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Connect the World
Gang Rape Video Shocks Nation of South Africa; Civil Unrest In Bahrain Greets Formula 1
Aired April 19, 2012 - 16:00 ET
THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT. THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED.
BECKY ANDERSON, HOST: Tonight on Connect the World, the teenage boys accused of gang raping a girl in South Africa and filming it for all to see.
ANNOUNCER: Live from CNN London this is Connect the World with Becky Anderson.
ANDERSON: Well, the allegations themselves are appalling. What's almost as shocking, the video went viral in a country where a woman is raped every 26 seconds. It's a further damning indictment, but will anything change?
Also tonight, as the UN accuses Syria of failing to stick to its peace plan, a warning that failure could lead to civil war.
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UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Three, two, one now, one, two, three...
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ANDERSON: Up, up, and away, India shows off its military might. But just what is it trying to prove?
Violent, disturbing, and quite simply heinous crime: a shocking case forcing South Africa to confront the horrors of its rape crisis. Seven suspects have appeared in court in connect with alleged gang rape of a 17- year-old girl with severe learning disabilities. That in itself is pretty dreadful to hear. But what's even more shocking and gut wrenching is that they filmed, that is the accused attackers, they filmed the attack and it's gone viral.
CNN's Nkepile Mabuse kicks us off tonight joining us live from Johannesburg. And Nkepile -- I don't know what to say -- this is chilling.
NKEPILE MABUSE, CNN INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: It is chilling. And rape is pervasive in South Africa. It's very common. But I think there are so many aspects of the story that have made it so shocking that it has really shaken this country to the core. It is just so tragic, Becky, so in your face, so public it's practically been impossible for ordinary people to look away, Becky.
MABUSE: They may look ashamed now, but police say when these boys filmed themselves raping a teenager believed to be mentally disabled, they proudly showed their faces. People have seen the videos say this girl, who we cannot identify because she's a minor, pleads with them to stop. They didn't according to police. And instead, offered her 25 cents.
The 10 minute long graphic cell phone clip went viral, leading to eight arrests. It's possession and distribution is illegal in South Africa, but some media organizations have seen it in the public's interest.
MANDY WEINER, 702 EYEWITNESS NEWS: What shocked (ph) me in the video was how relaxed they were, how they were candidly joking with one another, and they were spurring each other on (inaudible).
MABUSE: Police suspect the teenager who had been missing for four weeks had been turned into a sex slave.
Experts say a South African woman has far greater chances of being raped then learning how to read and write. But this particular story has forced the nation where rape has been described by some as a young man's sport to ask itself some serious questions about what kind of a society breeds this behavior.
Government ministers have taken a personal interest in the case, joining the nation in calling for justice.
NONHLANDHLA MAZIBUKO, PROVINCIAL MINISTER OF POLICE: We need to fight this scourge that is in our community. All those that are doing wrong things to women, they must -- they must be brought to (inaudible).
MABUSE: But angry residents blame a broken criminal justice system for allowing far too many rapists to get away with their crimes.
The boys have not yet pleaded. Using a popular African proverb, a local commentator opined that it takes a village to raise a child and the village has failed.
ANDERSON: Nkepile, I want you to stay with me just for the moment. I want to remind our viewers of South Africa's quite frankly appalling record in violence against women. This will really make you think.
In South Africa, a woman is raped every 26 seconds -- 26 second. As I read this, somebody else will be raped. More than one in three South African men admits to having committed rape, that is according only to the country's Medical Research Council. Over 66,000 sexual offenses were reported between March 2010 and March 2011.
These numbers will not surprise you Nkepile. You will know them. But they are shocking.
MABUSE: They are shocking, Becky. And shocking also is speaking to young men who admit to having raped women before. I mean, the way they speak so casually about this thing. I had a chance to speak to a group of young men. And this is what they had to say to me some years back, Becky.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: I think in situation we come through in life, you know...
MABUSE: You didn't see it as wrong?
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: No.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE (through translator): I will tell myself that there is nothing I want in life that I cannot get even beautiful woman.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
MABUSE: You know, a lot of people see the production and the distribution of this video and it's going public as really a turning point in South Africa. I'll just show you one newspaper headline, The Star is saying "A Nation's Shame" South Africa's disgrace, our barbaric monsters.
And for the very first time in a very long time, Becky, I'm hearing South Africans very far removed from this incident living very far from where this happened taking personal responsibility, Becky, asking themselves what kind of a nation makes its young people think that it is OK to act in this way. And already there are people that want to take action, wanting to go into schools to reeducate young men that they don't have to be violent and they don't have to violate women to feel like men and to feel masculine, Becky.
ANDERSON: Yeah, all right, Nkepile, thank you for that.
Much of what Nkepile has been reporting, particularly those headlines reflecting tweets that I got today. We come to those first. CNN's Isha Sisay spoke to South Africa's minister for women just a short time ago. She told CNN the crime was abhorrent, but defended the authority's response. Take a listen to this.
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LULAMA XINGWANA, SOUTH AFRICAN GOVERNMENT MINISTER: If the police in South Africa (inaudible) to get hold of this video, they were also (inaudible) to detain the culprits. They are now in jail. And they are (inaudible) our social workers have taken the girl as soon as she was found in the house where she was hidden. They have taken her to a place of safety. She has received medical attention. She has received counseling. I have just visited her, she is safe and in a home.
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ANDERSON: Pretty much the only reaction we got from the South African government today.
Lots of you reacting on Twitter. Keep your comments coming @BeckyCNN.
Keira says "nothing short of disgusting and reprehensible. How low can humanity go?"
This is a story which fuels such a mix of emotions, outrage, sadness. And it raises, as Nkepile was saying, tough questions about what kind of a society breeds people who conduct themselves like this.
Lisa Vetten is a lawyer specializing in rape, a top expert on this subject in South Africa. And a gender rights activist. She joins me now from Johannesburg. And as we talk, Lisa, tweets along the bottom of the screen here, people that are talking to me about how they feel many of those coming from South Africa today. Individual (inaudible) saying they are appalled.
Let's start, Lisa, with this case. The government minister you've just heard says the police were quick to deal with this case, but it was the mother of one child who was looking at this video that had gone viral flagging that story to the media that flushed it out. How seriously do you think the country takes these shocking crimes?
LISA VETTEN, LAWYER/GENDER RIGHTS ACTIVIST: I think what you see is a very mixed reaction. Clearly, there is a good deal of outrage, shock, and horror on the part of many South Africans, but at the same time anybody who could have watched the video to the extent that it went viral, clearly shows that their sense of outrage and their horrified sense of that woman's violation of her privacy and dignity is not necessarily shared by all.
So I think we see a (inaudible) in consciousness here.
ANDERSON: Nkepile showing us just some of the conversations she had with some guys in South Africa. And that was some years ago. And I want to give our viewers a sense of whether things are improving or not in your country.
If you take into account combined rape and sexual assault figures in South Africa, these numbers aren't going in the right direction. Take a look at these, from 2008 to 2009 there were some 54,000 offenses. 2009 to 2010, that number ticketed over to 55,000. And the following year, last year, over 56,000. That is over a 2 percent increase from 2009.
Lisa, what happens next?
VETTEN: Well, I think firstly we try to encourage more women to come forward and report, because let's bear in mind the figures you've just given us are really the tip of the iceberg. To me, their surveys put the number of women reporting of anything between as few as -- as many as 1 in 7 to a more recent survey which says only 1 in 11.
So I think quite clearly we need to get more people, more women being willing to come forward and report so more of those who are committing these crimes can be apprehended. And so the criminal justice system can do its job in terms of deterring this activity.
ANDERSON: Can you explain -- sorry, let me just stop you there. Hold on for one second.
Can you explain whether you think South African society is unique and if so, why in this indignity of crime that we see. Already you think it's just something culturally, you know, on a wider scale?
VETTEN: I think South Africa don't necessarily have the highest levels of rape in the world. That's quite a difficult thing to compare. But it's certainly right up there with those countries who do have some of the highest rates of violence and sexual violence.
I think there are very many factors in South Africa that have come together to produce the kind of horrifying figures that we do have.
I think first you've got to look at our history. There's a long history of violence. There's a long history of responding to conflict in a violent manner, of trying to solve problems through using violence. There is a long history of brutal oppression and subjugation, which I think has been in turn (inaudible) very many levels.
We also have, I think, a long history of patriarchy, of not recognizing women's rights fully, of not recognizing them necessarily as being full human beings in full -- and having all the rights of men necessarily do.
So I think...
VETTEN: ...history and then you look at the situation...
ANDERSON: Yeah, yeah, Lisa let -- we're running out of time here. I'm going to have to take an advertising break at some point to pay for the show, but let me just ask you very briefly do you see the South African government doing anything to improve what is an abhorrent situation?
VETTEN: Well, they now decided to institute a national council on gender based violence, which we hope will make a difference. But I think a key area in which we have to start focusing is strengthening the criminal justice system. At this point, the conviction rate is at 4 percent.
And then I think we need to invest very significant resources in protection, particularly those who are disabled and children as well as adults, and also start at looking at prevention, because we cannot continue to have these kind of statistics. We cannot continue to have this number of young men going to the criminal justice system. We actually have to work to try and prevent this in the long-term.
ANDERSON: Lisa, an expert on the subject this evening. We do appreciate your thoughts here on Connect the World.
This is CNN. Our top story tonight, abhorrent, disgusting, there are no words that really describe how our top story makes me or I'm sure most of you watching the show feel. Remember that awful statistic we mentioned, one woman is raped every 26 seconds in South Africa. Since Connect the World has been on air, that is over 26 female victims. Enough is enough. There is nothing we can do about the fact that this crime happened. There is an awful lot we can do, all of us, to try and prevent it happening again.
On Connect the World still to come, a new warning about Syria and civil war. We'll see how the world plans to respond with a peace initiative.
It's considered the last best chance ends in failure.
India as the country joins an elite group, but will a stronger power unbalance the region?
Know the difference between success and failure, we speak to the cricketer who thinks luck plays a big part. That and more just ahead. This is Connect the World. Stay with us.
ANDERSON: Very warm welcome back. You're watching Connect the World. This is CNN. I'm Becky Anderson for you. Welcome back.
Now the UN secretary general says there's deeply troubling evidence that Syria is not complying with an international peace plan. Ban Ki-Moon cited reports of escalated violence and shelling of civilian areas. Reports at least appear in principle to match amateur video out of Syria today.
Western and Arab nations meeting as we speak in Paris where talk turned to a UN resolution that would allow amongst other things, "all means necessary," and I quote that to end the Syrian crisis. A significant development. We're going to have a live report on that in just about 15 minutes time.
First, it's some of the other stories connecting our world tonight. Anders Behring Breivik told an Oslo court today how he planned to kill the entire Norwegian government and decapitate the former prime minister with a knife. He said he originally planned three bomb attacks and a gun action, but had enough explosives, he said, to make only one bomb.
His attacks last July left 77 people dead. Today is the first day he entered the court without making a fist salute. Apparently, at least in principle, out of respecting a request from the family's -- the victims' families.
Media magnate Rupert Murdoch and his son James will give evidence at the British inquiring into media ethics next week. Rupert Murdoch, who is of course, the chairman of News Corporation, will appear for the Leveson inquiry on Wednesday and on Thursday. His son James will give evidence on Tuesday.
Now that inquiry into media ethics follows allegations of phone hacking at Murdoch's now defunct Sunday newspaper News of the World.
The chairman and CEO of Repsol says Argentina's government is unfit to lead the country and that Europe should force it onto the right path. Argentina has moved to privatize the Spanish company's Argentinean gas unit. This comes just days after it took control of Repsol's YPF oil division.
Speaking exclusively to CNN, the Repsol CEO and chairman said the decision was not in the public interest.
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ANTONIO BRUFAU NIUBO, CEO, REPSOL: The European authorities, not just the Spanish government, should true to force Argentina to come back to the -- to the right -- to the right road.
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ANDERSON: Well, a video of the Iranian president being confronted by a crowd is circulating on the internet. President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was touring the southern city of Baba Abbas (ph) when his car was mobbed by civilians, some of them angry at their growing poverty. A young women even managed to evade bodyguards and climb on top of the car. Earlier, an elderly man yelled at the president that he was hungry.
Those are your news headlines at this hour here on CNN. We're going to take a very short break. When we come back, though, with the Bahrain Grand Prix fast approaching, the crews experience just what they were hoping to avoid. Don Riddell with the very latest up next.
ANDERSON: You're watching Connect the World live from London. I'm Becky Anderson. Welcome back.
On the eve of the Bahrain Grand Prix practice runs, the focus still on safety concerns after a fire bomb exploded and nearly Force India team members, the four mechanics were caught up in a clash between protesters and police on a motorway -- and this is a big story, it's one we've been doing for a couple of week now. Don Riddell at the CNN Center with more.
Don, what do we know at this point? This race is still on as we speak, right?
DON RIDDELL, CNN SPORTS CORRESPONDENT: Yeah, absolutely. I mean, what happened last night was exactly what everybody involved wanted to avoid, but it did happen. It was what a lot of people were worried about. These four Force India employees were making their way back from the track, back to the hotel on Wednesday evening and they got caught up in a traffic jam, because there was a confrontation between some protesters and the police.
A petrol bomb or a Molotov cocktail was thrown over their car. It exploded. And that, of course, created a pretty dicey situation for the guys in the car.
They managed to get their way out of it. They got back to the hotel. I've spoken to someone at Force India today who confirmed that they really were shaken up when they got back. And one of them said I want to go home. And someone else from the Force India team said I want to go back to Europe as well. So as far as we know they have now left Bahrain and will play no part in the Grand Prix this weekend.
Of course the authorities and the Bahrain International Circuit have (inaudible) and played down events, but I mean, that's a real wake-up call for the organizers of this event. And of course it was the big talking point in the paddock today.
The teams will be heading for the track for the first practice session tomorrow morning, on Friday morning. And of course everybody will be hoping there are no further incidents like that, because that was really quite frightening.
Force India have pointed out that they were not targeted in this incident. It was an unmarked car these guys were traveling in, but a scary situation nonetheless.
ANDERSON: Yeah, that context to the story, of course.
All right. Let's move it on, let's talk about tennis. Novak Djokovic, we know he's had plenty of emotional matches in his career. We've watched most of them. The one on Thursday, though, Don was especially tough, wasn't it?
RIDDELL: Yeah, this was really quite hard to watch at times. You know, we all know that Djokovic wears his heart on his sleeve, but I was watching this morning when he was warming up for his match at the Monte Carlo Masters. And he got a phone call to say that his grandfather had died.
Now his grandfather Vladimir is someone that Djokivic has referred to as my hero and a fighter. It's reported that they actually sheltered together back in 1999 when NATO was bombing Belgrade. And so they're very, very close. But he passed away right before Djokovic played a match today.
Now you would forgive Djokovic, or frankly anybody for pulling out of the match, but to his credit he came back onto the court shortly afterwards to play Alexander Dolgopolov and you could see what it meant to him at the end.
This was just after he played the winning shot. You can see him there looking to the heavens. And by now everybody in the crowd new what had happened. They knew what this meant. And Djokovic was frankly inconsolable.
But he came from a set down to win that match. It was a brave performance. A very, very impressive performance from the world number one. And we're all used to seeing him joking around and clowning around on the court. He always gives very entertaining post match interviews on the court, but there was none of that today. He left in silence.
And an ATP statement later on said that he was totally exhausted, physically, mentally, and emotionally. And who could blame him for heading off the court without saying anything after that match.
An incredible performance from him under the circumstances. No word yet, though, Becky on whether he'll be able to complete the tournament.
ANDERSON: Yeah. All right. Good guy.
Don, thank you for that.
Don back in an hour with World Sport, of course, as ever.
Still to come more Connect the World, officially still under a ceasefire, but reports of yet more people being killed in Syria with world leaders in Paris as they try to say what is a fragile deal.
India takes pride in a successful missile launch. It promises the world its intentions are solely defensive.
And talent may not nature may not -- according to a former English cricketer, luck can make all the difference between success and failure. That story still to come.
ANDERSON: At half past nine in London it's a very warm welcome to our viewers across Europe and around the world. I'm Becky Anderson. These are the latest world news headlines here on CNN.
UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon says Syria is not meeting its commitment to a cease-fire. He briefed the Security Council today, urging them to send 300 observers to boost what is a small advance team already on the ground.
Anders Breivik says he was hoping to kill Norway's prime minister and other members of the government in his militant rampage last July. He admits to killing 77 people in car bomb and gun attacks and also revealed he prepared for the rampage by playing video games.
India is touting the success of a long-range missile. Launched a new rocket Thursday capable of carrying a nuclear warhead more than 5,000 kilometers, but officials say the test should not be seen as a threat since the military has a no first use policy.
A group of South African youths appeared in court Thursday to face allegations that they gang-raped a 17-year-old girl. They are charged with rape, kidnapping, and child pornography. Police say they made a video of the assault and they distributed it.
Those are your headlines here on CNN.
There's been a week since a cease-fire went into effect in Syria -- on paper, at least. Now, after repeated violations, there is a growing sense of urgency that something must be done to stop a total collapse of what was a peace plan.
Syrian opposition activists report more attacks on civilian areas today. They say at least 25 people were killed across the country. An advance team of UN observers clearly overwhelmed by people desperate to have their voices heard.
And the UN chief is asking the Security Council to send hundreds more monitors.
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BAN KI-MOON, SECRETARY-GENERAL, UNITED NATIONS: Despite the government's agreement to cease all violence, we still see deeply troubling evidence that it continues. The past few days in particular has brought reports of renewed and escalating violence, including the shelling of civilian areas, grave offenses by government forces, and attacks by armed groups.
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ANDERSON: Well, that was Ban Ki-moon earlier in New York at UN Headquarters. The secretary-general also gave an update on Syria's compliance with the peace deal. Remember that? Brokered by Kofi Annan. Lack of compliance, may be a better term. Let's go through it and just see whether we think any of what they Syrians signed up to is actually coming good.
We just heard Kofi Annan talk about the cease-fire violations. He also says Syria has not withdrawn troops and tanks from protest cities as promised. So, let's give him a cross on that, shall we?
The plan calls for Syrian-led political negotiations to address the people's grievances. Well, that also hasn't happened, as far as I can tell.
Also, Secretary-General Ban says we've no substantive progress on the timely provision of humanitarian assistance, aid as some of us would like to call it. Bang. And he also says there's been no, and I quote, "significant release of prisoners who were arbitrarily detained." Number four, let's give them a cross on that.
Journalists still don't have complete freedom of movement around the country. That was also important and one of the points on Annan's plan. And the Secretary-General says demonstrators still can't protest without fear of repercussions, so -- let's give them a zero on that, shall we? Although he did cite a more restrained response by the government.
Well, Mr. Ban says there is still hope that the peace deal will succeed, but in Paris today, Western and Arab diplomats are considering what they call a plan B, effectively. US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton made one strong suggestion in particular. Let's bring in CNN's Elise Labott to fill us in on that. What was said at this conference, Elise?
ELISE LABOTT, CNN WORLD AFFAIRS CORRESPONDENT: Well, Becky, it was about 15 foreign ministers of the so-called Friends of Syria group here in Paris trying to create a sense of urgency.
You have the center of gravity in New York, where Ban Ki-moon, as you were just discussing, was talking about those violations. Now, French foreign minister Alain Juppe warning this Annan plan is Syria's last chance to avoid a civil war. Let's listen to what he said to the group today.
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ALAIN JUPPE, FRENCH FOREIGN MINISTER (through translator): We say that we cannot wait, time is against us. We need to act quickly, otherwise we will have to see what other options are open to the Security Council and to the international community. Ladies and Gentlemen, the Annan plan is a plan of freedom. It's failure would lead to a civil war and regional confrontations.
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LABOTT: Well, Becky, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, much tougher, saying that if the Syrian regime of President Bashar al-Assad doesn't implement this Annan plan that the UN Security Council should pass a very tough resolution with measures such as an arms embargo, other financial restrictions under Chapter Seven of the UN Security Council charter, which basically calls for all means necessary.
Now, she didn't call for military action per se, but she's saying it's time for the UN Security Council to get tough. Let's listen to Secretary Clinton.
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HILLARY CLINTON, US SECRETARY OF STATE: I think we are all here out of a sense of great frustration and outrage over what we see occurring in Syria.
We also are hopeful that, despite the evidence thus far, the mission of Kofi Annan can begin to take root, starting with monitors being sent, but remembering that it's a six-point plan and that it's not a menu of options.
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LABOTT: So, now, some of those other things that the Assad regime has to do, not just the cease-fire and pull back its troops, but allow those peaceful protests, as you've said, allow humanitarian aid in, and a political transition. She's saying that Syrian president has to implement all of those things, that if not, they have to take tighter actions.
Becky, let's face it, nobody at the UN Security -- at the Syria meeting today is optimistic that this Annan plan is going to be implemented, but as one foreign minister said to me, we have to give it a chance because it's the only game in town.
ANDERSON: Interesting stuff. All right. The -- doesn't seem that Plan B is coming together particularly well. Elise, thank you for that, Elise Labott there at the meeting today.
Coming up on CONNECT THE WORLD, I'm Becky Anderson for you, the world was up in arms when North Korea launched a rocket last week, so why is India's successful launch of a ballistic missile OK? Are there international double standards at play here? Let's discuss that after this break.
ANDERSON: India's stepped up its military power, testing its longest- range nuclear-capable missile yet. Now, they have successfully launched their Agni-5 missile with a range of some 5,000 kilometers. It's India's second atomic move in less than a month after it acquired a nuclear submarine from Russia. Let's kick this off with CNN's Jim Clancy, who has been taking a look at the test.
JIM CLANCY, CNN INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: The Agni-5 missile blasted through the clouds from an island off India's east coast early Thursday, heading skyward on what India called a successful first flight.
The Agni, which means "fire" in Hindi, can carry a one-ton nuclear warhead and is believed to have a range of 5,000 kilometers, putting major Chinese cities, including Beijing, within striking distance. India's prime minister, Manmohan Singh, calls the launch a major milestone.
MANMOHAN SINGH, PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA: The successful launch of Agni-5 missile is a salute to the sophistication and commitment to national causes on the part of India's scientific and technological community.
CLANCY: The launch was flagged in advance, but India did not attract the kind of international criticism that North Korea received for its failed rocket test last week.
The launch puts India in a very small club of countries. Only the permanent members of the UN Security Council -- Britain, China, France, Russia, and the US -- along with Israel, are believed to have such long- range weapons.
Indian leaders say the missile is meant as a deterrent only.
PALLAM RAJU, INDIAN JUNIOR DEFENSE MINISTER: As we all know, there are -- we live in a very challenging neighborhood, so I think the defense capabilities of the nation can build are of vital importance.
CLANCY: Analysts say they believe the launch puts India's nuclear- armed neighbors, namely China and Pakistan, on notice. Chinese officials acknowledged the launch but downplayed any sense of rivalry between the two nations.
LIU WEIMIN, CHINA FOREIGN MINISTRY SPOKESMAN (through translator): China and India are both large developing nations. We are not competitors, but partners.
CLANCY: However, an editorial in China's state-run media warned that India should not overestimate its strength. Experts say the missile needs more tests, but could become fully operational in about two years time.
Jim Clancy, CNN.
ANDERSON: Well, India has had several nuclear missiles for some time. Let's just give you a rundown of why this successful test, though, is so significant.
From its launch base, this Agni-2 missile only manages to cover most of India and small neighbors, such as Nepal and Myanmar, for example.
The Agni-3 expanded that range to cover Pakistan. When India initially tested that missile, Pakistan responded by firing a missile of its own.
Now, with this new Agni-5, India's missile range stretches as far as Nuclear-ready Beijing and also almost as far as Moscow. I find that quite remarkable.
China and Russia don't seem to be too fazed, though, by the prospect of increased power on their doorstep. They are both permanent members of the UN Security Council and the three other members aren't making much of a fuss, either, unlike the noise that they make, of course, on a regular basis over North Korea or Iran's ambitions.
Well, joining me now to discuss what India's move means for the world, if anything, is former US Assistant Secretary of State for South Asia, Karl Inderfurth. Karl, firstly, what was the point of this launch, out of interest, do you think?
KARL INDERFURTH, FORMER US ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE FOR SOUTH ASIAN AFFAIRS: Well, I think it was another demonstration of India's technological prowess. They had been pursuing the Agni for some time. This is the Agni-5. Before that was the 1, 2, 3, and 4.
And I think that what they were also demonstrating was their desire to have strategic parity with China. China already has missiles with the range that can cover all of the Indian subcontinent, and this is a next step for India to be able to have that strategic parity.
ANDERSON: So, this is a major milestone, as you say, for India, but would have been a trigger for all-out war if anybody other than the P-5 plus Israel, one assumes, had possibly conducted a test like this.
Those who are sitting watching this show tonight who think there are double standards going on here would be forgiven, surely, wouldn't they?
INDERFURTH: Well, I don't -- I think that they would need to think about that a little bit harder, because the -- all the attention given to North Korea and its failed test of just a few days ago, North Korea had been told by the international community that that would abridge certain violations or understandings, agreement.
When India tested its Agni, the State Department said that, while urging restraint in terms of nuclear developments, it also said that India has a solid non-proliferation record especially with Washington --
ANDERSON: Right, OK. I want to stop you there. With respect, with respect. First of all --
ANDERSON: -- we don't know what was being launched out of North Korea the other day. They told us it was just a -- it was just a satellite. So, we don't -- we've really got no evidence to suggest it was anything more than that.
And again, I'm going to press you on this point. Because India says it has no strategic importance, which I find -- I don't know, that's difficult for me to get my head around, maybe I'm not very bright.
But -- and says that it will never react first, does that make it any better? Does it make it more acceptable that they now have a nuclear missile-ready rocket and are showing it off to the rest of the world?
INDERFURTH: Well, again, it's not nuclear-ready, as Jim Clancy's report said. It will not become operational until 2014. But India also has a no --
ANDERSON: Does that matter?
INDERFURTH -- first use policy --
ANDERSON: Does that matter?
INDERFURTH: Yes, it does matter. It does -- it certainly matters. We do not know what that North Korean regime was actually preparing that test for. They said it was for a satellite, maybe a weather satellite. But it presents the capability.
India is making no -- it's making it clear that this part of its long- range missile program. It does have nuclear weapons. I was the Assistant Secretary when they tested nuclear weapons in 1998.
ANDERSON: All right.
INDERFURTH: India is looking, as I said, for strategic parity, and it does have a policy of what it calls "Minimal credible deterrence."
ANDERSON: That I understand, yes.
INDERFURTH: This is about deterrence, from India's standpoint --
ANDERSON: That I understand --
INDERFURTH: Oh, good.
ANDERSON: Let me give you the last word, here. In 30 seconds, explain to our viewers around the world why it is still necessary for any one country to be testing rockets that might be nuclear missile capable anytime in the future.
INDERFURTH: Well, it's part of their development programs. All the advance countries, including the United States, including the United Kingdom, France, Russia, China, all of them test in their development programs their long-range and short-range, medium-range missiles.
The fact is that India wants to demonstrate that it has strategic parity, as I've mentioned. China already has that capability. And of course, Pakistan has the capability, because it's a neighbor, already to cover many Indian targets.
So, that is the world of nuclear deterrence. Like it or not, that's what these countries are demonstrating, they have the capability to be in.
ANDERSON: And I think that's your point, like it or not. We could discuss this for hours, but we won't, because we're going to have to take a very short advertising break and pay for this show. Sir, always a pleasure, thank you very much, indeed, for coming. An interesting story.
You're watching CONNECT THE WORLD. When we come back, success: is it nature or is it nurture? We'll speak to the former English cricketer who says let's not forget the role of luck. That's coming up after this.
ANDERSON: It's an age-old debate, and one -- well, I don't know if we're going to get to the back of it, but success, is it a matter of nature or nurture? It's a question we've explored before on this program. We're probably going to do it again.
Remember this guy? His name is Dan. He's an amateur golfer who gave up a career in photographer to test the theory that anyone can achieve greatness, it just takes 10,000 hours of dedicated practice.
When we last spoke to Dan, he was 18 months into his 6-year experiment to see if he could become a professional golfer.
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DAN MCLAUGHLIN, AMATEUR GOLFER: Fifty percent of the time I feel like I know what I'm doing, and fifty percent of the time, I feel like I'm just out there moving dirt. So, I think it's all relative, but being so into the process, it's hard for me to stand back and really judge my progress. And there's nothing to compare my progress to, because nobody's really attempted something quite like this.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
ANDERSON: Well, that is Dan. How's he doing? Well, we're going to catch up with him next week to see how he's getting on in the nature/nurture test. But tonight, we're going to explore another factor that a former English cricketer says is often forgotten in this debate. Max Foster, my colleague, talks to Ed Smith about the element of luck.
MAX FOSTER, CNN INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): One man loses, another man wins. But was this moment in cricket determined by one man's skill over another? The batsman in this image, Ed Smith, might argue it came down to luck.
ED SMITH, AUTHOR, "LUCK": I was a professional cricketer for 13 years, and sportsmen, like many people, are conditioned not to believe in luck. We're obsessed with the idea of control and the idea that effort and practice completely gets rid of uncertainty. It's probably in some ways an understandable position.
But I couldn't help noticing that a lot of the big forks in the road, a lot of the big moments in my cricket career and also my life, which we'll get to in a second, were completely -- completely determined by chance.
FOSTER: The hallmark of a talented batsman in cricket is scoring 100 runs in just one game. Ed Smith drummed up an impressive 34 centuries in his career before it was cut short by a broken ankle.
He's since become an author, and his latest book looks at the role of luck in both sport and life.
FOSTER (on camera): So, how lucky was your life?
SMITH: Well, I think a huge degree of -- first of all, a little bit of definition. I think I define luck as that which is beyond our control. So, obviously, that's different to chance, which is a mathematician or gambler would view chance as something which is calculable, whereas luck is incalculable. It's a force beyond our control.
FOSTER: So, what is it?
SMITH: So, I would say that my life, if you look at the luck of what school you go to, I went to possibly the best cricketing school in the country, which has produced Colin Cowdrey, Chris Cowdrey, Richard Ellison, all these international players and scores more people who played at a very high level.
And I don't think that was a coincidence. It's about 20 times more likely you'll play for England if you're at an independent school.
The really interesting thing is that social luck, as John Rawls called it, or privilege, as we might call it in conversation, is an increasing force in determining outcomes. Certainly in professional sport and also there's some evidence in other professions as well.
And yet, the way we talk about success when we like to believe we make our own luck, as the saying goes, self-help industry is predicated on the basis that there is no such thing as luck, that if we just believe enough, if we want it enough, if we train hard enough, we'll be able to get it. What?
I'm just saying, hang on a minute. If you look at the statistics, if you look at the evidence, luck is a very big issue.
FOSTER: But if you had the right facilities and did well from that, aren't you saying it wasn't luck, it was due to the facilities --
SMITH: OK, but two things here. So, luck, you're saying, is uncaused. It's not that kind of luck. Because obviously it's not a complete luck as to -- it's not random who goes to which school. It's just the finance or, in my case, the fortune of my dad being in the educational profession.
But to you, as the receiver, the recipient of the luck, it is completely -- no one determines what school they go to.
FOSTER: You were lucky to go to the school, is what you're saying.
SMITH: Yes. Or, I was lucky to be in that setup as a kid. Let's put it this way. If you have a bad -- if a bad operation is performed on you by a doctor or surgeon, if he's a bad doctor, it's not completely a matter of luck. He's inept. But to you, it's a question of luck. You're not in control of that.
FOSTER: Are some people luckier than others?
SMITH: Certainly. Marlon Brando, luck is believing the lucky. Of course the mindset you have, your optimism, just simply putting yourself in the way of being this -- being social, you're not going to meet the right person if you're never in a social situation.
FOSTER: So, you can make yourself lucky?
SMITH: I think you can maximize your exposure to luck, but I don't think you can make your own -- you can't make your own luck because luck's beyond your control. So, if you're making it, it's either A, not luck, or B, you're deluding yourself that it is.
So, I think you can certainly -- you can do the best you can to put yourself in the way of good things, and obviously, some people do that better than others. What I'm saying is that it's a civilized world where those who've had some luck acknowledge it. It's also a civilized world where we accept the fact that not everyone has as much good fortune as some of the most fortunate.
ANDERSON: Ed Smith speaking to my colleague, Max. Been getting a lot of feedback on our top story this evening, the group of South African youths who face allegations that they gang-raped a 17-year-old girl and filmed it.
That video has now gone viral on the internet. A lot of shock and sadness from all over the world, especially from South Africa. You see some of the tweets below me, @BeckyCNN, of course, is my -- how you can reach me on Twitter.
Do tweet me on this story, it's an important one and one that I think all of us should play a part in trying to -- well, make better, I guess. I don't know what the word is.
Well, her face is seen every day on money and stamps across the UK, but in tonight's Parting Shots, we can see a rather different portrait of the queen. Tonight, projected onto the front of Buckingham Palace, were the self-portraits of over 200,000 kids.
Together, they formed a very colorful montage of Queen Elizabeth II as part of the Face Britain project, which celebrates children in the lead-up to the queen's Diamond Jubilee and the London Olympics this year. It's not every day your school drawings get to hang on the wall of a palace, is it?
I'm Becky Anderson. That was CONNECT THE WORLD. Thank you for watching. The world news headlines up after this. Please stay with us.