Return to Transcripts main page
Officials Detained in Sudan; Facebook Under Heavy Fire; Facebook's Income Undeterred by Controversy; Love Conquers All Odds; Israel Designated Six Terrorist Organization; CO2 In Environment Highest In 3 Million Years; COP26 Climate Summit Begins Sunday In Scotland; Environmentalist Target Australia's Coal Industry; Brazil Senators To Vote On Recommending Charges For Jair Bolsonaro; Fuel Shortage Imperils Haitians; "Rust" Film Production Shut Down Until Fatal Shooting Investigation Complete; Wall Street Soars; Salvaging History In Rome's Artifacts. Aired 3-4a ET
Aired October 26, 2021 - 03:00 ET
THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT. THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED.
ROSEMARY CHURCH, CNN ANCHOR (on camera): Hello, and welcome to our viewers joining us from all around the world. I'm Rosemary Church.
Just ahead here on CNN Newsroom, deadly protests in Sudan after military forces announce they've dissolved the government.
CEO Mark Zuckerberg remains defiant as leaked documents and new whistleblower testimony caused more trouble for Facebook.
Plus, Japan's now former Princess Mako trades in her crown for a wedding ring. Why her marriage has caused such a stir.
UNKNOWN: Live from CNN center, this is CNN Newsroom with Rosemary Church.
CHURCH: Thanks for joining us.
Well, Sudan is again a country in crisis as the military seizes power, detaining civilian leaders and dashing hopes of a Democratic transition. Thousands packed the streets in protest, with one group saying at least four people were killed and 80 injured by gunfire.
The military has now dissolved the power sharing government and declared a state of emergency. They have also detained the Prime Minister Abdalla Hamdok. Still the information ministry says he remains the legitimate transitional authority in the country.
CNN's Nima Elbagir has more.
NIMA ELBAGIR, CNN INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT (voice over): Sudan, once again forced to a crossroads. One month after a failed coup attempt, the military arrested Prime Minister Abdalla Hamdok on Monday along with other civilian members of the transitional government, bearing all the hallmarks of military takeover, a coup.
Since the toppling of long serving ruler Omar al-Bashir in 2019, military and civilian groups have been sharing power in the northeast African nation, intending to lead eventually to Democratic elections in 2023. The transition has seen Sudan emerge from international isolation under Bashir's nearly three-decade rule. That Democratic experiment now hangs in the balance.
Via a televised address, the head of Sudan's armed forces, General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, who was also the head of the transitional sovereign council, announced that the military has dissolved the government, and declared a state of emergency.
ABDEL FATTAH AL-BURHAN, SUDANESE MILITARY LEADER (through translator): The stress here is that the armed forces intend to complete the Democratic transition until the country's leadership is handed over to an elected civilian government.
ELBAGIR: Prime Minister Hamdok's home appeared to be surrounded by armed forces on Monday. According to the information ministry, apparently still loyal to the country's erstwhile civilian rulers, Hamdok was told to release a statement in support of the takeover, but instead called on the people to take to the streets and protest.
Tens of thousands demonstrated in Khartoum, burning tires and barricading roads. One eyewitness told CNN three key bridges had been blocked by protesters in the capital. And the crowd could be heard chanting, the people are stronger, and going back is impossible.
UNKNOWN (through translator): What the military is doing now is a big betrayal to all the citizens on all levels. Now it is important that every individual, Sudanese citizen, acts and takes to the streets to not let any armed vehicle move.
ELBAGIR: Military forces stormed Sudan's state broadcaster in the city of Omdurman, and detained staff, according to the information ministry, which also said live bullets were fired at protesters outside Sudan's army general command.
The Sudanese Professionals Association, in part responsible for the 2019 uprising, issued a call to action, saying, quote, "we urge the masses to go out on the streets and occupy them, close all roads with barricades, stage a general labor strike, and not to cooperate with the putschists, and use civil disobedience to confront them."
Flights from Khartoum International Airport have been suspended, and the internet and the mobile phone network have been severely disrupted. Sudan has been in the midst of a deep economic crisis, marked by record high inflation, and shortages of basic goods.
The United States embassy in Khartoum issued a statement saying it was gravely concerned, saying, quote, "we call on all actors who are disrupting Sudan's transition to stand down, and allow the civilian led transitional government to continue its important work to achieve the goals of the revolution."
Nima Elbagir, CNN, London.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
CHURCH (on camera): Joining us now is Jonas Horner, deputy director for the Horn of Africa at the International Crisis Group. Thank you so much for being with us.
JONAS HORNER, DEPUTY DIRECTOR, HORN OF AFRICA, INTERNATIONAL CRISIS GROUP: Thanks for having me.
CHURCH: Now, you left Sudan just a few days ago. Since then the military has taken over, dissolve the government, declared a state of emergency and detained the prime minister and others amid these growing protests. How bad do you fear the situation will get, and what more are you learning about what's happening there on the ground?
HORNER: There is concern that this can spiral into a much worse and potentially more violent context. I think the primary risk associated with that is within the already fairly divided military in Sudan. You know, even during the country's revolution there were divisions, there has been previous coup attempts just about a month ago already which also showed the divisions in the military.
You know, the split between the streets here that the vast majority of Sudanese who you spoke about in your package and the military is one side of things and the reason why the street has been so effective is because they have been staunchly nonviolent.
But you know, where different sections of the military to weigh into this then you have multiple sides, with plenty of weaponry, you know, contesting this in the new and more worrying way.
CHURCH: Right. And Sudan of course has no history of free and fair elections, and we know the civilian government inherited massive problems from the previous military government. So, the military blaming the civilian government for not reforming fast enough appears to be a bit rich here. What is going on? As we also learned, apparently, telecommunications are down in Sudan.
HORNER: Yes, well, you know, it's incredibly disingenuous that the military and some of its civilian supporters would seek to instrumentalize calls that the transition government is not performing well enough for it to be viable and therefore a state of emergency is justified.
Because, you know, Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, the head of the sovereign council and the head of this coup is ostensibly the head of state, so his criticism of the government is ostensibly criticism of himself and others around him. The military have certainly dragged their feet on acting key reforms that would have advanced the economy and other aspects of this transition.
So, you know, I do find it very disingenuous that the reasoning -- that the reason given for this coup is under performance. You know, I must say, just briefly, you know, there have been successful elections in Sudan in the past, on a couple of occasions, but on both those occasions a coup had swept away that civilian-led government.
And in the end in the 65 years of Sudan's independence in 1956, 52 of those years have been, have seen military rule. So, the military is not used to being out of power they expect to stay in power.
CHURCH: So, what do they choose now?
HORNER: There are a couple of reasons for why now. One is that in fact there were signs of success for the transitional government, the civilian-led transitional government. You know, Sudan's economy has been in freefall since well before Bashir, Omar al-Bashir was deposed.
But, you know, in the last couple of months inflation is started to drop as a result of the painful reforms that have been enacted. You've seen the balance of trade in Sudan improve. Sudan has one death relief for itself in world record time.
And I think, you know, the military's calculations that the civilians would fail on their own because of the litany of obstacles that face the transition, you know, start to look shaky, they started to see that there was traction there, and they were worried about that.
The other aspects include the military's concern that it might face justice for crimes committed during and after the Bashir era. If the civilians came in and also worried that they would lose their hold of the economy, that the military holds key sectors of the economy and owns some of the largest companies in the country, and none of that money really makes it to the state coffers.
And I guess, finally, the military found itself emboldened by key regional actors who are uncomfortable with the prospect of a civilian transition in the Sudan.
CHURCH: Jonas Horner, thank you so much for joining us. I appreciate it.
HORNER: Thanks for having me.
CHURCH: Facebook has been warming warning staff to ready themselves for bad headlines. Up to tens of thousands of pages of internal documents were leaked to the press.
And on Monday Facebook whistleblower Frances Haugen testified before British lawmakers about some of the platforms alleged controversial practices.
CNN's Donie O'Sullivan has more.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
DONIE O'SULLIVAN, CNN REPORTER (voice over): We need to steel ourselves from more bad headlines in the coming days, Facebook's exec Nick Clegg in an internal memo to colleagues over the weekend.
UNKNOWN: You didn't hate, but do you think it's making it worse?
FRANCES HAUGEN, FORMER FACEBOOK EMPLOYEE: Unquestionably it's making the hate worse.
UNKNOWN: Thank you.
O'SULLIVAN: On Monday, as Facebook whistleblower Frances Haugen appeared before the British parliament, a consortium of 17 U.S. news organizations including CNN began publishing a series of stories based on tens of thousands of pages of documents Haugen leaked from the company.
HAUGEN: I think there is a few inside the company that safety is a cost center. It's not across center, which I think is really short term in thinking.
O'SULLIVAN: Facebook's response to stop the steal movement that fueled the insurrection was piecemeal, according to an internal analysis.
How did you guys hear about this event today?
UNKNOWN: Through Facebook.
O'SULLIVAN: Internally, comments from Facebook staff after the insurrection suggest that the company was at least partially culpable. All due respect, but haven't we had enough time to figure out how to manage discourse without enabling violence. We've been fueling this fire for a long time, and we shouldn't be surprised it's now out of control.
But Facebook issues extend far beyond the United States. The leaked documents show the platform being used by militias in Ethiopia, fanning the flames of sectarianism in India, and weaponized in Myanmar.
HAUGEN: I have no doubt that the events were seeing on the world, things unlike Myanmar and Ethiopia, those are the opening chapters. Facebook comes back and says only a tiny sliver of our content platforms hate, only a tiny sliver of violence. One, they can't detect it very well, so I don't know if I trust these numbers.
But two, it gets hyper concentrated in, you know, 5 percent of the population. And you only need 3 percent of the population on the streets to have a revolution, and that's dangerous.
O'SULLIVAN: And the documents show how for years the company has struggled to crack down on how its platforms are used to promote human trafficking. CNN last week identifying multiple Instagram accounts purporting to offer domestic workers for sale, including photos and descriptions of women, like age, height, weighs. Facebook taking the accounts down only after being asked about them by CNN, confirming the accounts broke its rules. LAWRENCE LESSIG, FACEBOOK WHISTLEBLOWER'S ADVISER: What Francis has
given us is an extraordinary archive of material that helps us see exactly what's going on and what they know is going on. And it is the biggest and most important contribution to understanding this incredibly important problem that we've ever had.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
O'SULLIVAN (on camera): Frances Haugen there, getting the attention of lawmakers on both sides of the Atlantic. Of course, the question now is, what will these politicians do? Will they vote in some way to regulate Facebook?
Donie O'Sullivan, CNN, New York.
CHURCH: Internal documents also confirmed Facebook knew its international growth that spiraled dangerously out of control but they forged ahead anyways.
CNN's Anna Stewart joins me now from London with more on the Facebook papers. Good to see you, Anna.
So, we are learning that Facebook researchers warned of the need to invest in foreign languages to protect users from hate speech and misinformation. But that was not done, was it? What do you learn about this? And of course, the consequences.
ANNA STEWART, CNN REPORTER: I mean, I this is one of the key point that Haugen brought up yesterday in her testimony to the U.K. parliament, the fact that Facebook's own researchers appeared concerned from the papers that we have reviewed, that they are ill- equipped to identify and stamp out certain terms and phrases related to hate speech and misinformation. And that's due to a lack of language skills.
Now we know that the platform supports more than 100 languages. But from this it suggests its content moderators do not. And this is really critical in terms of identifying those phrases that need to taught to the A.I. so they can easily be swept out and stamped out. And of course, these sorts of terms were different from language to language, region to region and they will constantly evolve over time.
This is something Haugen spoke about. She said that some of the most at-risk countries are also the most linguistically diverse. In the research we have seen, Facebook researchers were concerned about moderating content in Ethiopia, in Afghanistan, in India, and much of the Middle East.
And they also suggested that Facebook will prioritize a language that it needs to adopt into its content moderation, but only when the country is already at risk. Which means Facebook could have completely unwittingly contributed to the situation by allowing hate speech and misinformation to be amplified on its platforms. Rosemary?
CHURCH: And Anna, despite all of the failings on the part of Facebook, profits are soaring, right? STEWART: Yes. Another great day for Facebook. It's quite
extraordinary. This is biggest crisis its ever faced, and yet earnings are strong yesterday, and the share price was up. That said, Mark Zuckerberg did take the opportunity to tackle the latest from Haugen, and the papers which of course are playing heavily in the media.
He says good faith criticism helps us get better, but my view, is that we are seeing a coordinated effort to selectively use documents to paint a false picture of our company.
So certainly, refuting many of the allegations there. Profits for the third quarter came in at over $9 billion. That was up 17 percent on the year before. And a lot of the attention on the call was about Instagram reels, which is using to compete with TikTok, or Facebook's met averse, which of course is investing heavily in.
It's breaking out its hard one segment in AR and VR, that will be in a separate reporting segment for the future earnings reports. Social media regulation is looming in Facebook's future, but right now, investors are seeing a company that it is growing at a healthy clip.
CHURCH: Yes. And of course, all of the criticism and all the attacks about profits being put over safety. That's the backdrop. Anna Stewart, many thanks joining us live from London. I appreciate it.
Joining me now is Jeff Horwitz, a technology reporter for the Wall Street Journal. Good to have you with us.
JEFF HORWITZ, TECHNOLOGY REPORTER, THE WALL STREET JOURNAL: Good to have you -- good to be here. Thank you.
CHURCH: And we will certainly get to that defense in just a moment, but I do want to start with the allegations. Because this new evidence highlighting Facebook's role in the January 6th insurrection after those leaked internal documents reveal what the company knew and what it tried to hide. Actions that allowed democracy to come under attack as we saw in the U.S.
And showing Facebook knew its platforms were used to spread extremism, incite violence, fuel human trafficking, and militias in parts of the world, putting profit before safety. How damning is all of this for Facebook do you think? Can it survive this?
HORWITZ: Facebook can definitely survive this. They had earning today and they made a ton of money, they're doing great as a business, that's never been a question. And whether or not people like them as a company or corporate entity doesn't really seem to be that much of a concern at the moment.
CHURCH: So, well, let's look then at Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg's defiant defense Monday saying this is a coordinated effort to selectively use leaked documents to paint a false picture of our company. let's look at your reaction to that sort of defense, because it's a little tone-deaf, isn't it? HORWITZ: I guess I can say that having some exposure to how these
documents came together and what's material Ms. Haugen gathered, it does not look cherry picked. They're selective. In fact, it looks pretty comprehensive from my point of view.
We've been writing about these things for a couple of months now and there is no question that the company is very aware that its own systems do promote experience, and do as she notes suggest people toward more radical alternatives to wherever they were before.
So, this isn't -- this isn't something that is kind of misperception. This is the company's own researchers doing the work that they've been asked to do and finding the stuff very clearly.
CHURCH: Right. And when whistleblower Frances Haugen appeared before the British parliament on Monday. She said Facebook was making hate even worse. So, what needs to happen next to regulate and control Facebook? Because Zuckerberg won't even admit there's a problem, and government can't seem to keep up or even understand what Facebook is doing here. So, what is the solution?
HORWITZ: Right. So, Facebook actually has said they believe they should be regulated more. Now, I think that is in some ways a bet that perhaps governments around the world will not figure out how to do so well which has certainly been the case to date.
I think one of the things that Frances and I spent a lot of time talking about was, how the public debate about this company had gone off track and how talks about, sort of a straight anti-trust solution or let's repeal laws protecting companies platforms or litigation for things that people post.
That kind of the silver bullet were perhaps a bit overdone, and that what needed to happen instead of immediate solutions was people are actually learning about what Facebook had researched, and what it had found. And understanding the mechanics of the platform and maybe just taking a bit of a breath, and then thinking through what type of social media reaction want that.
CHURCH: Yes. Of course, Facebook also owning Instagram and WhatsApp, it does limit people's other options, doesn't it? Jeff Horwitz, many thanks for joining us. We appreciate it.
HORWITZ: Thank you.
CHURCH: Royal weddings usually are a time of public joy but not so today in Tokyo. Why a former princess and her husband apologized on their wedding day.
Plus, several Palestinian civil society groups are now being labeled terrorist organizations by Israel. We will hear from the director of one of those groups. That's ahead.
CHURCH: Welcome back, everyone.
Well, in Japan the now former Princess Mako has wed her college sweetheart after years of controversy. By marrying a commoner, she chose to relinquish the royal life and her title. She is also foregoing a $1 million dollar payment.
The ceremony was a muted and private affair, but afterwards Mako and her new husband held a press event and spoke of their love for one another. They also addressed the intense scrutiny over their relationship.
And our Blake Essig joins us now live from Tokyo to talk more about this. Good to see you, Blake.
So, the couple has come under extreme pressure and as a result this was not a joyful wedding but instead full of apologies. Talk to us about that and what all has been said about them.
BLAKE ESSIG, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Yes, you know, Rosemary, not the royal wedding that really anyone expected. Japan's former Princess Mako and her new husband a commoner Kei Kamuro have officially tied the know and as I've said, if you're expecting a royal fairytale wedding, prepare to be disappointed. There is no pomp and circumstance whatever.
A big reason for this scale back affair that we saw had a lot to do with the intense public scrutiny that has taken its toll on the couple over the past few years.
In fact, the now former princess recently disclosed that she suffers from complex post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of her relationship being picked apart over the past few years. Now since the engagement was announced in 2017 their relationship has been met with scandal, public disapproval, and media scrutiny fueled by reports that Kamuro's mother failed to pay back $36,000 that she borrowed from a former fiance.
Now instead of the extravagant affair that we, I think a lot of people here hope they would see, the couple simply register their marriage earlier this morning, around 10 o'clock local time, before holding a brief press event in the afternoon. They publicly express their love for each other and thank the public for their support and discussed what they felt were unfounded rumors. Take a listen.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
MAKO KOMURO, FORMER JAPANESE PRINCESS (through translator): Kei was criticized a richer early, and the speculation that he does not care for me spread, truly a unilateral speculation and as if it was true and real. These false rumors spread quickly, which made me fearful. And I face great pain and sadness from this.
(END VIDEO CLIP) ESSIG (on camera): And now the reason that the event was held in this way which they only answered a few -- or didn't answer any questions just gave a brief statement, was to protect the former princesses -- princess from any further anxieties as a result of media scrutiny. Rosemary?
CHURCH: Wow. Pretty tough stuff, isn't it? Blake Essig, joining us live from Tokyo. Many thanks.
Well former South Korean President Roh Tae-woo has died at the age of 88. A hospital in Seoul says he passed away after treatment for an undisclosed illness. Roh led the country between 1988 and 1993 overseeing its transition from military dictatorship to democracy.
He was president during the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games and signed an agreement with North Korea to seek reunification. Roh was sentenced to prison for corruption in the mid-90s but pardoned after two years.
Israel is drawing sharp criticism over its decision to designate six Palestinian civil society groups as terrorist organizations. And this week in Washington, they are expected to explain the basis of that move in a briefing with U.S. officials.
CNN's Hadas Gold has more now from Jerusalem.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
HADAS GOLD, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice over): In the early hours of July 29th, more than a dozen Israeli forces raided the office of Defense for Children International Palestine in Ramallah, forcing open the door, they confiscated computers, hard drives, and client files related to minors detained by Israeli courts.
On Friday, DCIP became one of six Palestinian civil society groups designated terrorist organizations by Israel's government. Defense Minister Benny Gantz's office saying a months' long investigation found the six groups constitute a network of organizations active undercover on the international front on behalf of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, saying the six groups helped fund, employ, and support PFLP members deemed organization by the U.S. and European Union responsible for a series of high-profile hijackings and attacks from the 1960s on.
Israel blaming the group for 2019 bombing that killed Israeli teenager Rina Shnerb in the West Bank. But these six civil society organizations represent children, women, agricultural workers, and prisoners. Their work often documenting what they say are human rights abuses caused by the Israeli occupation but also by the Palestinian authority and Hamas.
Israel's defense and foreign ministry declining CNN's request for an interview. Among the groups are Al-Haq, one of the longest established human rights organizations in the West Bank. Its director, Shawan Jabarin, calling the action a political decision. SHAWAN HABARIN, DIRECTOR, AL-HAQ: They used this last bullet, you
know, just to silence us and to close us down. We will continue our work.
GOLD: Condemnation rain down from the Palestinian authority, calling the designations unhinged, fallacious, and libelous. Dr. Mustafa Barghouti, an independent politician and activist said the designations are an attack on Palestinian rights and civil society.
MUSTAFA BARGHOUTI, PRESIDENT, PALESTINIAN NATIONAL INITIATIVE: It is so important that the United States and European countries and many other parties of the international community take a stand against this violation because this would be very destructive to Palestinian civil society, which has played and continues to play a very vital role in sustaining the basic life and humanitarian needs of the Palestinian people.
GOLD: The new label will present a direct challenge for the organization's donors. Many of them European countries which now is being accused of funding terrorism. E.U. spokesperson Peter Stano said Monday that the E.U. has safeguards in place to make sure funding is being used in line with E.U. legislations.
PETER STANO, E.U. SPOKESMAN: This is an important contributor to good governance and sustainable development in the E.U., in Israel, in Palestine, and elsewhere in the world. We take delegations very seriously. We are looking into it and we are seeking clarifications from the Israeli partners on the recent listings past allegations and past suspicions of misuse of E.U. funds in relation to certain Palestinian organizations where have not been substantiated in the past.
GOLD: A senior Israeli official telling CNN a delegation is headed to Washington this week to present further evidence supporting the terrorism label.
Hadas Gold, CNN, Jerusalem.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
CHURCH: And still to come, a stark warning from the U.N. about greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, carbon dioxide is at its worse level in three million years.
Plus, Australia announces an ambitious new pledged to achieve net zero emissions by 2050. We are live in the U.K. ahead of a global climate summit. Back in a moment.
ROSEMARY CHURCH, CNN ANCHOR (on camera): Welcome back, everyone. Well, we are just five days away from the COP26 Climate Summit in Glasgow, Scotland. And a new U.N. report says, we are wildly off tracked in the fight against climate change. The World Meteorological Organization Greenhouse Gas Bulletin, finds levels of carbon dioxide in the environment at the highest in 3 million years.
A number of key world leaders are skipping COP26, including Xi Jinping of China, the world's biggest carbon emitter and there is concern about how much meaningful progress the summit can make.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
BORIS JOHNSON, BRITISH PRIME MINISTER: It will be very, very tough this summit, and I'm very worried, because it might go -- it might go wrong. And we might not get the agreements that we need, and it's touch and go. It's very, very difficult, but I think it can be done.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
CHURCH: So let's head to London now in CNN's Salma Abdelaziz. Good to see you, Salma. So, Britain's Prime Minister thinks it can be done. But I mean, the big concern here with critical world leaders not attending, what can be achieved at this year's COP26 Climate Summit?
SALMA ABDELAZIZ, CNN PRODUCER (on camera): Absolutely, Rosemary, it all comes down to the commitment that those world leaders bring and what ideas and challenges they will have to present for this crisis. And what the United Nations has done yesterday is released two bits of information to they really add to the sense of urgency. As if we need any more sense of urgency.
The first is that report that you mentioned released yesterday about greenhouse gases and what it finds -- what the U.N. found is that the amount of greenhouse gases trapped in the atmosphere has yet again for another year reached record levels.
And if you thought the pandemic brought some respite in the emission of greenhouse gases, well, this U.N. report said, absolutely not. There is no discernible impact on the amount of greenhouse gases seen in the atmosphere over the pandemic. And in fact that increase of emissions that we've seen over the last decade that continues to happen.
So essentially what I'm seeing here, Rosemary, is we are way off track -- way of track, rather from what scientist say we need to be at in order to stave off the climate crisis. One scientist said, it is like skidding into a car crash and knowing you are going to collide but not being able to stop it.
And that's not the only bit of information we've got from the United Nations yesterday, we also heard of an update to the synthesis report rather. This is a report that was requested by the parties to the Paris agreement to help them determine policy around climate change and that report also says there is nowhere near where science says we should be.
So very, very concerning figures here, Rosemary. And the United Nations does layout in these reports what needs to be done and essentially that is a radical decrease in the amount of emissions. You need to see a 25 percent reduction by 2030, if that doesn't happen, that reduction needs to be 45 percent. If it is in 2030, you are talking about major commitments here, Rosemary that needs to happen right across the globe.
CHURCH: Yeah, it is hard for some to remain hopeful given all of that. Salma Abdulaziz, joining us from London. Many thanks.
Well, Australia has announced a pledge to achieve net-zero emissions by 2050. It comes amid pressure from international allies, Australian state leaders and the business community. The Prime Minister, Scott Morrison, hasn't announced new commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions beyond current targets. And Australia's booming coal industry is squarely is in the crosshairs of environmentalists.
CNN's Anna Coren has our report.
ANNA COREN, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice over): A boat carrier sitting low in the water, way down by thousands of tons of coal. Exiting the Port of Newcastle, it's on its way to a buyer, who likely paid record high prices for its cargo.
Ending the use of coal is among the stated objectives of next month's COP26 Climate Summit in Glasgow. But Australia's export industry is booming. Happy to satisfy craving as global energy shortages bite. But surely is the world second largest coal exporter, how long it remained so depends on how serious its customers are about their own climate goals.
GEORGINA WOODS, LOCK THE GATE ALLIANCE: Our major coal customers make a transformation towards renewable energy. They say they are going to, you know, then the market for our coal will dry up. How quickly that will happen is a matter of debate. But no one is in any sort of illusion that we need to get some plans in place to create a new industry and new job opportunities to replace coal.
COREN: Georgina Woods is for expansions to local fossil fuel projects in the nearby Hunter Valley with the organization Lock the Gate Alliance. She says Australia's transition away from coal must happen now, while local mining jobs are secure.
WOODS: A region like ours has sacrificed a great deal for the prosperity and energy security of New South Wales in Australia for a long time. And now we need support to make a new kind of future that isn't dependent on this industry.
COREN: In the Hunter Valley that sacrifice is clear. Famed wineries and pristine farmland pockmarked by mega minds.
Australia hold out for as long as it could on a commitment to net-zero emissions by 2050. As its government takes that pledge to Glasgow, it just approved three new coal mines including one here in the Hunter Valley. States fossil fuel feel subsidies run into the billions of dollars each year.
JOEL FITZGIBBON, AUSTRALIAN LABOR M.P.: Our coal is world's best. People want it. People -- well, countries need it. And (inaudible), will comes to us every time when they need our coal, they'll buy it.
COREN: Opposition Labor Party M.P. Joel Fitzgibbon, has represented the Hunter region in federal parliament since 1996. He argues Australia can achieve net-zero emissions while continuing to export coal. Maintaining thousands of highly paid jobs in his constituency.
FITZGIBBON: How relatively clean the efficient coal displaces inefficient coal? So, if we would stop sending thermal coal to Asia tomorrow it will be replaced by something this efficient and would add to, not subtract from viable emissions.
COREN: Australia does not add emissions from the coal, it exports to its carbon tally. But the International Energy Agency says, if the world going to keep temperatures to 1.5 degrees above pre-industrial times. Its clear countries like Australia need to stop opening new coal mines now.
In the shadow of an expanded coal mine is John Krey's home. Grain mounds now visible from his veranda.
JOHN KREY, HUNTER VALLEY, AUSTRALIAN RESIDENCE: We've got enough coal here to satisfy whatever the demand is and yet we're giving approval to open more mines.
COREN: Krey say the dust, lights, and noise from the mine site are his otherwise idyllic home unlivable.
KREY: I think the world will push Australia into doing the right thing. I think it's too late for us here.
COREN: Far more of our world in danger of becoming unlivable. Unless, Australia leaves far more of its coal in the ground.
Anna Coren, CNN.
CHURCH: Brazilian lawmaker will vote Tuesday on whether to push for criminal charges against President Jair Bolsonaro over his handling of the COVID pandemic. Senators accuse him of intentionally letting the virus ripped through the country in an effort to achieve herd immunity. Hundreds of thousands of Brazilians had died from COVID so far, but Bolsonaro says he is not guilty of any crime.
Brazil's leader is also facing scrutiny from Facebook and YouTube over his COVID messaging. On Sunday both companies removed a video on which Bolsonaro falsely suggested COVID vaccines could increase the risk of developing aids. In a statement Facebook said our policies do not allow for allegations that COVID-19 vaccines kill or make more serious harm to people. In addition, YouTube says, Bolsonaro will be suspended from the platform for seven days.
Well, still ahead, the growing crisis in Haiti, hospitals are running out of fuel, putting patients' lives at risks, while health care workers fear being kidnapped on their way to work.
CHURCH: Doctors in Haiti warned the crisis in the country is putting patients' lives at risk. The aid group, Doctors Without Borders says the shortage of fuel is seriously affecting its operations. And the security situation on the ground is preventing medical staff from going to work.
CNN's Matt Rivers has more now from Port-au-Prince.
MATT RIVERS, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice over): Spot protests across Port-au-Prince. Burning tires below sending black smoke into the sky. The country is in crisis once again in part fueled by a lack of fuel. A crushing shortage of gasoline has crippled the capital city. Here taxi drivers protesting, arguing with police outside of a gas station with no gas.
We don't have a government this man says, if we don't demand change, who will?
Tires set on fire and debris thrown into the streets are desperate attempts to cause enough chaos that the government tries to fix the problem, but it won't be easy. Not only is the government is so broke, it often can't buy enough fuel, but when some arrive it can't get delivered.
The vast majority of fuel is imported at these two locations, but gangs in Port-au-Prince are so powerful they have near complete control over this crucial stretch of highway which means they control the flow of fuel into the capital. A gas retailer identity hidden due to security concerns told us what happens if you try and drive a tanker truck into pick up fuel.
So I might get kidnapped.
RIVERS: I might get shot.
UNKNOWN: Yes, if you don't stop.
RIVERS: I might get killed.
RIVERS: Or at the very least I'm going to have to pay an exorbitant bribe.
UNKNOWN: Yes, of course. RIVERS: Haiti's government and law enforcement are either unwilling
or unable to secure a flow of fuel from the ports.
But not having enough fuel doesn't just mean you can't use your motorbike. Consider this, here in Port-au-Prince the electricity grid is not reliable. So let's say you own a small store and you sell cold drinks. In order to keep that refrigerator running you need to use a generator. And the fuel going into that generator is way more expensive than it was before that means you need to charge your customers more for those cold drinks.
Not having enough fuel mix all kinds of things more expensive and that's brutal in a country already dealing with so much poverty.
Because you don't have gasoline do you think that that is risking the lives of some of your patients because they can't get the treatment that they need?
UNKNOWN: Yeah. Of course. Of course. This is a problem for us.
RIVERS: Ken Rapia (ph) runs Haiti's largest cancer treatment center at Innovating Health International. He showed us this x-ray machine like other equipment here sitting idle because there is not enough gas to run the facility's generator full-time. In another darkened room nearby, we use our phone's flashlight to see a bank of refrigerators with medicine for chemotherapy all turned off.
So you put ice in there to keep this cold because you can't -- you don't have enough gas.
UNKNOWN: I do not have enough gas.
RIVERS: To run a generator to keep these refrigerated.
RIVERS: This clinic is still treating patients something that is barely happening inside the empty hallways of Hospital de la Paix, normally packed with patients just a few are inside now. Most days only a handful of doctors make it to work either because there's no gas or because they fear being kidnaped by gangs.
Kedya is still (inaudible) son, almost died during an asthma attack overnight. She says the doctor was using his flashlight on his phone to put my son on oxygen because there is no electricity. It's so bad I almost lost him.
Normally all of those cribs will be filled with sick kids but the hospital is turning away nearly every single patient that comes here because right now there is simply not enough doctors, nurses, or electricity to take care of them. That means that one of Haiti's largest hospitals is essentially not functioning.
The doctors are trying she says, but they cannot do anything. They have no help. Only god can help at this point. Perhaps god and gasoline.
Matt Rivers, CNN, Port-au-Prince, Haiti.
CHURCH: Production on Alec Baldwin's film "Rust," is shut down indefinitely as the investigation into a deadly shooting on the set moves forward.
CNN's Lucy Kafanov is following developments from Santa Fe, New Mexico.
LUCY KAFANOV, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice over): Tonight the first eyewitness descriptions of the fatal moment when Alec Baldwin pulled a gun from his holster on that New Mexico movie set. Killing the film's director of photography, 42 year old, Halyna Hutchins.
UNKNOWN: Two people accidentally shot on a movie set by a prop gun. We need help immediately.
KAFANOV: Court documents released Sunday reveal chilling new details about what happened inside the building on that fateful Thursday. The film's director, Joel Souza, telling investigators that Baldwin was sitting on a wooden pew during rehearsal, cross drawing his weapon and pointing the revolver towards the camera lens. Souza who was wounded said he was looking over the shoulder of Halyna when he heard what's sounded like a whip and then a loud pop.
UNKNOWN: We were rehearsing and it went off. And I ran out. We all ran out.
KAFANOV: Hutchins was shot in the chest, Souza telling investigators that the cinematographer began to stumble backwards and a camera man on the set remembered Halyna saying, she couldn't feel her legs. The affidavit reveals it was the films assistant director, Dave Halls, and not the armorer, Hannah Gutierrez, who handed Baldwin the prop weapon, yelling cold gun indicating it was safe.
DUTCH MERRICK, PROP MASTER: There is something that strikes me as odd with where was the armorer this time. Was she unaware? Did she step off to the restroom for a moment? That first A.D. should never ever reach for a gun on a set, it is unheard of.
KAFANOV: 24-year-old, Hannah Gutierrez, was the armorer-on-rust but recently said she worked as head armorer on another film for the first time.
HANNAH GUTIERREZ, ARMORER: Like by all means, I'm still learning. I think loading blanks was like the scariest thing to me because I was like, oh, I don't know anything about it.
KAFANOV: Discussing her previous experience on a podcast --
GUTIERREZ: I was really nervous about it at first and I almost did not take the job because I wasn't sure if I was ready.
KAFANOV: Two people who worked closely with the Assistant Director, Dave Halls, tells CNN he was the subject of complaints over safety and his behavior on set during two productions in 2019, including a disregard for weapons safety protocols, a failure to hold safety meetings or to announce the presence of a firearm on set.
CNN has learned Halls was previously fired from another film after a crew member was injured in a gun incident, according to Rocket Soul Studios. Neither Halls nor Gutierrez responded to a CNN request for comment. No charges have been filed as the investigation continues. Hutchins son and husband were seen alongside Baldwin in Santa Fe on Saturday. Her husband posting these family photos on Instagram writing, "We miss you, Halyna".
JOSEPH COSTA, PARTNER, COSTA LAW: Producer, which Alec Baldwin is -- but will ultimately share some liability. Alec Baldwin is facing a situation in which he's the person who has the weapon in his hand at the time it discharges and he's also a producer on the set who is responsible for everyone on the set.
UNKNOWN: This evening is going to be about, Halyna.
KAFANOV: In downtown Albuquerque, a candlelight vigil, many of the mourners, part of the film and television industry.
There is grief tonight as people mourn the passing of 42 -year-old, Halyna Hutchins, but there is also outrage and unanswered questions about how this tragedy, how this senseless shooting could have taken place.
REBECCA STAIR, FILM LOCATION MANAGER: I just hope all this talking does something and we get the changes that we need for a safe set. I'm sure you know we are about to strike this past Monday for safer conditions and if the world didn't believe us, about what is going on, maybe they believes us now.
KAFANOV: People should be able to go home after performing their job.
STAIR: Yes. That's true, she's a mother.
KAFANOV: The Sheriff's office told us they will update the public Wednesday. Now the production company behind the movie "Rust," said that they are cooperating fully and conducting an internal review of safety protocols in a letter sent to casts and crew. They announced that they will pause work in the New Mexico set, at least until the investigations are complete.
Lucy Kafanov, CNN, Santa Fe, New Mexico.
CHURCH: And we will be back in just a moment.
CHURCH: The DOW and S&P 500, both closed at record highs on Monday. The DOW end of the day slightly up and is now within striking distance of cracking 36,000 for the first time.
And Wall Street's excitement about the future of electric vehicles gave their landmark booster Tesla. The carmaker became the sixth company in U.S. history to be valued at $1 trillion. Shares jumped about 13 percent Monday on news of a record order of 100,000 vehicles for the Hertz Car Rental Fleet and Morgan Stanley analysts upgraded Tesla's price target.
Well, bacteria is both a hero and a villain in Rome's constant battle to save artifacts from decay. In some cases it's a fight against microorganisms that a road stone and others, certain strains are actually used to clean the accumulated filth of hundreds of years.
Ben Wedeman reports on the science being used to preserve history.
BEN WEDEMAN, CNN SENIOR INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT (voice over): The laser burns away the grime of 18th century, caked on to the arch of Septimius Severus in the form. Rome maybe the eternal city, it's ancient artifacts however are not, under unrelenting assault by the ravages of time, pollution, acid rain, and the sweat and breath of millions of tourists.
Conservator, Alexandra Lougari (ph) and his colleagues are using the latest technology to try to salvage the city's treasures.
See the block, he asks? It's about four cubic meters, several tons, and inside there are billions of bacteria. Bacteria that ever so slowly disfigures and erodes roads the marble.
We built a box so it would be dark, Lougari explains. The temperature and humidity should be relatively high to recreate conditions on the outside like those inside.
They then cover the outside of the marble with enzymes drawing the bacteria out to the surface where it calcified strengthening the stone.
Increasingly restoration work is being done on a molecular level. But of course for Italy, the challenge is huge because it has archeological sights on a monumental scale.
While some fight bacteria, others are using it to eat away grease and dirt. Micro biologist Kiara Elisis, and her team at ENEA, Italy's National Agency for New Technologies, search for potentially useful strains of bacteria in industrial waste sites, abandoned mines, and from a distant past.
They've already been selected by nature to develop potential abilities which we can test and study and apply, she says. This strain we collected from a Tusken tomb. It's a complicated process, isolating individual strains that fry when the right kind of filth. Sequencing the DNA and then putting it them to work.
Sylvia Burgini (ph), shows us the results in the Garden of the Museo Nazionale Romano. With a toothbrush, she removes gel suffused with bacteria from a block of marble, once part of a fourth century (inaudible) bridge. The cleanest strip was covered for 24 hours with the SH87 strain.
It's easy to apply and afterwards the artifacts stay clean, Sylvia says. It doesn't harm the environment, it is not toxic for us or the floor in the garden. It is perfect.
And therein lies the paradox. The single celled organism could help preserve this city's ancient glory.
Ben Wedeman, CNN, Rome.
CHURCH: Well done. Well, thank you so much for your company. I am Rosemary Church, have yourselves a wonderful day. "CNN Newsroom," continues now with Isa Soares.