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CNN International: NATO & Poland: Missile Incident Was Likely An Accident; U.S. Defense Secretary Speaks After Poland Missile Incident; Austin: The U.S. Will Support Ukraine "As Long As It Takes"; Donald Trump Announces 2024 Presidential Run; Lula Vows To Bring Brazil Back To Climate Change Fight; INPE: Amazon Deforestation Nearly Doubled Under Bolsonaro; Officials: Threats Facing U.S. Have Never Been Greater; Successful Launch Of NASA's Artemis 1 Moon Rocket. Aired 8-9a ET

Aired November 16, 2022 - 08:00   ET



MAX FOSTER, CNN ANCHOR: Hello and welcome to a special one-hour edition of CNN Newsroom. I'm Max foster in London.

Just ahead, probably an accident. That's the latest assessment from officials after a deadly missile explosion in eastern Poland. We'll have all the latest details for you this hour.

Plus, the campaign is on. Former U.S. President Donald Trump is setting his sights on the White House once again. But what are his chances? And success in space. NASA's Artemis mission blast off. We're live at the Kennedy Space Center.

NATO Chief Jens Stoltenberg says the alliance remains vigilant calm and closely coordinated after a Russian made missile landed in Poland on Tuesday. But he stresses that all the indications are, it was a Ukrainian air defense missile fire to defend Ukrainian territory against Russian missile attacks.

Two people were killed when the missile exploded in a small Polish village near the Ukrainian border. Russia denies responsibility. The President of Poland also says the missile incident was likely an accident and not a deliberate attack.


ANDRZEJ DUDA, POLISH PRESIDENT (through translation): It was probably an accident of Russia attacked on Ukraine and Ukrainian Air Defense shots quite a few Russian missiles in order to neutralize this attack. And maybe it's more than half of Russian missiles were shut down. And some of them fell under Ukrainian territory. And there is a high chance that maybe one of the missiles that Ukrainian Air Defense just fell on our territory.


FOSTER: During Russia's missile barrage across Ukraine on Tuesday, Ukrainian military officials say they shot down most of the 13 missiles aimed at Lviv, which is near the Polish border. We're covering the angles of the story as they come in.

Nina dos Santos is in London, but we begin with Sam Kiley. One of the cities he's in that came on to Russia's intense missile attacks on Tuesday. Take us through it, Sam, because when this news of a missile landing in Poland came in, it was very worrying wasn't it, but thankfully things have dissipated now, although we have to recognize the two people who died here very tragically.

SAM KILEY, CNN SENIOR INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: Yes. Max, I'm in Kryvyi Rih which is in the southern center of the country and industrial city that like Lviv, way over on the border with Poland was subjected to a very substantial storm of cruise missile attacks. These attacks were right across the country, the Ukrainian government said upwards of at least 85 cruise missiles.

These equipped missiles, Max, that carry a warhead of 400 kilograms, nearly half a ton of explosives in them, and the Ukrainians have air defense systems to try and shoot them down. They've been asking for more sophisticated air defense systems. They were using around Lviv as they do around Kryvyi Rih and around Kyiv where two people were also reported to have been killed by the Russian missiles.

S-300, Soviet areas -- era surface to air missiles, it's a very big sort of old school missiles with a fairly limited warhead in comparison to what they're trying to shoot down. And occasionally, and we've seen this inside Ukrainian territory, they either miss and land somewhere and cause damage, or they hit the missile that they're trying to knock out and the warhead carries on and hits areas in Ukraine.

Now I've seen that myself the results of that, very tragic and spectacular in a negative sense in Kyiv. They're clearly -- the Ukrainians are now saying that they are going to cooperate fully with any kind of an investigation. They are like Jens Stoltenberg there from NATO, insisting that if you like the original sin was that the Russians have invaded this country were raining missiles down right across this country, including right on the Polish border.

The Russians, so far, are maintaining the lie, frankly, that they were not firing any missiles close to the Polish border. If you're attacking Lviv, which they were, then you are attacking very close to the Polish border. And these are very fast-moving missiles with a pretty substantial range. I think the S-300, several 100 kilometers range indeed.

So, there is always going to be a danger of bleeding. And they use the term advisedly of this war into neighboring territory. This is something that the Ukrainians had been warning of. And now tragically, it seems that the Ukrainians have caused accidentally perhaps some deaths in Poland. Max?

FOSTER: Nina, actually, we're going to go to Austin -- Lloyd Austin of the Pentagon. He's speaking for the U.S. Defense Department. He's is speaking live.

[08:05:01] LLOYD AUSTIN, U.S. DEFENSE SECRETARY: -- you know join Secretary Wallander in thanking my good friend Ukrainian Minister of Defense Alexei Reznikoff for his exceptional leadership and for joining us again today. Let me also welcome Ukraine's Deputy Chief of Defense Lieutenant General Moisiuk. It's great to have you with us. Your presentations are vital for our common understanding of the battlefield and Ukraine's most critical needs.

It's also great to be back with this group of outstanding allies and leaders. You have been stalwart in your support of Ukraine's inalienable right to defend itself from Russian aggression. Once again, Russia has been launching missiles against Ukraine's cities and Ukraine civilians.

Yesterday, we saw reports of deadly explosions in Poland. One explosion in Poland, near its border with Ukraine. And we will continue to work closely with our ally, Poland, and others to gather more information and will continue to consult closely with our NATO allies and our valued partners. And what we do know is the context in which this is unfolding.

Russia is facing setback after setback on the battlefield. And Russia is putting Ukrainian civilians and civilian infrastructure in its gunsights. Both of these things only deepen the resolve of this Contact Group. And they only intensify Ukraine's determination. The Kremlin may hope that more bombardment will break the resolve of the Ukrainian people. But ordinary Ukrainian citizens have responded with the magnificent defiance that the world now knows so well.

And we're seeing Ukraine succeed in battle after battle to defend itself in Kyiv, in Kharkiv, and now Kherson. You know, Kherson was the only regional capital that Russia managed to temporarily occupied. And the dramatic scenes of Ukrainian forces, liberating Kherson have further galvanized the international community.

Neither shear force, nor sham annexation attempts, can defeat the determination of Ukrainian people to live in a free and sovereign country. And this Contact Group will continue to show our unified support for Ukraine's self defense. We're going to maintain our momentum throughout the winter so that Ukraine can continue to consolidate gains and seize the initiative on the battlefield.

Ukrainian troops are fighting with even greater tenacity and determination. And thanks to the many contact group members who have committed new donations. Ukraine's defenders are fighting with even more key capabilities. And to showcase how important these donations are, our NASAMS air defense systems are now operational. And they have had 100 percent success rate in interrupting Russian missiles as the Kremlin continues its ruthless bombardment of Ukraine, including yesterday's attacks.

While Russia continues to ruthlessly target Ukraine civilians and energy infrastructure, nations of goodwill continue to stand behind Ukraine. And Russia is cruelty only strengthens our resolve. As President Biden has made clear, the United States will support Ukraine for as long as it takes. And that's why we announced another Ukraine security assistance initiative package of $400 million this month.

And just last week, we announced an additional $400 million in equipment through Presidential Drawdown Authority. That brings U.S. security assistance to a total of $18.6 billion since the start of Russia's all out invasion. Both of these packages will provide much needed capabilities for the near-term fight and for the long-term sustainment of the Ukrainian Armed Forces.

And that just underscores the role of this Contact Group as a crucial forum to continue coordinating our enduring support with other nations of goodwill. For example, since our last contact group, seven countries have either delivered critical air defense systems to Ukraine or committed to sending and that will save the lives of innocent Ukrainian men, women and children. And help Ukrainian Armed Forces defend their skies.

And meanwhile, the United States, Netherlands and the Czech Republic are working together to provide 90 overhauled T-72B tanks to Ukraine and 45 of those tanks were part of our recent USAI package.


Let me thank both Minister Ollongren and Minister of Cernochova and their staffs for getting this done. This effort to find and execute an industrial program on Ukraine's behalf is a direct result of our close cooperation through the Contact Group. And our meetings are a chance to think creatively and further increase our support for Ukraine.

The last time we met, we spoke about our efforts to train Ukraine's Armed Forces and about the importance of accountability for the equipment that we are providing. We also discussed key industrial based initiatives in light of the National Armaments Directors meeting, under the auspices of this Contract Group.

And so today, we'll build on those vital conversations. And we'll discuss how we can best train and prepare the Ukrainian Armed Forces to defend their country. Collective and individual training efforts will help ensure that Ukraine can continue to consolidate his gains and keep up his momentum on the battlefield even throughout the winter.

I'm also looking forward to hearing from ministers about industrial base initiatives stemming from the National Armaments Directors, working groups. And these efforts will help us to more effectively source, produce and procure key capabilities for Ukraine self-defense. These conversations will be even more crucial as Ukraine enters a hard winter.

We must do more to meet Ukraine's urgent air defense needs, which can help protect Ukraine's energy infrastructure and provide heat for his children. So today, we've got a big agenda. And I look forward to making good progress. We're inspired by the resilience of the Ukrainian people. And we're inspired by the unity of this Contact Group.

You have all shown enduring resolve, both to help Ukraine fight for its freedom, and to defend the rules based international order that keeps us all secure. Thank you again for your commitment to this cause. And so now we'll pause for just a minute while our friends in the media depart, and then we'll hear from our Ukrainian colleagues.

FOSTER: OK, that is Lloyd Austin, the U.S. Defense Secretary speaking to the Ukraine Contact Group. Let's speak to Sam Kiley, he's with us in Ukraine. Also CNN Pentagon Correspondent Oren Liebermann, he joins us from the Defense Department. Oren, what did you make of that? It feels as we're moving on from the incident in Poland itself. And looking at the wider criticism again of Russia and how it perpetrated this war.

OREN LIEBERMANN, CNN PENTAGON CORRESPONDENT: It was almost surprising how little Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin made mention of the missile that landed in Poland, especially given the fact that we've heard the U.S., Poland and others coalesce around the idea that this was a Ukrainian air defense missile that went errant or went astray and ended up in polling, he barely touched on that.

But his framing of the issue, it's a framing we're likely to hear not only from the U.S., but also from others, that this was in fact Russia's fault because Russia was carrying out a launch of a barrage of missiles against Ukraine, which Ukraine was defending itself and it was one of those defensive missiles that went astray because of Russia's attack.

It is that framework around the idea that it was Russia's fault that Ukraine had to defend itself that we are likely to hear throughout the day, but that's really all Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin mentioned when he spoke of this missile that landed in Poland. He did accidentally say there multiple missiles or multiple explosions before he corrected himself back to one explosion.

Then he essentially moved on to talk about Ukraine's liberation of Kherson. I will point out one more thing right at the end of his comments there. He talked about helping Ukraine through training keep up the momentum throughout winter. You see Austin there step away from this idea that perhaps there will be a low infighting. Instead, he says, look, we're going to do what we can in terms of training and arming Ukraine to make sure they can keep moving ahead and forging ahead with the counter offensives they've seen not only in southern Ukraine, but in eastern Ukraine, and keep up those offensives throughout the winners of the U.S.

And Austin there stepping away from this idea that there's going to be some lull in fighting or some window in which there might be an opening for diplomacy. Also stressing, of course -- and we saw that again yesterday, and recently -- the need for more air defenses for Ukraine, saying that since the last Contact Group meeting last month, seven countries have committed or have already set air defenses to Ukraine.

FOSTER: Oren, thank you. And Sam, we saw really these Air Force defense, didn't we, of those Ukrainian defense systems which it increasing looks like caused this incident.


KILEY: Yes. I mean there is a sort of -- that Ukrainians haven't said anything like this because they don't really need to. But implicit here, in what the Ukrainians have said, and what the United States is saying about the rush to try to help Ukraine with more sophisticated NATO style, 21st century defense systems is that, if you use old Soviet kits, like the S-300, things go wrong.

So from the Ukrainian perspective, they have been asking for more and more precision guided short and long range missiles, both for land to land operations, but very importantly, for surface to air missiles. Particularly, since the arrival of these drones from Iran, which are unsophisticated, but very long range. They can loiter for many hours in the sky, and they can be fired in enormous numbers.

So trying to bring down a 200-pound drone with an S-300 is, excuse the pun, overkill and a massive waste of resources. They do need that help. And I think that is emerging from this accident. Max?

FOSTER: OK. Sam and Oren, thank you both very much, indeed.

Let's go to CNN's Melissa Bell. She's at NATO headquarters in Brussels where we heard from Jens Stoltenberg a little while ago. And, you know, they dealt with the Poland issue, didn't they, saying it wasn't a direct attack from Russia, according to the initial indications. But this is ultimately Russia's responsibility.

MELISSA BELL, CNN CORRESPONDENT: That's right. The words were very carefully chosen. And of course, it was that immediate intelligence assessment that was announced after those emergency talks were held amongst the ambassadors of the NATO alliance. They're gathered here today to look at that intelligence and figure out what it had been.

Jens Stoltenberg, then holding that press conference to announce that indeed, that preliminary advice is that it was a Ukrainian air defense missile that had been used to try and fight back against Russian cruise missiles. But a very cautious tone and everything that followed as well.

I'm joined now, Max, by Julianne Smith, who is the U.S. Permanent Representative here at NATO. An extraordinary 24 hours, of course, you've all had. You took part in that meeting this morning, hugely reassuring that it was not what we'd feared at first, and that is a rocket or missile launched by Russia or from Russia.

JULIANNE SMITH, U.S. PERMANENT REPRESENTATIVE TO NATO: Yes, the meeting this morning was measured, it was calm. It was a very reassuring set of engagements. We were able to hear directly from SACEUR, who joined us this morning. But I think the messages coming out of that meeting are crystal clear. One, we all stand in solidarity with Poland and offer condolences to the victims and their families.

Two, we continue to support Ukraine, and it's right to defend its territory. Three, we all believe that Russia ultimately bears responsibility, because irrespective of where this investigation lands, none of this would have happened had Russia not been firing attacks on civilians inside Ukraine.

BELL: This tragic incident of the initial fears about what its origin may have been is a reminder, of course, of just how dangerous this particular moment is, with that direct confrontation between the NATO alliance members that are on the Eastern Flank of NATO and everything that's happening just across the border. How close that is, how easy a miscalculation or mistake can be, the strength of NATO being that Article Five, but the dangers of all of that alliances being provoked into a direct conflict with Russia.

What are do you think the lessons of what happened yesterday and everything that we've -- lessons for these things?

SMITH: Well, we understood that intuitively, on February 24, when Russia went into Ukraine. I think all of us understood the risks. And that's why NATO moved with great speed troops onto the eastern flank and doubled down on its deterrence and its reassurance in that part of NATO territory, to ensure that these types of incidents would not occur.

So that's one of the reasons why the mood this morning was so calm, and reassuring, because we know we have taken the necessary steps to protect every inch of NATO territory.

BELL: We're very grateful. Julianne Smith, thank you so much for giving us some of your time and what has been extraordinarily busy day for you.

We've just been hearing -- I hear NATO as well, the preliminary remarks, Max, of course, as you just heard from Lloyd Austin, a lot of focus there. And we've heard it earlier from Jens Stoltenberg about the need to beef up Ukraine's air defenses as a result of this more and more countries getting involved in that and bringing some of their equipment and systems to Ukraine to try and help.

And I think that's the other message that we're hearing here at NATO headquarters. Not just the fallout of what's happened over the course of last 24 hours and the lessons of that, Max, but what more needs to be done or can be done to help Ukraine in the face of those at that barrage of bizarre strikes that we saw on Tuesday evening. Max?


FOSTER: OK. Melissa at NATO Headquarters, thank you very much indeed.

Now, it's only a week after the U.S. midterm elections, but one candidate is already setting his sights on 2024. You guessed it, Former President Donald Trump. A live report on his candidacy when we return.


FOSTER: In order to make America great and glorious again, I am tonight announcing my candidacy -- no, not me -- those words from former U.S. President Donald Trump as he sets its sights on the White House for the third time. The 45th President touted his achievements and railed against President Joe Biden before a crowd gathered in his resort in Mar-a-Lago on Tuesday.

Kristen Holmes reports.


DONALD TRUMP, FORMER PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: America's comeback starts right now.

KRISTEN HOLMES, CNN U.S. NATIONAL CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Former President Donald Trump announcing another bid for the presidency.

TRUMP: Two years ago, we were a great nation and soon we will be a great nation again.

HOLMES (voice-over): The twice impeached former president is aiming to be only the second commander in chief ever elected to two non- consecutive terms. Trump making the long-anticipated announcement in the wake of election losses from several of his endorsed candidates.

TRUMP: Much criticism is being placed on the fact that the Republican Party should have done better and frankly, much of this blame is correct. But the citizens of our country have not yet realized the full extent and gravity of the pain our nation is going through. And the total effect of the suffering is just starting to take hold. They don't quite feel it yet, but they will very soon.

HOLMES (voice-over): Given the GOP's midterm losses, some Republicans are weary of another Trump presidential bid. It is widely expected he'll face primary challengers. Florida Governor Ron DeSantis is seen as one possible contender to challenge the former president.

RON DESANTIS (R), FLORIDA GOVERNOR: We just tell people to go check out the scoreboard from last Tuesday night. It was a hugely underwhelming disappointing performance.

HOLMES (voice-over): Another potential contender is his former Vice President Mike Pence.

MIKE PENCE, FORMER VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STARES: I think we'll have better choices in the future.

HOLMES (voice-over): President Biden who has yet to announce whether he will seek reelection tweeted after the announcement, quote, "Donald Trump failed America."

JOE BIDEN, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: I believe I can beat Donald Trump again.

HOLMES (voice-over): Trump's desire to announce his campaign early coming after the FBI search of Mar-a-Lago, which advisors say further emboldened his decision to mount what he believes will be a triumphant political comeback. Trump is the subject of a bevy of lawsuits and federal investigations, including his possible involvement in the January 6 Capitol attack. Trump is fighting a subpoena issued by the House Select Committee investigating January 6, over providing documents and testimony to the committee. (END VIDEOTAPE)

FOSTER: Kristen Holmes reporting that. Joining us now live from West Palm Beach, Florida. So now we're looking at who is going to be up against. Do you think his decision to go early -- earlier than many senior Republicans suggested he should go, is to try to get ahead of the pack and get some momentum there?

HOLMES: Max, I absolutely think that but whether or not that's going to be successful really remains to be seen. What we have seen since those lackluster midterm results have been a number of Republicans essentially saying they want to move on from Donald Trump and turning their backs on the former president who has really been the leader of the party for the last at least four years if not a little bit longer.


We have heard from a number of potential 2024 candidates who have said that they wouldn't not enter the race if Donald Trump did, that includes former Vice President Mike Pence, who said he's mulling a run. Former Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, who served under Trump was essentially one of his right-hand men, along with Vice President Pence also saying that whether or not Donald Trump announced was not going to impact whether he was going to jump into the race.

And of course, we know that there are several Republican heavyweight governors, including Florida Governor Ron DeSantis, as well as Virginia Governor Glenn Youngkin, who hasn't said that they're not going to get into the race, despite what Donald Trump may hope that they will do.

Now, we know that behind closed doors, Trump has been stewing about this. He has talked about how these people do not have any loyalty, how he supported DeSantis back in 2018, how Mike Pence was his vice president, Pompeo, his Secretary of State. But again, goes to show you where his standing is in the party right now that these other potential candidates aren't ruling it out, despite the fact that he's entered the race.

FOSTER: In terms of the support that he's got, obviously, he needs to raise a huge amount of money. He's a rich man, of course, so we're told he's a rich man. But is he going to be able to get those big donors on board? That's going to be vital, isn't it, if he's going to be able to carry on?

HOLMES: Right. So one thing to pay attention too here is that we're already hearing from some of these big Republican donors who are saying they don't want to back Trump, they want to back someone else. But the reason why that is critical is because Trump has never been someone who only existed largely on big donations or big donors, like some of those traditional candidates, Jeb Bush, for example, back in 2016.

Trump has always existed on small donations, and I talked to his team about this last night. What happens now? Do you think you're still going to be able to get that? And they really do. And I think that's one thing to pay attention to.

When we talk about the Republican Party as a whole, there is a reason that the Republican Party has continued to rally around Donald Trump time and time again, even after that violent insurrection on January 6, and part of that is fundraising. Donald Trump has a unique fundraising ability that many other Republicans don't have. And that's why we've seen so many of them latch on to Donald Trump.

Now the question is whether or not Republican voters are going to turn on Donald Trump and that has yet to be seen. We might talk about those lackluster midterm results, but Donald Trump wasn't on the ballot then. This is going to be different. Max?

FOSTER: OK. Kristen Holmes, thank you. It's going to be very interesting.

It was one of NATO's biggest fears in Russia's war in Ukraine. A deadly accidental hit on a NATO nation. Ahead, the latest assessment on the missile that hit rural Poland with a report from the site of the blast.



MAX FOSTER, CNN ANCHOR: On top story, NATO and Poland say the missile that hit rural Poland on Tuesday, killing two people likely originated in Ukraine. NATO Secretary General Stoltenberg says all indications point to it being a Ukrainian air defense missile that was fired to defend Ukrainian territory against Russian missile attacks. He stressed this is not Ukraine's fault that Russia bears the responsibility as it continues to wage war against Ukraine.

U.S. officials briefed on the instance appear to agree with the NATO assessment. Let's go to soon as Arlette Saenz at the White House. I mean, there is a lot of intelligence around this. So we can assume it wasn't a direct attack on Poland. But how is the White House, how is NATO going to learn from this experience, because it felt pretty scary at the time, didn't it?

ARLETTE SAENZ, CNN WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT: Yes, Max. And the White House and President Biden have both been very cautious and deliberate with how they have responded to this missile that landed in Poland. That is why yesterday in the hours after this incident, President Biden was very cautious and refrain from assigning blame, specific blame of for who exactly launched this missile.

Now, two U.S. officials, who have been briefed on the intelligence said that the preliminary assessments is that this missile originated from Ukraine, even though it was a Russian made missile. That is why -- or they say that that is likely what the President had been referring to yesterday, when he said that it seemed that it did not originate from Russia.

Now, this comes as you saw the President really adopt this very methodical approach in the aftermath of this missile landing in Poland. He convened an emergency meeting with G7 leaders and other NATO leaders at the G20 Summit, where they talked about the assessments that they had been seen, and also said that they would fully support Poland's investigation into the matter with President Biden saying that they would get to the bottom of figuring out exactly what would happen.

But this of course, comes as the stakes at play are very, very high. And that is why the White House was careful in trying not to assign exact blame in the moment. And now based on these preliminary assessments that have seemed to be confirmed by the Polish president, it seems that this was simply a mistake and not an intentional act. So going forward, the U.S. will continue to assess the intelligence and also follow through with this investigation and offering that support to Poland.

FOSTER: Arlette, thank you for joining us there from the White House.

I want to give you a sense now where the incident happened because the missile struck a farm in a rural village along the Ukraine-Poland border. While opponents President NATO and other countries believe it was likely an accident, the country's Prime Minister is calling for calm warning systems (ph) to be cautious of disinformation. He tweeted, "We are safe together. We won't get intimidated. And we are strong together."

Our Matthew Chance is in the city where -- or the area where it all happens. He joins us now live. What's the atmosphere like there, Matthew, now that we're learning more about what happened?

MATTHEW CHANCE, CNN SENIOR INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: Yes, well, it's more of a one street town, to be honest, and that street has been sealed off by the Polish security forces as you can see, so we can't actually get to the scene. But it is a very close, tight knit community.

I spoke to a couple of the residents over the past 24 hours since I first arrived and, of course, they knew the two men, the two farmers who were killed in this strike, in this explosion which now seems to be have been the responsibility or rather have been caused by a Ukrainian air defense's overshooting the target as they attempted to defend against Russian missile attacks.

But it was still a big explosion. It's still sort of literally shaken people in this small, little village and people are very frightened, of course, mourning the loss of these two people as well.


There's a lot of military in the area as well because one of the things the Polish government has done as put the Armed Forces on a heightened state of alert, particularly in these border areas. And so we're seeing a big influx of Polish military coming into this area, which is just a few kilometers remember, away from the Ukrainian border.

So it's still quite tense, I'd say. There's still a lot of anxiety. But we're not in the place where we were last night, where the world was really set on edge, by the idea that this was or could have been a Kremlin ordered rocket attack on a NATO ally. We seem to be thankfully moving away from that possibility. Although, you know, it's not definite yet, because there are still investigators at the scene, literally trying to piece together the bits of the missile, the rocket that was used to try and get a really firm conclusive decision on where it was from and who fired it, Max.

FOSTER: In terms of the initial response, a lot of the neighbors were very, you know, they jumped to Poland's response. And, you know, then he had the G20 meeting getting involved. How do you feel, you know, the NATO alliance responded to that, and the way they, you know, because there was some fear, wasn't there, in this type of incident that there would be a knee jerk reaction?

CHANCE: Yes. And I think it was a big jolt, the fact that for the first time, you know, Polish territory, which is, of course, right next door to Ukrainian territory was hit in this way. And, of course, if it hadn't been a Russian ordered assault on a NATO ally, the consequences would have been profound geopolitically, it could have led to a broadening of this conflict.

And of course, at the very least, the alliance would have had to have made a show of, you know, made a stand and a show of force and, you know, responded strongly to this taking place. That pressure has been ratcheted down now, with the findings, with the announcements of the Polish presidency.

There's no evidence that the strike was intentional. And it seems to have come from an S-300 anti-aircraft system of the type used by Ukraine. So in some ways, even though it's still very tense in this area, it is quite relieving to know that this patch was not something that is going to necessarily lead to a broadening of the conflict.

FOSTER: Matthew Chance there on the scene in Poland, thank you.

Next, we're going to go to the COP27 Climate Conference where Brazil's President-elect Lula da Silva says his country is back in the climate change fight. In the first speech abroad since his election, Lula promised to fight hard against deforestation in Brazil's Amazon rainforest, and said he rejoined global climate conversations.

Brazil's pledge comes after the U.S. confirm that it's resumed formal climate talks with China ending months of a standoff. There follows a high stakes meeting between Presidents Joe Biden, and Xi Jinping earlier this week.

CNN's David McKenzie was at the COP27 conference. He's been following all of these developments for us. And David, we're also hearing from sources today that the U.S., E.U., U.K. pushing against making agreements on a loss and damage fund at this year's summit, which is a huge blow to the many who are there?

DAVID MCKENZIE, CNN SENIOR INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: Well, it is a huge blow, I think. But let's start with the good news. It is significant that President Lula da Silva, President-elect is at the meetings touting Brazil's importance in climate change. And it is exceedingly important obviously with Brazil holding a massive portion of the Amazon rainforest. He has pledged their country to get to zero deforestation in the years ahead.

His predecessor Bolsonaro was certainly ambivalent at best when it came to climate change. He of course, was not at the Glasgow climate meetings and you saw at least a 70 percent increase in deforestation during his tenure at the helm in Brazil. So it's significant that da Silva is at the meetings, is talking about improving the situation because of the importance of the Amazon rainforest.

Of course, one way to do that would be to get financing. And as you say, a European Union source telling CNN, that when it comes to the loss and damage issue, the E.U., the U.S. and the U.K., according to the source, are not looking for any formal announcement on how that will work at this climate meeting. Will be very disappointing for developing countries that want them to open their pocketbooks to help fund those who are worst hit by climate change. Max?

FOSTER: OK, David McKenzie, thank you very much indeed.

Well, as you were hearing there from David, Brazil's President-elect Lula, may have put climate at the forefront of his agenda. But with Brazil's Congress stacked with Agri business interests, it might not be an easy fight for him.

CNN's Paula Newton reports now from Sao Paulo, Brazil.



PAULA NEWTON, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): To save the planet, Louise Pinto (ph) says you don't have to go to the Arctic or even the Amazon. This sky-high perch will do. What was once degraded pasture is now after 15 years, an eco-paradise, 2 miles of forest restoration.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: This project doesn't change a big landscape, but it shows it's possible to bring back life, to bring back water, to bring back biodiversity to the center of the city of San Paulo.

NEWTON (voice-over): Pinto (ph) walks us through the effort to revive the Atlantic Forest, home to more than 145 million Brazilians and yet about three quarters of it has already been wiped out.

This is an effort to bring some of it back and it works like an eco- lab. By planting trees, the forest provides for clean air and water bringing back eco diversity for plants and animals.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: So we need a lot of technology and knowledge and research to know which species to plant and how.

NEWTON (voice-over): Projects like these are now at a crossroads of climate and political history in Brazil, a country that is one of the planet's most significant stores of biodiversity. For four years, the government of President Jair Bolsonaro was accused of undoing the environmental progress of former President and now President-elect Lula da Silva.

Brazil's National Institute for Space Research estimates that in the Amazon alone, deforestation nearly doubled since Bolsonaro, came to office in 2018. Ricardo Salles was Bolsonaro's Environment Minister.

(on-camera): You know, to many environmentalists, you're as good as the devil. You're a bad guy.

RICARDO SALLES, BOLSONARO'S ENVIRONMENT MINISTER: Yes. You know, people don't understand that what we did was to show that the solution for the environmental challenges in Brazil include as a main path for the solution, the economic equation.

NEWTON (voice-over): Salles now speaks as a newly elected lawmaker in a majority Conservative Congress in Brazil. His policies are still clearly popular with many here.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: And I was so scared, you know.

NEWTON (voice-over): Indigenous leader Chaise Louis (ph) says she and her people that Paiter-Surui tribe have been threatened and harassed when trying to protect Brazil's fragile environment. And she accuses the Bolsonaro government of dismantling key environmental protections.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE (through translation): We don't need to destroy it to develop. We can do that in harmony with nature. And it's the indigenous peoples who teach that.

NEWTON (voice-over): It is that fundamental struggle on climate action that so threatens progress in Brazil.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: We need to understand us as a nation that is key for the planet, and that decisions we'll make will be important for us, but also for others.

NEWTON (voice-over): And so watch this space, Brazil's future climate action, and its debate over environmental policy will be consequential, far beyond its borders.

Paula Newton, CNN in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.


FOSTER: Still ahead, America's top security officials are sounding the alarm. Violent extremism is on the rise in the country. What's behind the threat? We'll have the details.



FOSTER: Now top security officials in the U.S. are warning lawmakers about the growth of extremism across the country. They're concerned about a spike in racially motivated and anti-government violence. CNN's Brian Todd reports.


UNIDENTIFIED MALE: The threats facing the homeland have never been greater.

BRIAN TODD, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): America's top security officials warning that violent extremism is on the rise in the U.S. and so is the threat.

CHRISTOPHER WRAY, FBI DIRECTOR: The greatest threat to us in the homeland is lone actors in small cells, typically radicalized online, using easily accessible weapons against soft targets.

TODD (voice-over): FBI Director Christopher Wray telling lawmakers there has been a particular spike of anti-government extremism that started in 2020. People turning to violence when they're frustrated with America's leaders.

WRAY: We have seen a trend over the last several years of people more and more in this country when they're upset or angry about something, turning to violence as the way to manifest it.

TODD (voice-over): Like the man who allegedly broke into the home of House Speaker Nancy Pelosi with a hammer and zip ties and violently assaulted her husband. The would-be attacker of Supreme Court Justice Brett Kavanaugh and the plot to kidnap Michigan Governor Gretchen Whitmer.

WRAY: People using a mix of hodgepodge of different personal beliefs and ideologies and grievances to -- as justification for violence.

TODD (voice-over): And with the readily available means of attacking.

WRAY: These actors often move quickly from radicalization to action. And often use easily obtainable weapons think a gun, a knife, a car, a crude ID against soft targets.

TODD (voice-over): These extremists aren't always organized, Wray, said, often lone wolves who are difficult to catch before they commit violence.

WRAY: With the lone actors in these small cells, the real problem there is there not a lot of dots out there to connect. And there's very little time in which to connect them.

TODD (voice-over): Officials concerned with anti-government actors like the attacker who tried to enter the Cincinnati FBI field office with a rifle, who may have been seeking revenge for the FBI search of Mar-a-Lago. Also, white supremacist violence getting more lethal, like the Buffalo supermarket shooting this spring. And growing antisemitic violence, like the armed attack on a synagogue in Texas.

WRAY: 63 percent of religious hate crimes, overall, are motivated by antisemitism.

TODD (voice-over): Other would be violent extremists, experts say, are still motivated by election denial. MARY MCCORD, FMR. ACTING ASST. ATTY. GEN. FOR NATIONAL SECURITY: We do see people still related to the election talking about, you know, stolen elections, particularly in Arizona and, you know, suggesting uses of violence by, you know, private citizens, militias and that sort.


TODD: Former Assistant Attorney General Mary McCord says there are all sorts of ways that law enforcement continues to try to head off these threats. She says they engage with local communities across the country, monitor threats on social media, figure out who's buying weapons and how.

And she has a warning to those who are thinking about carrying out some of these threats, saying it often doesn't end well. Pointing to all the prosecution stemming from January 6.

Brian Todd, CNN, Washington.

FOSTER: A new study published in the journal BMJ Global Health found more than 1 billion young people are at risk of hearing loss. Experts say people aged 12 to 34 are likely to listen to music, movies and shows at an unsafe listening level. The unsafe practices were tracked according to the use of headphones as well as attendance, entertainment venues such as concerts, bars and clubs.

And we have liftoff the amazing scenes as NASA's Artemis rocket finally to the skies this morning. We're live at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, next.




UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Three, two, one. Boosters in ignition. And lift off of Artemis 1. We rise together back to the moon and beyond.


FOSTER: What are lift off. After a nail-biting series of technical glitches and delays, the Artemis 1 rocket blasted off earlier for its mission towards the moon. It was the third attempt to launch this rocket, which has now become the most powerful one to reach Earth orbit.

CNN's Space and Defense Correspondent Kristin Fisher was watching the historic launch. She joins me from the Kennedy Space Center. It was truly exciting moment, wasn't it, because there were so many problems leading up to it. And then it seemed to work incredibly smoothly in the end.

KRISTIN FISHER, CNN SPACE AND DEFENSE CORRESPONDENT: It really did. And, you know, the launch pads looking a little bit lonely this morning without the Artemis rocket on top of it for the first time in several days now. But Max, this rocket, the SLS rocket, the Space Launch System rocket, on top was the Orion capsule.

These two pieces have now separated and so the rocket has now fallen back to Earth. And now it is just that Orion spacecraft on its way to the moon. And so, what's going to happen over the next few days is it's going to take about five or six days for the Orion spacecraft to get close to the moon.

Then at around day six, it's going to pass very close to the moon, just about 60 feet, excuse me, 60 miles off the lunar surface. We should be getting some great images beamed back to Earth from the spacecraft around that time. Then it's going to orbit around the moon, venture even further than the moon, the farthest that any spacecraft designed to carry humans has ever flown.

And then, Max, it's going to head back to Earth, it's going to test out that all important heat shield for future Artemis missions before splashing down into the ocean. And, of course, the reason that this is so important is because if this now 2016 mission is a complete success, the next time this rocket flies will be Artemis 2, and that is when four astronauts will be on board.

That should be, if all goes according to plan, sometime in 2024. And then after that, sometime in 2025, that is Artemis 3. That's when NASA hopes to land the first woman and the first person of color on the surface of moon. And put American boots on the moon, or any humans' boots on the moon for the first time since the 1960s and '70s, since the Apollo program.

Remember, Artemis in Greek mythology is the twin sister of Apollo. So, you know, these two programs very closely linked. But the difference here is that with Apollo, they just wanted to leave flags and footprints to prove to Russia, the Soviet Union, that they could do it.

This time, it's different because they want to actually stay there. They want to potentially build a lunar base, establish a permanent human presence on the moon. And then someday, hopefully, go on to Mars.

But yes, Max, I mean, the fact that we're here right now, I still can't believe that this rocket actually lifted off because, I mean, it got hit by -- well, it got hit by one hurricane, it got rolled back to the safety of its garage for a second hurricane. There were so many technical delays during that first and second launch attempt.

And then with this third launch attempt, boy, it was looking pretty good. And then we got close to the final countdown and we had another hydrogen leak and they actually had to send a team called the Red Crew to the launch pad to make that repair. There was also a a faulty Ethernet connector that they had to repair at the last minute but they worked through those problems.

Flawless launch and, Max, it was such a treat to be here. It was -- everything I hoped, it would be and the thing I was not expecting it to be was just how bright it lit up the sky, it literally turned the night sky into daytime in a matter of seconds, Max.


FOSTER: It's such a build up for you, guys. Glad it went well for you and glad you enjoyed the moment. Kristin Fisher from the Kennedy Space Center, thank you so much for joining us.

And thank you for joining me here on CNN Newsroom. I'm Max Foster in London. First Move with Julia is up next.