voice-over): Through (INAUDIBLE) faded fishing boats, Samia Jabloun searches. Where is that boat, she asks, did they take it back to

see? Samia wears Fadi's image on her shirt. She still sees her son in her dreams.

SAMI JABLOUN, TUNISIAN MOTHER SEARCHING FOR SON: This boat take my son. I have his photo. I hate it. I hate it because they take my son.

MCKENZIE: In this video you can see Italy in the distance. It is Samia's last image of Fadi before he vanished.

In Europe, millions of Ukrainians are given shelter from the war. But we're in Tunisia, tracking what the UN and Tennessean officials called the

biggest surge of illegal migrants in years. From across the African continent, migrants make the desperate journey across the Mediterranean

through a loose network of dangerous criminal gangs.

(on camera): So our producer's just going to speak to the smuggling kingpin who works on trying to get people out of Tunisia into Europe. We're just

seeing if he's comfortable to talk in this neighborhood.

(voice-over): But this is his own. These are his people. He says his gang pulls up to 20,000 U.S. dollars for a boat of migrants. That's up to $2,000

each live or die. There are no guarantees that see he says because we could take you but the authorities could catch you unless you die. The death is

your destiny.

The destiny like this crammed into vessels leaving at night. This passage is the planet's deadliest known migration routes as United Nations more

than 24,000 have gone missing just since 2014. But still they go.

Next summer I'm taking my wife and daughter, says the smuggler. Even though you know some people don't make it. Yes, there'll be in God's hands.

Whatever God wants for us.


Those prayers often go unanswered. These migrant boats piled up at a Coast Guard harbor.

(on camera): A small boat like this could fit 10 people on it to go to Italy.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: OK, imagine it's that we have 10 people on both of these small boats for a trip of 120 miles.

MCKENZIE: 120 miles.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: 120 miles for that sometimes, the operation of looking for immigrants become operation of assistance and recuperation of dead


MCKENZIE (voice-over): Even with the latest gear funded by the European Union and U.S., Colonel Ayman Mbarki says the Coast Guard can't possibly

trace thousands of migrants trying to leave. When they catch them, he says, they often say they will try again.

COL. AYMAN MBARKI, TUNISIAN COAST GUARD (through translator): No matter how well you are trained and equipped if you do not cure the economic and

social causes of illegal migration, then it will continue for Tunisians and for other Africans.

MCKENZIE (on camera): So we've made this group of Ivorian that come into this place near the sea, not only is a dangerous, this perilous journey to

Europe, but they afraid while they're here on Tunisian shores.

(voice-over): They live a marginal existence, working for years just to save enough money to pay the smugglers, often as laborers and maids. Here

in Tennessee, it's bad. We live illegally, says Deborah (ph), wants to take a four-month-old daughter on a smuggler's boat. When we get to Europe, we

will be illegal too but the conditions are better. We have no liberty here.

(on camera): Are you afraid of this journey? Often, I'm afraid, but sometimes I'm not. Because when I see the problems that I'm going through,

she says, when I see our future and my dreams, my fears vanish. She says Ukrainians are welcome because they are European.

The millions of Ukrainians are being led in by the European Union. Why aren't they letting more Africans into the European Union?

UNIDENTIFIED MALE (through translator): Political systems still look at humans based on their color, gender, religion and ethnicity and don't look

at them as people who are entitled to the same rights at the same level.

JABLOUN: This is the photo of my son, Fadi.

MCKENZIE (voice-over): Surrounded by her son's image. Samia says at least one migrant on the smuggling boat made it to Italy. They told her Fadi swam

too, then like thousands before him, he vanished.

(on camera): But do you still have hope he's alive?

JABLOUN: Yes, of course. I suffer. Every day I suffer. When I look his photos, I hope that God help him.

MCKENZIE: David McKenzie, CNN, Tunis.


NOBILO: Let's take a look at the other key stories making international impact today. Chinese President Xi Jinping is offering support and

assistance to Sri Lanka's new president. Mr. Xi sent a message to congratulate Ranil Wickremesinghe. He was sworn in on Thursday tasked with

guiding Sri Lanka out of its worst economic crisis since independence.

Former Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva is officially running for the country's highest office once again. Lula da Silva was nominated by

the left wing resilient Workers Party on Thursday, and he's set to face off against right wing incumbent Jair Bolsonaro in October.

And London's mayor says that he fears both candidates in the race for British prime minister would be quote, a Boris Johnson on steroids. Sadiq

Khan says this trust and Rishi Sunak have shown their loyalty Mr. Johnson. Khan, a member the Labour Party says whoever wins should call a general

election. But obviously that's not how things are done in the UK because you vote for parties and not Prime Ministers.

Next, a big week for health stories, including updates about the spread of monkeypox will bring you the big headlines. Next.



NOBILO: From the impact of viral outbreaks to promising new research about a rare condition, health is the focus of our Week in Review. The monkeypox

outbreak is dominating headlines with President Biden receiving a new report as the U.S. reports new clusters across the country. And for that

and more let's speak to Jacqueline Howard at CNN Center. Jacqueline's always good to speak to you. Let's start with monkeypox. Is the government

response keeping up with the rising numbers?

JACQUELINE HOWARD, CNN HEALTH REPORTER: Bianca, what I've heard mostly from health officials is that with testing? Yes, the response so far seems to be

in place. But many places are calling for more vaccines. And that's because here in the U.S. on the ground, we are seeing clusters of monkeypox cases,

typically related to certain events like pool parties, dance parties or bath houses.

And so as we see these clusters emerge in an increase in cases, more officials are saying that we need to deploy and provide access to more

vaccinations, even the head of our CDC here in the U.S., Dr. Rochelle Walensky said that more vaccines will help this response. Have a listen.


DR. ROCHELLE WALENSKY, DIRECTOR, U.S. CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION: Ultimately, we need to get to a place where we have more and

more vaccine available. We are offering that vaccine and people are taking us up on that vaccine, especially those in the highest risk communities.


HOWARD: And discussions around deploying more vaccines are not just happening here in the U.S., but we're talking about a global response. And

when it comes to the countries that are identifying cases that historically haven't seen monkeypox, those countries include Spain, the United States,

the UK, France.

You see here on this map, the orange circles identify cases in the current outbreak in countries that haven't historically seen monkey pox virus. And

the blue circles indicate where the virus is endemic. So, you see there, Bianca, that's where we currently are with the global situation. And it's

going to take vaccinations and testing to respond.

NOBILO: And let's turn to another virus, which hasn't been diagnosed almost a decade in the U.S., polio. How concerned should U.S. citizens be?

HOWARD: Well, here in the U.S., Bianca, the nation has identified its first polio case in a decade and that was in a patient and Rockland, New York.

Now as for how concerned we in the U.S. and the rest of the world should be? Well, if you're vaccinated, the risk is very low. So there's no reason

to panic right now. But scientifically, this is something that health authorities are investigating and looking into, because again, this is the

first case we've seen here in the U.S. in several years.

And this case was identified just about a month after in London, the U.K. health security agency announced that it identified poliovirus in the

London sewage samples.


So this was just in sewage samples. But again, keeping an eye on where this virus seems to be detected is definitely something that scientists are


NOBILO: And Jacqueline, we always try and end the show, especially on a Friday on a good note. So there's some possible hope for adults with the

rare hemophilia B condition. Tell us more.

HOWARD: That's right. Data from a Phase 1, 2 trial looking at a gene therapy for hemophilia B was just published in the New England Journal of

Medicine and it showed that this therapy given one time, as a one-time treatment was able to reduce the risk of excessive bleeding in patients.

Now, this was a phase one two trial it included only 10 patients. It was a very small study, but it does show promise and gene therapy is something

that researchers have been investigating for years now as a possible therapy for hemophilia.

And seeing that given one time showed results is important because for most patients, the current standard of care is to have regular almost weekly

infusions to help with the condition. So if you can have a one-time treatment or one-time therapy, that would be significant. Bianca.

NOBILO: It would. Fingers crossed. Jacqueline Howard, thanks so much. Have a great weekend.

And now to wrap out our week, it's time for the goodies. We begin with a course of young genius. 13-year-old Alena Wicker has become the youngest

black person in U.S. history to get into medical school. She will be entering the University of Alabama in 2024. Congratulations to her.

Then it's the big question. What would you do if you won the lottery? One jackpot winner from Kentucky decided to share her winnings with strangers.

Crystal Dunn handed out $100 gift cards to shoppers at her local grocery store saying that I know what it's like to struggle.

And finally, a new team member on Ukraine Snake Island is giving soldiers a reason to smile. Meet Snake the kitten referred to by one soldier as the

little comrade. He was rescued by Ukrainian forces and is now a core member of their team.

Well, thank you for watching. I hope you have a great weekend. That was a Global Brief and World Sport is up here next.