Return to Transcripts main page

CNN Newsroom

St Giles' Cathedral Special Service To Celebrate The Queen; Russian Forces In Full Retreat From Kharkiv As Ukraine Seeks To Turn Tide Of War; U.K. Says Long Farewell to Queen Elizabeth II; Biden Marks 21st Anniversary of 9/11 Terror Attacks; Tropical Storm Helps Fight California's Fairview Fire; Doomsday Glacier Hanging on By its Fingernails; Britain's Youngest Subjects Mourn Their Queen; The Queen's Corgis. Aired 1-2a ET

Aired September 12, 2022 - 01:00   ET




BECK ANDERSON, CNN ANCHOR: Very warm welcome to our viewers around the world. I'm Becky Anderson at Buckingham Palace. The final journey for Britain's longest serving monarch continues in Edinburgh in the hours ahead.

Queen Elizabeth II is currently lying in rest at the Royal Family's official Scottish residence. On Monday, her coffin will proceed from the Palace of Holyroodhouse to St. Giles's Cathedral for a service of prayer and reflection.

King Charles III and the Queen Consort will travel from London to the Scottish capitol for that service. The public will also be able to pay their respects. The Queen's coffin remains in the cathedral until Tuesday, and in the days ahead, the Queen's casket will travel to Buckingham Palace in London and then to Westminster Hall where the Queen will lie in state until her funeral next Monday.

Well, Edinburgh marks the first leg of the Queen's final journey then. There, crowds of mourners and admirers lined the streets on Sunday to pay their respects.

Those who gathered clapped as the Queen's casket passed by after it made a six-hour journey from Balmoral estate where the Queen died on Thursday at the age of 96. Many are still grappling with the loss says they did their longest serving Monique a final farewell.


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: She's the only one I've ever known. I mean, I think she'd done really good for us to be honest. I think she held a lot together. Otherwise we could have lost a lot especially with the family what happened. So yes, I think she's brilliant.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: When he somebody gets to that age, you know it's going to come but I think when you see the coffin in the course of Kindle content goodbye that will just mean it's real. And even today, (INAUDIBLE) God see the king just threw at me screen so emotional.


ANDERSON: Neil McIntosh is editor for the newspaper The Scotsman and he joins me now live from Edinburgh. And I just want to bring up the front page of today's edition of The Scotsman. So how did you go about trying to encapsulate what was such a momentous day?

NEIL MCINTOSH, EDITOR, THE STOCSMAN: Good morning. You know, it's a huge task. Clearly, the Queen had a very close relationship with Scotland, she was here a lot. We want to try and capture that, that final journey coming through from Memorial through Aberdeen down through Dundee to Edinburgh yesterday as well. So, really we're looking to different features try and capture get a single image that showed the degree of affection that the Scottish population had foreign country a sense of that journey arriving in Edinburgh.

ANDERSON: Yes, the photo of the pallbearers moving the coffin yesterday such an emotive shot. I just want you if you can to explain the Queen's legacy in Scotland, what does her death mean for the country?

MCINTOSH: She had a very close relationship. Let's be clear. The Balmoral estate was quite remote and Aberdeen. She was extremely well known and seen often there. And she spent her own about a quarter of the year in Balmoral. So she was there a great deal.

For the rest of us and the most of the population is in the central lowland cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow, we didn't see her every day. It wasn't a Scandinavian monarchy. But there's certainly a sense that the Queen was frequently here. The members of the royal family were here.

And I guess the legacy was, is that she ensured that the royal family was not seen as a royal family remote. There was an England, Buckingham Palace sanctuary on Windsor, but also very much present here in Scotland. And that accounted for a great deal in these slightly fractious times. The sense of the Queen was extremely. She wants to be here. She was very affectionate towards Scotland and Scots.


She was appreciative of the culture. She came here from baby (ph) every summer, right the way through, obviously until her death. So there was a sense that she was very close. She really intervened in domestic politics, but when she did occasionally it was to defend the union that kept Scotland and England together.

ANDERSON: So the extension of the of her son, King Charles III, then, an important moment, let's talk about what he means for the future of Scotland as part of the UK because of course, the Queen's death comes amid a renewed push for Scottish independence, the king will meet with the First Minister of Scotland, Nicola Sturgeon, other leaders later today, as he takes on this role, what does King Charles III need to do to shore up support in Scotland, is it worth? MCINTOSH: He has to play a fairly steady game is worth saying, there's been a few suggestions that the United Kingdom is on the verge of breaking up almost because of the death of the Queen. That is not something that's going to drive it straight away. And the issue of independence for Scotland has been something that's been around for a good long while though.

There was mood pressures for devolution, starting in the 1970s. Of course, an independence referendum took place in 2014 the Queen lived through all that. And she may have had some influence in helping in as far as keeping things pulled together. But it was an issue that's arisen, really, whether or not she was there at whether she was intervening.

So Prince Charles can expect to have a direct impact also because he's expected to be involved in political matters. But I think the Scottish public will certainly be looking to him to continue that close association with Scotland, he comes here all the time. Anyway, he was in Scotland in the days before the Queen's death. So he certainly is here also a great deal and I think he will want to keep that sense of togetherness going.

It's worse thing that the Scottish National Party of which Nicola Sturgeon is head and then she's first minister here in Scotland, has never sought to be a party that would replace the Queen as head of state, even in an independent Scotland. And that was a great deal down to the affection that party knows the Queen was held. So King Charles will be wanting to continue that.

ANDERSON: Neil McIntosh, it's likely to have been a very long night view. We very much appreciate your time, sir. Thank you very much. Indeed. Well, another emotional day ahead in Edinburgh. And indeed in Scotland, CNN's Salma Abdelaziz joining me now here at Buckingham Palace with more. Just walk us through what we can expect in the hours and days to come.

SALMA ABDELAZIZ, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Absolutely. So another packed day, of course, for King Charles III and the Queen Consort, they're actually going to start their events here in London today. They're going to be at Westminster Hall, they're going to be receiving official condolences from both Houses of Parliament, both House of Commons and the House of Lords and the King will respond in kind, of course, this very public showing of condolences for the Queen and it is after that, after that event at Westminster today, that the king and the Queen Consort will make their way to Scotland, will make their way to Edinburgh to, of course, be a part of that very important procession that's going to take place today along the Royal Mile, walking on foot, that royal miles behind the Queen's coffin, taking it to St. Giles cathedral, attending that prayer service, starting that period, that 24 hour period, where the Queen's body will lie in rest at St. Giles cathedral.

But tomorrow of course, is the homecoming, Becky, right? That's the moment that we're going to see the Queen's coffin come back here to Buckingham Palace, come back home. The body will be accompanied by Princess and tomorrow. You have that 24 hour period. So sometime in the late afternoon tomorrow flown from Edinburgh to here to London with Princess Anne and then brought to Buckingham Palace where King Charles III and the Queen Consort of course, will accept the body, will accept the Queen's remains.

And then the huge day, that big poignant moment we're expecting is on Wednesday. We're going to see the Queen's body taken to lie instinct, right. It's going to go to Westminster Hall. We're going to see all along central London here. This huge procession again by foot and you can imagine how powerful of a moment that's going to be, Becky, crowds line along the streets of central London. We saw what it looked like in Scotland, right. People throwing flowers, people putting pictures of the queen in their window beating their final farewell and then of course the body lying in state out Westminster Hall for four full days.


That will be open for 24 hours if you can believe it. People can line up anytime of the day or night and, and there will be long queues. There will be long lines for hours. So that people can say their final goodbyes there she lives in state. So you have a packed period here before of course, the funeral, the official funeral on Monday, and then her final resting place, of course, being Westminster Abbey, and very much at the heart of this, you have to remember, there is the family there that is saying goodbye. But they are saying goodbye in this very public way, in this very communal way. Right.

So that homecoming tomorrow is going to be huge, another packed day are receiving condolences here in Westminster, and then as well in Scotland. And that anticipation of the Queen's arrival in London for the final goodbye.

ANDERSON: Very, very sort of what will probably be quite a private moment at the Chapel in Windsor. Monday evening, next week, where she is interred, of course, with her husband, Prince Philip. Thank you very much. Salma Abdelaziz. We will have more from London in just a few minutes.

First, let's bring in Michael Holmes, who has some of the day's other important news out of Atlanta for you, Michael.

MICHAEL HOLMES, CNN ANCHOR: All right. Good to see you, Becky. We'll check in with you a bit later. And yes, we'll take a quick break. When we come back, Ukraine's president says the world is impressed the enemy is panicking. More of Volodymyr Zelenskyy's message to his troops as they drive Russian forces out of eastern -- Northeastern Ukraine.

Also a look at how some of the Kremlin's allies are now publicly criticizing Vladimir Putin's special military operation. We'll be right back.


[01:15:37] HOLMES: Welcome back, a blistering Ukrainian counter offensive is pushing Russian forces out of the Kharkiv region and setting up what could be a new front in the battle for the Donbas. But as the Russians retreat on the ground, they are launching missile attacks on key infrastructure. Firefighters racing to douse the flames in Kharkiv on Sunday, after a Russian strike hit a power plant. At least one person was killed. Electricity knocked out in the dawn yet Stan Kharkiv regions.

But those missiles aren't reversing stunning Russian losses on the ground. Ukrainian officials say their forces have retaken more than 40 settlements. They entered Izium over the weekend the former key logistics hub for Russia.

Video shows troops raising Ukrainian flags and celebrating by firing shots in the air. Ukraine's President addressing his forces directly urging them to keep up the fight.


VOLODYMYR ZELENSKYY, UKRAINIAN PRESIDENT (through translator): Today, everyone sees and notes your actions in the north, south and eastern Ukraine. The world is impressed. The enemy's panicking. Ukraine is proud of you unit believes in you, race for you and is waiting for you. The path to victory is a difficult one. We are sure you are capable of it. You will reach our border all its sections.


HOLMES: But Ukrainian advances don't mean of course that the war is over or close to an end. The officials say they are already finding evidence of more Russian war crimes. CNN's Melissa Bell with more from Kharkiv.


MELISSA BELL, CNN CORRESPONDENT (on camera): To missile strikes on Kharkiv City tonight where there's a total electricity blackout, this Sunday night another electricity blackout in Donetsk region, as confirmed by the Ukrainian President Zelenskyy in his nightly address. This evening, it comes even as Ukrainian forces have been able to take control of some villages here in Kharkiv region. We were able to travel with Ukrainian police, as they showed us those areas that they believe were now entirely under their control, first of all, to a village that was liberated these last few days on Wednesday, where even now they've begun exhuming the bodies of civilians.

The first evidence they say of some of the war crimes that were committed in the very early days of the invasion, remember that it was in Bucha, and Borodianka, places that had only a month of Russian occupation that we saw some of those terrible war crimes emerging just a few months ago.

Now as the counteroffensive progresses, we're able to see exactly what has gone on, on this side of the line over the course of the last few months and yet, things not as clear as we'd imagined as we headed further to Kupyansk where even this Sunday, we saw more fighting going on as Russian forces trying to retake control of a town that is crucial to their supply lines to the frontlines in the Donbas. Melissa Bell, CNN, Kharkiv.


HOLMES: The pro-Kremlin leader of the Chechen Republic has offered some rare public criticism of Russia's Defense Ministry and its handling of the war. Ramzan Kadyrov is calling for changes in Russia's military tactics in the coming days, saying mistakes have been made on the battlefield. His comments posted in an audio message on his Telegram account. The Chechen leader has supplied thousands of fighters to the Russian campaign.

And joining me now from New York, Masha Gessen is a staff writer for The New Yorker also the author of the book "Surviving Autocracy." Great to see you and thanks for making the time. It was interesting. The Chechen leader and Putin supporter Ramzan Kadyrov said his words were that he would be forced to speak with the Russian leadership to explain what he called the real situation on the ground. He called these developments astounding. What are you seeing among loyalists on Twitter, Telegram and elsewhere?

MASHA GESSEN, STAFF WRITER, THE NEW YORKER: There seems to be a fair amount of disarray. It's I mean, it's it is perversely pleasurable to watch because what is being attacked in a way or what has been hit rather, is this sort of culture of reporting upstairs of always building up the successes, which is part of what led Putin I think and his advisers to believe that they were going to be able to conquer Ukraine so easily was this habit of reassuring each other, the strongest the best and no one else exists.


And so now this nation that they imagined as or that Putin has claimed doesn't exist, and whose army they certainly imagined to be negligible has not only not allowed them to conquer the country over the course of a brutal, absolutely brutal six month war, but as now counter attacking and managing to within hours liberates towns and cities, that it took Russians days and weeks and months of brutal attacks to conquer.

And so how do you square that, with this entire political culture that rests on reassuring one another that were the strongest and the best and that nobody else exists? It doesn't square. So what we're watching among the propagandists is a state of total disarray, and confusion, and they're waiting for directions and they're waiting to be told what to say and how it's -- how to frame this.

HOLMES: One, one pro-Kremlin blogger on Telegram I was reading today he said this, quote, Lord, save the Russian soldiers from blows from the front and even more from blows in the back. Is there or could there soon be any in your view, realistic threat to Putin, if the current path of the war continues, and these opinions get expressed? GESSEN: I would not rush to conclusions about that. The biggest fallacy that we engage in the West is sort of creating this this imaginary picture of Russia where Putin can be brought down by becoming suddenly unpopular, by losing the people's trust. And by causing people economic hardship, all of that has happened, right, he has caused untold economic hardship over the course of the six month war. He has caused the deaths of at least tens of thousands of Russian soldiers quite possibly more. He has he has caused other untold grief and yet, support hasn't wavered.

So the only way that support for Putin can actually waver is if the propaganda machine collapses, and the collapse of the propaganda machine is not directly related to military defeat, or any kind of military losses. Right. So that's what we really have to be watching. Is, is something going to happen to the propaganda machine. And that's going to take more than military victory of Ukraine.

HOLMES: Yes. And to that point, I mean, as you were saying earlier, we got to remember the beginning of the war, the Russians said they take Kyiv in a matter of days. And we've seen now that when, in a recent appearance, Putin said that Russia had, quote, lost nothing during the war.

How will these losses in recent days make the war a harder sell to the Russian population if and when that propaganda wall is broken down, and they start hearing some of the and seeing some of the things that are out there?

GESSEN: I don't know that the propaganda will be broken down because Putin now has an absolute monopoly on the airs, on the airwaves, on the internet on basically everything that's out there. And so, you know, is it possible using a propaganda machine to conceal these losses, or spin them in really bizarre ways? Yes, it's possible.

What also scares me is that Russia is very much in the habit of sort of falling back on this position of the heroic victim. And that can happen here too. Even as Russia was waging this unprovoked, aggressive, illegal, brutal war against Ukraine, even while it was on the offensive, it was spinning it as a defensive war against Ukrainian Nazis.

So in that sense, it doesn't actually take that much to serve to be able to spin these military defeats, and we really have to be thinking about that now we really have to be thinking about how to help Ukraine. defeat Russia, not only militarily, but also in countering Russian propaganda inside Russia. That is a huge task and it requires some really creative thinking.

HOLMES: Yes, yes. And as far as the battlefield goes, taking territory is one thing holding it as another it'll be interesting to see how the Russian military responds I wish we have more time. We do not. Masha Gessen and thank you so much, really appreciate you coming on.

GASSEN: Thank you for having me.

HOLMES: And coming up here on CNN Newsroom. The next leg of Queen Elizabeth final journey begins in the hours ahead. What's ahead in Scotland and much more after the break.



ANDERSON: Just before half six in the morning here. I'm Becky Anderson outside Buckingham Palace for you. The UK bidding along farewell to its longest serving monarch Queen Elizabeth II. The Queen left her Balmoral retreat in Scotland for the last time on Sunday making, or was a six-hour journey to Edinburgh along a route lined with mourners coffin now rests in the Throne Room at the Palace of Holyroodhouse in the coming hours. That casket will be moved in a procession to St. Giles's cathedral for a service of prayer and reflection.

Members of the royal family including King Charles will attend that. Crowds across the UK now saying goodbye to the one monarch while welcoming another. CNN's Nic Robertson has the details.


NIC ROBERTSON, CNN International Diplomatic Editor (voice-over): At Buckingham Palace, massive crowds greet King Charles ahead of some of his first meetings as the nation's new king. In Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland celebration, as his royal proclamation is read out Sunday.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: God saves the king.

ROBERTSON: A more muted tone in Balmoral, where his mother passed away on Thursday. The Queen's coffin began a six-hour journey to Edinburgh, or part of a ceremony approved by the Queen herself. Crowds lined the streets as the Queen's casket pass them by. The cortege accompanied by the Queen's daughter Princess Anne wound its way through remote villages and cities of Scotland.


Edinburgh's Royal Mile, packed with mourners. The crowd gently clapping. And there goes the Queen's coffin around the corner.

People of all ages, straining at the barriers for a better view. All coming to say goodbye to Britain's longest-serving monarch. Some had even saved spots along the road, since news of the Queen's death first broke.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: A lot of people have been here for hours and the mood has been quite somber but also quite nice, people talking fondly about the Queen.

ROBERTSON: And this young girl will always live with the Queen's legacy.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: She was actually named Georgia Elizabeth after the Queen, so we thought it would be nice for her to grow up and be told that she was here today.

ROBERTSON: People even bringing their pets out to pay their respects in memory of the Queen's beloved corgis.

Journey's end, this day, the palace of Holyroodhouse, the Queen to lie in the throne room, and memorial service Monday in nearby St. Giles Cathedral is next. In death, as she lived her life in service.

KATE WILLIAMS, CNN ROYAL HISTORIAN: This is her last royal engagement. This journey has symbolized her duty, her service, and also her life.

ROBERTSON: Nic Robertson, CNN -- Edinburgh, Scotland.


BECKY ANDERSON, CNN ANCHOR: People from all walks of life are mourning the late British queen. The only monarch many of them have ever known. More now, from Edinburgh.


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: If somebody gets to that age, you know it's going come. But I think when you see the coffin, (INAUDIBLE) the final goodbye, that'll just mean surreal. And even to be a (INAUDIBLE) concept the king -- and get emotional.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: God save the king.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I really, really like Charles. He had a lovely documentary, (INAUDIBLE). I think he comes across really, really well. I think he's also aged like fine wine. I think he comes across really, really nice. He's done a lot of work for charity.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I think King Charles will do an unbelievable job. And he'll do just as good as the Queen, hopefully.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: Now, I don't think he will. I think the Queen's always going to be the past.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: She used to be considered like, related to every British family. You know, we felt like when she was gone, unfortunately, sadly, like a member of the family was gone.

It's really shocking news.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I was lucky to be alive for 24 years during your reign. And it gives me such pleasure to be a college student at the Royal Academy of Music where you are our patron.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: Sort of a grandmother to us all. It's not just a loss of monarch. It's a loss of someone like a family member. I think the last time we really felt this was with Princess Diana.

She's been through quite a lot for the country, and then probably not going to see another queen again in our lifetime.


ANDERSON: We'll have more from here, just outside Buckingham Palace in London, in a few minutes for you.

Let's first bring in Michael Holmes, who's in Atlanta, Michael.

MICHAEL HOLMES, CNN ANCHOR: All right, we'll see you then, Beck. Thank you very much.

Coming up here, a day of remembrance in the U.S. as Americans commemorated the anniversary of the deadly September 11th terror attacks.

We will have a report when we come back.



HOLMES: Sunday, the U.S. marked 21 years since the September 11th terror attacks. President Joe Biden commemorating the anniversary, taking part in a wreath-laying ceremony at the Pentagon and delivering heartfelt remarks honoring those killed during the attacks.

And in New York, the U.S. Vice President Kamala Harris and other political leaders joined families of 9/11 victims as they remember the tragic event.

CNN's Polo Sandoval with the story.


POLO SANDOVAL, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Well here in New York City it was a day solemn remembrance as 9/11 families came together at the site where the Twin Towers once stood as they led, not only the country, but the world as they marked 21 years since that awful day.

We saw dignitaries coming together, including Vice President Kamala Harris, Chuck Schumer the senator of New York, as well as New York City Mayor Eric Adams as they read out loud each one of the nearly 3,000 names, many of those family members still struggling through tears, but at times even smiling as they celebrated the legacy of their loved ones.

Also on hand, Alejandro Mayorkas, the secretary of the Department of Homeland Security, an agency that actually was established after the events of that day. The secretary, in a conversation with me talking to me about how the threats that the agency is monitoring, how those threats have evolved from not just international ones, but also some that are domestic in nature.

ALEJANDRO MAYORKAS, SECRETARY OF HOMELAND SECURITY: The threat landscape has evolved so dramatically. It is extraordinarily dynamic. You know, back 20 years ago when this department was formed, the greatest terrorism-related threat that we faced was the foreign terrorist who tried to come into our country and do us severe harm.

We then began to focus in and the second decade, on the individual already resident here in the country, radicalized by a foreign terrorist ideology.

Now, we're seeing increasingly the threat of domestic violent extremism. Individuals, you know, driven to violence because of an ideology of hate, anti-government sentiment, false narratives.

20 years ago, the cybersecurity threat, by criminal actors, adverse nations, wasn't top of mind. Now it's something that we're very, very focused on.


SANDOVAL: And the tributes will continue into the overnight hours. The iconic tribute and light, the installation with those two powerful beams of light that shine into the sky from Lower Manhattan. This will be shining from dusk until dawn.

Polo Sandoval, CNN -- New York.


HOLMES: Southern California's Fairview fire was temporarily held at bay over the weekend thanks to tropical storm Kay. But officials aren't sure how long it will help containment efforts.

CNN's Camila Bernal with more from California.


CAMILA BERNAL, CNN CORRESPONDENT: CalFire telling me that Sunday was a test day. What that means is that they were trying to figure out whether or not the rain actually helped them and will continue to help them advance when it comes to this fire, or whether they're


BERNAL: -- and so hot. One of the firefighters I talked to telling me, look, it may rain, but just an hour or so after, the ground is dry again.

Now on Saturday, there was cloud cover, and that helped them in the sense that the fire didn't grow in size and containment did grow to at least 45 percent. But it is again, hot and dry once again.

And so, what authorities were able to do is continue their assessment of the homes. So the number of structures destroyed grew significantly on Saturday to at least 30 structures destroyed.

And families come back to an area that looks like what you see here behind me. It is cars that are melted, aluminum that is melted. And literally what you're just left with is ashes.

It's also important to point out that two people have been killed as a result of this fire, trying to escape.

And on Saturday, a helicopter crashed here in the area. We know that this was a helicopter that essentially told other helicopters what to do, coordinate the drops around the area, and as it was finishing its assignment for the day, it crashed in a residential area.

No one in that area was injured, but the three people inside of the helicopter were injured. It was one private pilot and two CalFire employees. We know that one of the CalFire employees was released from the hospital.

We are still waiting to hear on the status of the other two that were injured. But in the meantime, this is just a reminder of how dangerous these fires can be for the residents and for the firefighters.

Camila Bernal, CNN -- Hemet, California.


HOLMES: The hottest European summer on record is melting snow in the Alps at an alarming rate. A ski resort in western Switzerland says a rocky path has now emerged between two glaciers that hasn't been seen at least 2,000 years. Think about that. One expert says it is all happening very quickly.


MAURO FISCHER, GLACIOLOGIST, UNIVERSITY OF BERN: Ten years ago, I measured here with the geo radar. I still measured about 15 meters of ice. So more than 15 meters of ice and snow have melted during the past ten years here, and actually, the past -- it's not an ice pass connecting to glaciers anymore, but now it is separating the two glaciers from each other.


HOLMES: Extraordinary. One report says the Alpine glaciers are headed to their biggest loss of ice since record keeping began more than half a century ago, scientists say.

Meanwhile, one of the most unstable glaciers in Antarctica, known as the Doomsday Glacier, is holding on by its fingernails. The Thwaites Glacier is about the size of Florida or great Britain. It got its ominous nickname because of its high risk of collapse, and its potential to drastically lift sea levels.

In a study published in the journal "Nature Geoscience, researchers say the glacier's underwater base has dislodged from the seabed, and is eroding because of warming waters.

And in the near future, they believe the Thwaites could recede even further, and at a faster pace, which would eventually splinter the glacier.

I'd like to bring in Ted Scambos. He's a senior research scientist at the University of Colorado to talk more about this. He's joining me from Boulder.

Thanks so much for doing so. I know you don't like the term "doomsday glacier", but just how worrying is what is happening to the Thwaites Glacier in Antarctica? What if it disintegrates or substantially retreats in the years ahead?

TED SCAMBOS, EARTH SCIENCE OBSERVATION CENTER: Yes. We are very concerned about the Thwaites glacier and its potential for really rapid retreat in the next few decades. The main thing that Thwaites represents is the possibility of a very rapid increase in the rate of sea level.


SCAMBOS: And that by itself is going to put a lot of people in a position where they have a lot to do in order to protect their coastlines, or protect port cities around the world.

And unfortunately, the work that we've done near Thwaites, has verified most of the aspects of the scenario that would lead to faster retreat and faster increases in ice in the not too in the not too distant future.

HOLMES: And what would be, and how much of a domino effect with its collapse or massive retreat be? What are the dominoes?

The main knockout affects, if you will from Thwaites really beginning to accelerate. we We'll be draw in some of the surrounding glaciers and ice, and add to the amount of ice that gets dumped into the ocean. Thwaites by itself has about two feet of sea level rise. That would take centuries to completely empty out in west antarctica. But part of the problem is it's going to set in motion a lot of retreat from the surrounding glaciers, drawing them into the glacier adults it expands and deflates over the next several decades to centuries. And that's mainly the domino effect that's going to have. Encompassing a wider area of Antarctica.

HOLMES: Yes. Which would be catastrophic, obviously. I saw you say two or three years ago, I think it was, you said there's nothing like reality to convince people.

Even now, with the myriad catastrophes around the world, do you think people, and perhaps more importantly, governments, get it. Get how serious the situation is? What's at stake, what's to come?

SCAMBOS: I think there's been a real turnaround just in the last few years. I'm finding it much easier to explain to people and got them to accept the fact that they're huge consequences for continuing to put greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

You know, in the past, it was hard to get people to even accept that there was a problem or that science understood the problem well enough to make forecasts about it. I don't get that impression anymore.

Yes, there's still a minority of people that are not going to be convinced, no matter what. But in fact, in general, I think people are ready to take steps, and I'm really pleased with some of the steps that have happened at the city level, the state level, and now with the federal government in the U.S. taking major action in order to address this. I'm very optimistic about the feature now.

HOLMES: Making those changes in time?

SCAMBOS: I would say we're in a rough ride. The rest of the century is going to be terrible, and in fact, I'm afraid it's going to be quite discouraging. People are going to say, why are we doing these things? Why are we investing this way?

If we're not going to have an instant effect? Because it's going to take decades for things to change. What's more as it's going to be sort of a perception of, shouldn't the weather never be bad again? And that of course, we've always had extreme weather.

But some of what's happened in the last, particularly last decade, I think, has convinced people that there is a serious issue. That's going to be with us for a long time. What we will be avoiding are things like more rapid sea level rise, even worse disruptions in ecosystems and weather.

And will be setting ourselves on track for about a better 22nd century than we've had in the 21st century.

HOLMES: It is worrying. It's nice to hear a note of optimism there from you. But yes, a lot of work to be done. And it's an urgent situation.

Ted Scambos, thank you so much. Really appreciate it.

SCAMBOS: You're very welcome. Thank you.

HOLMES: Now in addition to being Britain's longest ruling monarch, Queen Elizabeth was also known, of course, for her love of horses, and her passion for her corgis.

So what's to become of Her Majesty's beloved dogs? Some answers, coming up next on CNN NEWSROOM.



ANDERSON: Well, it's a tribute fit for a queen. The world's tallest building, the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, lights up with an image of Queen Elizabeth II and the British flag.

The 828-meter tall building is the latest in what is a string of iconic landmarks around the world to mark the death of the 96-year-old monarch.

In the days since her death, piles of flowers and other mementos have been placed outside Buckingham Palace, playing homage to Britain's longest serving monarch. Among, them hand messages of love and sorrows written by British kids.

It's in part a reaction to the 96-year-old's recent efforts to connect with her youngest subjects. With eight grandchildren, 12 great grandchildren, Queen Elizabeth was not only the matriarch of her family, but also of the nation. Mourning her death, for many people around the country, is turning out to be a family affair.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: The Queen made U.K. shrine.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: And do you think Charles can do the same?


ANDERSON: Queen Elizabeth reigned for 70 years, and even the youngest of her loyal subjects are getting a chance to say goodbye by leaving handmade cards and drawings at memorials or laying flowers with their parents.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I think that lots of people will want to lay flowers down, or wave as the car goes past.

ANDERSON: The father of ten-year-old Pippa says his daughter has always had a special connection with the Queen. They share the same birthday.


UNIDENTIFIED MALE: She used to send the Queen a birthday card every year. I think she's a fantastic example of what it means to be British.

ANDERSON: The royal protocols of such an event, the transfer of titles, the lines of succession, are details that even grown-ups may find hard to follow.

But there's a simple wisdom in some of the children's responses about why so many people are waiting for a final glimpse of the late Queens coffin. Sometimes, it's simply about showing up.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: To celebrate -- the Queen's funeral, and see that -- what you call it?


ANDERSON: Kate, the Princess of Wales was reportedly overheard telling a group of children that her young son, Louis, had tried to comfort her by saying that granny is now with great grandpa.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Perhaps you would like a marmalade sandwich? I always keep one for emergencies.


ANDERSON: For her platinum jubilee celebration, the Queen famously appeared in a video with Paddington Bear, the character of the classic children's book series and recent films.

Some children were holding stuffed bears while waiting for the Queens hearse to drive by. The bear, a bridge between young and old, and perhaps one of the ways Queen Elizabeth's youngest generation of followers will remember her.


ANDERSON: There's been much speculation and concern since the Queen's passing as to what would happen to her beloved dogs. Well, a source tells CNN, the corgis will go to live with the Duke and Duchess of York, Prince Andrew and Sarah Ferguson, a source close to the pair says the duchess bonded with the Queen over a shared love of dog walking and horse riding.

I'm Becky Anderson in London, outside Buckingham Palace for you just before 7:00 in the morning here. Our live coverage continues after this short break. Do stay with us.