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Connect the World

EU to Extend Sanctions on Belarus, Lukashenko Threatens to Shut Gas Pipeline as Migrants Stuck at Border Wait for help; WFP Chief Talks About Recent Trip to Afghanistan; China's Communist Party Wraps up Plenary Meeting; FW De Klerk, South Africa's last Apartheid Leader, Dies; Saving Bangladesh's Endangered Turtles; Elon Musk's SpaceX and NASA Launch Crew into Space. Aired 11a-12p ET

Aired November 11, 2021 - 11:00   ET




ANNOUNCER: Live from London. This is "Connect the World" with Max Foster.

MAX FOSTER, CNN HOST, CONNECT THE WORLD: Hello and welcome to "Connect the World". I'm Max Foster in for Becky Anderson. It is November the 11th, the

anniversary of the end of World War I and a day when nations across the world remember those who fought for freedom.

Earlier today U.S. Vice President Kamala Harris marked Armistice Day with French President Emmanuel Macron. She's on a five day visit to France. And

at any moment now we expect her to deliver remarks at the Paris Peace Forum.

CNN White House Correspondent Jeremy Diamond is in Paris covering the Vice President's trip for us. It was hijacked to some extent, because of the

bilateral tensions between the U.S. and France. But it doesn't seem to be much tension you know, as we see the two meets they haven't meet earlier


JEREMY DIAMOND, CNN WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT: Yeah, that's right. And it's been an extremely warm connection so far that we've been able to see on

camera between the Vice President of the United States and the French President, as they spent some time yesterday at the Elysee Palace, as well

as earlier this morning near the -- for this Armistice Day Ceremony.

Moments from now we're expecting the Vice President to actually walk in alongside the French President for this Paris Peace Forum. And frankly, the

Vice President's presence here is another one of those many gestures that we have seen this week from the United States toward France to signal the

importance of that relationship.

We know that this Paris Peace Forum is one of Emmanuel Macron's priorities. It's something that he established three years ago, and Vice President

Harris will be of the most senior American official to have attended this forum, since its inception.

So again, a clear gesture from the United States, towards the French President himself, we're expecting the Vice President to address the topic

of global inequality, the ways in which it's been exacerbated by the pandemic and the extent to which the United States has acted at home to

address some of that inequality, and perhaps issue a kind of call to action to other world leaders to do the same in their countries.

But again, all of this coming within the context of this five day trip, to try and revitalize that French American relationship.

FOSTER: And it's been going pretty well for her, hasn't it? This is an introduction to the world stage in Europe, at least, this level. And she

appears to be, you know, representing the White House side of things pretty effectively when you consider the tensions that are there in the background

DIAMOND: Yeah, so, so far, so good for the Vice President. I mean, as you said, this is her first time on the European stage, the big leagues of

foreign policy at the heart of that transatlantic relationship between the U.S. and Europe at a time, when, of course, there has been this rift just

less than two months ago, amid that submarine affair with the United States, blindsiding France by offering to develop nuclear submarines with

Australia sinking a French arms -- French deal to sell submarines to Australia.

So it is a moment of consequence. Of course, this is step two in that rebuilding effort. President Joe Biden already meeting with the French

president a couple weeks ago on the sidelines of the G20 Forum in Rome but we do know that the Vice President came here to Paris for this five day

trip at the request and invitation of the French President.

That is something that senior officials here have made very clear and the French President clearly wanted to move forward the discussion. And

Americans as well, they are -- they say that they are not looking backwards, but they are looking forwards at ways to increase the

cooperation in the wake of that submarine affair.

But there's no question that even though officials told us that it actually did not come up the word submarine was not mentioned in that meeting

yesterday at the Elysee Palace, that it is certainly looming over things. And they are looking forward to ways to increase cooperation on space on

cyber space security issues as well nothing yet though, in terms of concrete commitments on the European defense front.

That is something that French officials have told me they are waiting to see from the United States, even though they've heard positive rhetoric in

that direction from the American President. They do want to see more action. So perhaps that won't be accomplished in this trip. But it is

something that the French will continue to press as they try and squeeze as much juice as possible out of that submarine dustup over the last few


FOSTER: Okay, Jeremy, thank you. We'll be following the Vice President's speech as well. Now both sides are digging in in the migrant crisis that

erupted along the Polish Belarusian border. New warnings and threats are coming as migrants desperate to get out of an exclusion zone on the

Belarus' side and into Poland are getting turned away in the hundreds. Earlier today Germany's Acting Foreign Minister announced what the EU is

planning next take a listen.


HEIKO MAAS, GERMANY'S ACTING FOREIGN MINISTER: The European Union will expand and tighten its sanctions against Lukashenko's regime. This is what

we will decide at our Foreign Ministers meeting in Brussels on Monday those people and companies actively involved in human trafficking will be further

sanctioned no matter where on the globe.


MAAS: In addition, there are other options on the table, such as the expansion of present sanctions, especially so called sectorial sanctions in

other words, economic sanctions.


FOSTER: Frederik Pleitgen is tracking developments from a town in Poland very close to the border with Belarus. Both sides really digging their

heels in and these migrants caught in between.

FREDERIK PLEITGEN, CNN SENIOR INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: Yeah, I think you're absolutely right, Max. That's exactly the way to put it. You do have

the people who are camped out there right now in that gigantic makeshift camp now the polar sites ended up to 4000 people in that area alone.

And they really are in limbo right now. On the one hand, from what we're hearing, they can't actually get back into Belarus to get out of that

border area to seek some sort of shelter there or to maybe to go into some sort of buildings there.

And also, of course, they can't get over the border and across the border into the European Union, because there is that barbed wire, and thousands

of Polish forces also on that side of the border as well. And as you can imagine, Max, the conditions in that camp are growing direr by the hour.

Really, you know, we've been out here for just a couple of hours reporting on all this, I can tell you it's extremely cold here. It's extremely damp.

Of course, the temperatures in the night, they do reach below freezing on a pretty consistent basis.

You can imagine people who are out there; obviously not dressed for that kind of weather sleeping in tents, just how dire the conditions for them

are there. And certainly some of the videos that we've seen seem to indicate that as well.

But we also see that the Belarusian side seems to be digging in as well. We heard some of what the German foreign minister said of what the EU is

planning next, some of those additional sanctions that they're talking about. Well, the Belarusian Strongman Alexander Lukashenko has now

essentially threatened to cut off gas supplies to Europe, if those sanctions get put in place. Let's listen to what he had to say.


ALEXANDER LUKASHENKO, BELARUSIAN PRESIDENT: We are heating Europe, and they still threaten us with closing the border. And what if we shut off natural

gas there? I would therefore recommend that the leadership of Poland Lithuania and other headless people think before speaking, but this is

their business?

If they are closing it, let them close it. But the Foreign Ministry must warn everyone in Europe. If they impose additional sanctions on us, which

are indigestible and unacceptable for us, we must answer.


PLEITGEN: Of course, the poles for their part and the European Union, but especially Poland, Max, they have said that they are not going to back down

that they will not be intimidated. In fact, the Polish Prime Minister, he called this state sponsored terrorism, of course, the polls do say that

they consider this to be a brutal attack on their border.

And they also said they're continually -- going to continue to amass forces there and not just keep up that barbed wire that they have there right now.

But of course, they are saying they want to build a permanent wall on the border between Poland and Belarus, Max.

FOSTER: Russia accused of helping transport some of these migrants effectively being complicit in this crisis on the Belarusian side. And they

denied that presumably.

PLEITGEN: Yeah, they certainly are. In fact, the Kremlin today, denied that said the Russians absolutely have nothing to do with that. It's quite

interesting, because just a couple of minutes ago, there was the second phone call in two days between Vladimir Putin, the President of Russia and

Angela Merkel, of course, the Chancellor of Germany.

And that is quite significant, because on the one hand, of course, Germany is Europe's largest economy and a very powerful country but also a lot of

the folks who do make it across the border. The migrants that do make it across the border, they want to go to Germany.

So Germany, of course, has a pretty big stake in this as well. Angelo Merkel has asked Vladimir Putin for help in this entire if asked him to

intervene. But on the whole, it certainly doesn't seem as though right now. Either side is willing to budge in any way shape or form.

In fact, Alexander Lukashenko he praised Russia for just yesterday, flying to -- flying two strategic bombers at a nuclear capable over the airspace

of Belarus, which of course very much is a signal to the European Union as well.

So right now certainly seems as though Moscow still firmly in the court of Belarusian strongman Alexander Lukashenko. At the same time, the Europeans

are keeping that contact up, hoping that Vladimir Putin possibly could make a difference in all of this Max.

FOSTER: Okay, Fred Pleitgen thank you very much indeed. Many of those refugees are coming from the Middle East in Afghanistan, which is where my

next guest just visited Chief of the World Food Programme; David Beasley issued this urgent call for help on his Twitter page.


DAVID BEASLEY, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, WORLD FOOD PROGRAMME: It's not that complicated. If you don't get the food you need, you get malnourished and

you get sick. And here I am in a children's wing of this hospital in Kandahar, where the number of patients is doubling because people don't

have food.

In fact, this one mother right here, she didn't get enough food during the pregnancy and her baby is literally about to die but he's on the road of

recovery it very well may make it. But what I'm hearing is that mothers are getting their children recovered here and when they do they go back home

still to no food.


BEASLEY: And it's just a cycle. And it's just a horrible cycle. And it's only getting worse because of economic deterioration. And so we've got to

do something about it, we got to get the people food that they need. So they these children can survive.


FOSTER: David Beasley with me now live, thank you for joining me. You are deeply affected, weren't you by what you saw there? I mean, how are you

able to express it to people that, you know, feeling so detached from the situation?

BEASLEY: You know, Max that's part of the problem, because the numbers we're dealing with are so significant, like cattle, the nation of

Afghanistan of 40 million people, you have 23 million people not having enough food, marching towards starvation, 8.7 of them are knocking on his


And so those are numbers. But quite frankly, when you get off the ground, you see these little girls and these little boys just emaciated and dying

right before your very own eyes. And you just start to think, wow, what if that was my little girl in my little boy, because they're victims of

conflict and climate change, as well as COVID here, and so it's really heartbreaking.

And so is -- how do we get that message out to the people because I do believe people around the world they see it, they will respond.

FOSTER: I mean, money helps, obviously doesn't have to get the food out to people, what sort of figures you're looking at from based on your recent


BEASLEY: Well Max that's -- in fact I was just in Afghanistan a couple of days ago, and I was in Syria today, which is another story on itself. And

in Afghanistan, we are talking about reaching 23 million people, and that is $230 million a month.

And Max that's what half rations, not full rations is. So you could see how tragic and financially crippling this is? And now with the international

funds in Afghanistan are frozen, coupled with Afghan another 42 nations with over 45 million people knocking on families door because of the

perfect storm of conflict COVID economic deterioration and climate change.

So we're facing a perfect storm for the end of 2021 and 2022. And if we don't do something, let me tell you what's going to happen. Yes, you will

have starvation, you will have destabilization of some countries, and you're going to have mass migration.

And we know it cost 1000 times more money once they migrate, and people really don't want to leave home. So we have an answer is food we just need

for the funding to take place now.

FOSTER: I don't want to put you in a difficult situation; you're obviously the independent figure on the ground having to work with the Taliban. But

how easy are they making your work? And how much of a concern is it for the people who fund you that? You know, some of you know the resources might

end up with the Taliban?

BEASLEY: Yeah. No Max that's a very good question. And we work in complex environments and war zones every day around the world. So we know how to

come into these environments and operate independently and neutrally.

In fact, I sat down with the Taliban just a few days ago, our teams are sitting down within one province, by province by province in what they have

been assuring us, and they've been delivering on that it's allowing us operational independence and new trash -- neutrality and impartiality;

they've not interfered with our operations.

It has been they've actually provided security in some of our warehouses, because the food security situation is so bad, you can imagine people want

to find warehouses, the food to get food. And so, so far, it's been an as any other place. It's been very successful. And we don't have any issues at

this stage, other than the financial needs that we have right now.

FOSTER: But that's also where the politics comes in, isn't it? Because there are governments that don't want to, you know, offer any support to

Afghanistan under the Taliban? So how much of an issue is that, you know that sanctioning for you in terms of raising funds?

BEASLEY: Well, yeah, Max, it is an issue and we tell leaders around the world, please don't allow starving children to be engaged in politics.

Don't let these innocent victims of conflict and political differences, you know, be in the way of children having a future and dying.

This is what we're saying, because children today are going to pay a price and then the world will pay a price, not just a day to mark as you if we do

have enough money just to keep him alive, then you have stunting, you will have wasting, you know, the stories that go with that.

So we're asking leaders around the world and the world's billionaires please don't deny these innocent children of future. Let's help them now

because it is truly a crisis is hell on earth, as we're looking into the winter months right now.

FOSTER: David Beasley recently in Afghanistan, thank you very much indeed for bringing your insight on to the show.

BEASLEY: Thanks.


FOSTER: Ahead on the program demands are being made in the final hours of COP26 climate talks in Scotland. Why 22 developing nations want a key

section of the draft removed now. And China and the U.S. surprise the summit with a new agreement, but does it actually mean real cooperation?


FOSTER: We're just finding out the date for a highly anticipated summit between U.S. President Joe Biden and Chinese President Xi Jinping. People

familiar with the matter say it will be on Monday it'll be held virtually.

U.S. and China just found something to agree on at the COP26 Climate Summit but these talks come amid heightened tensions over Taiwan, along with trade

and human rights issues amongst others.

Now, Friday marks the final day of COP26 climate talks in Glasgow, Scotland and one of the summit's most contentious issues is at the forefront, a

group of developing nations are demanding reparations be paid.

They argue developing countries suffer disproportionately from climate change, mostly created by richer countries. The group is called the climate

vulnerable forum and they're pushing for Glasgow loss and damage facility. Phil Black is on the story for us.

He joins me now live from Glasgow and a group and other group known as likeminded developing countries wants an entire section on climate change

mitigation removed from that draft text.

PHIL BLACK, CNN CORRESPONDENT: That's right, Max. And this is a hugely significant section. This is the section that lays out really what's at

stake what the goals must be and what the next steps should be, in order to have any chance of achieving them.

It's the section that spells out based on the science that 1.5 degrees Celsius must be considered the goal in terms of limiting average global

warming. And it also spells out that there is a very tight deadline in order to achieve this. For that to be viable, the world has to cut

emissions by about 45 percent by 2030.

That is this decade. And with that in mind, given that we're nowhere near close to securing the sort of emissions cuts that can deliver that, this is

the section of the document that calls on countries to revisit their existing emissions cuts and commitments.

And to come back together next year with greater ambition in the hope of closing that gap and getting closer to what is necessary. Now the countries

that oppose it, this group of like-minded developing countries that includes China, India, some of the biggest polluters, and they oppose it,

they say because they believe it shifts the burden of responsibility away from developed countries which have become rich through emitting carbon

through industrialization.

It is a very old battle at these climate talks the divide between developing and developed rich and poor, and it's very much on us and them

mentality in the final days of these talks. But they need to find a solution to this because if that particular language is stripped out of the

final agreement, and then it is very unclear how this process moves forward from here essentially the goal of 1.5 would no longer be achievable.


BLACK: And there would be no practical next step for ensuring that countries can ramp up their ambition in order to make it a reality. Because

under the current rules, it says, they will come back together in 2025, to review their emissions cuts.

The broad consensus, certainly, from scientists from the high ambition countries is that if you wait until then, it will be too late, Max.

FOSTER: One of the issues I heard was, you know, this, you know, things have to be agreed unanimously, so one country can effectively hold up the

headline texts. How much of an issue is that in these final days, do you think?

BLACK: Well, it is everything related is why these torts can really seize up in the final moments. It's why they often go overtime, you know, we're

supposed to have an agreement come late Friday, but it could easily spill over into the weekend.

And the reason why is because this is a consensus negotiation, you're talking about almost 200 countries who have to agree on the final version

of the texts that will be released after the conference.

And these are countries that have very different perspectives on the nature of the crisis and what should be done, what should be done about it, and

indeed, what their individual responsibilities are.

It's a really broad spectrum from vulnerable tiny island states, to some of the biggest polluters and biggest producers of fossil fuels. From across

that spectrum, they try and have to find consensus language, and it is why these final few days and hours, so fraught, Max.

FOSTER: Okay, Phil, thank you. Something else that was achieved at COP, the U.S. and China appear to put their many differences aside, at least for the

moment, they surprise the entire summit with the announcement of greater cooperation to tackle the climate crisis. But the agreement is vaguely

worded and lacks a lot of specifics still, U.S. Special Climate Envoy, John Kerry is please.


JOHN KERRY, U.S. SPECIAL CLIMATE ENVOY: The United States and China have no shortage of differences, but on climate. On climate cooperation is the only

way to get this job done. This is not a discretionary thing; frankly, this is science its math and physics that dictate the road that we have to



FOSTER: David Culver joins us now from Shanghai. Actually, you know a lot of people been a bit negative about this, because they haven't got the

specifics. They don't really know exactly what the agreement is about specifically. But actually, the idea that they came together with this

announcement was really great news, wasn't it?

DAVID CULVER, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Perhaps that's the biggest headline in all of this right, Max? Yeah. And we know that Special Envoy on climate John

Kerry was actually here in Shanghai a few months ago.

This has been something that they have been working on for several months trying to parcel out all the disagreements that they have between the two

countries, and perhaps find some sort of agreement and cooperation on climate looks like they're headed that way.

To your point, it's lacking some specifics. Overall, this is what China is pushing for. They're pledging that by 2030, they hope to have reached their

peak carbon emissions, and then by 2060, not 2050, but 10 years after that, they hope to be carbon neutral.

Now, there is a lot of criticism coming from those here against countries like the U.S., for example, where they say that developed countries have

had 150 years to pollute the earth. And really developing countries like China have been doing it in the past 30.

The reality is China also sees this as a domestic need. And that's been pressed over and over. In fact, going back to earlier this year, President

Xi Jinping declared green is gold pushing for environmental focus, to be really trying to battle climate change as a matter of national security.

Because Max, we know that their security, their energy source here is of course, something that's vitally important as they're trying to become

increasingly self-reliant.

FOSTER: Yeah, and at the same time, you know, there's a lot going on some big decisions being made China's Communist Party, wrapping up plenary

session as well with all the other issues it's having to juggle.

CULVER: Yeah, they just passed this historic resolution that essentially Max, will now lay the way for President Xi Jinping to hold that title for

years to come.


CULVER (voice over): China's ruling elites meeting behind closed doors for four days in Beijing, rewriting the Communist Party's history to chart a

new course.

The 350 or so top officials is passing an almost unprecedented resolution and this time highlighting the role of its current leader and Chinese

President Xi Jinping in the nation's triumphant rise on the global stage.

VICTOR SHIH, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO: He wants to really highlight his own contribution to be the development of the party that also

will seal his legitimate rule over China in the foreseeable future. Then, of course, no one would challenge his power within the party.


CULVER (voice over): Unrivaled control that puts Xi on par with past Paramount leaders Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping, both oversaw the only two

previous resolutions. The first 1945 firmly placed Mao at the apex of the party.

The second 1981, five years after Mao's death, in effort to push past his disastrous policies as Dung open China up to a surge of prosperity, an

economic boom that's lasted decades.

CULVER (on camera): Now 100 years since its founding right here in Shanghai, the Chinese Communist Party has just passed a third such

resolution, this one widely seen as elevating Xi Jinping as undisputed supreme ruler of what many here believe will become the world's strongest


CULVER (voice over): China's already become the second largest economy in the world. It has successfully lifted millions of its people out of poverty

and making other countries including the U.S. uneasy with its rapid Military expansions.

Its Ascendance, the leadership proudly displays at so called Communist Party pilgrimage sites, historically revered spots that downplay or ignore

failures and controversies from the tumultuous Cultural Revolution to the Tiananmen Square Massacre. Instead, they focus on a century of successes

and credit Xi alongside Mao and Dung for the nation's rejuvenation with Xi's two immediate predecessors barely mentioned.

Xi is now even a mandatory part of school curriculums, all students must learn Xi Jinping thought. Since taking power in 2012, Xi has methodically

consolidated control, launching an anti-corruption campaign that simultaneously eliminated his political rivals.

In 2018 he rewrote the constitution, getting rid of presidential term limits. And this year with a series of regulatory tightening on business

and tech, he showed the tycoons that the party is above all else. And loyalty to the party now means loyalty to Xi.

JEAN-PIERRE CABESTAN, HONG KONG BAPTIST UNIVERSITY: Now we've back to a strong man politics with the danger of course, relying on one person to

make decisions but also rely on his health, on his own character to decide about the future of a nation of 1.4 billion people.

CULVER (voice over): So much power handed to one man, history has taught us what that could mean. But for now, the world's biggest governing party,

keeping history in check and paving the way for a future where it's strong man leader could rule for life.


CULVER: The timing of this resolution passing we must note, Max comes just days before what we expect to be a virtual meeting between President Xi

Jinping and U.S. President Joe Biden, that's likely to happen next week. So President Xi enters there's one on one talks having secured his base here,

certainly given him not that he needed it, but a boost of confidence.

FOSTER: Okay, David, thank you. Now, it was a handshake that changed history. Up next, to look at the complicated legacy of former South African

President, FW de Klerk, who shared a destiny with a Nobel Prize as well with Nelson Mandela, plus no water and dwindling hope the devastating

impact of climate change in Kenya.



FOSTER: Tributes are being paid to a key figure in South Africa's transition to democracy. Former President FW de Klerk, South Africa's last

apartheid leader has died at the age of 85. He shared the Nobel Peace Prize with Nelson Mandela in 1993.

Another Nobel laureate, South African Archbishop Desmond Tutu, has put out a statement saying, "May FW de Klerk rest in peace and rise in glory".

South African President Cyril Ramaphosa praise the late leader saying, "He took the courageous decision to unban political parties, release political

prisoners and enter into negotiations with the liberation movement amid severe pressure to the contrary from many in his political constituency".

CNN's David McKenzie joins us live from Johannesburg with more on de Klerk legacy, David.

DAVID MCKENZIE, CNN CORRESPONDENT: That's right Max. He has a complicated legacy. And it's worth mentioning you speak about Desmond Tutu, the Nobel

laureate, former archbishop, he just put out another statement a short time ago, saying, "de Klerk missed many chances.

He had to fully reconcile with all South Africans by acknowledging the full extent of the damage caused by a --, which is, it's telling and fascinating

that he felt the need to clarify, because this man is a real key figure in South Africa's democratic transition. But his legacy is certainly up for



MCKENZIE (voice over): FW de Klerk helped end generations of white minority rule in South Africa. But earlier in his career, there was little hint of

anything revolutionary. A deeply conservative de Klerk rose through the ranks of the national party during the most draconian periods of racist

apartheid rule.

MCKENZIE (voice over): Then as president on February 2, 1990.

FW DE KLERK, FORMER SOUTH AFRICAN PRESIDENT: We landed in a place which was morally unjustifiable. And I came to the realization I cannot build the

security of my people on the basis of injustice, towards a majority of all the people.

MCKENZIE (voice over): Some of his people, Africana South Africans, called the de Klerk, a traitor for releasing Nelson Mandela. But South Africa's

painstakingly negotiated democratic transition helped stave what many saw as inevitable Civil War.

KLERK: It was only in South Africa when we negotiate. And when Mandela sat across me and said, I will try to understand your concerns. You cannot

defuse tension unless the parties to the country start talking to each other.

MCKENZIE (voice over): De Klerk would jointly win the Nobel Peace Prize with Mandela, a move criticized by many and served as deputy president for

a time. But the last white president of South Africa, once called apartheid developmental policy, only truly repudiating it after an outcry.

Some South Africans felt that he had little moral authority to criticize a democratically elected government, as he frequently did. Over the years,

Mandela and de Klerk developed a strong mutual respect, even friendship; a symbol that de Klerk said represented what could be possible in a country

with such a painful past.


CULVER: Max, I remember very clearly the day that then statement President de Klerk announced the unbanning of the ANC and the freeing of Nelson

Mandela it was really something that came out of the blue.


CULVER: And even people I've spoken to who were in the room with him in the days and weeks before that moment had many of them no clue who would

actually make that decision.

So some people feel it was very courageous move at the say that it was just a pragmatic step, given the political scenario, and the fact that the

country could face a more chaos, and they were hanging on by a thread as a racist government.

So it is a fascinating legacy this man leaves. One thing I think is worth mentioning that touches on what Desmond Tutu says, there are families of

the victims of the notorious assassination squads of the apartheid government that feel that he will take secrets to his grave.

He always said in the reconciliation commission here in South Africa that the government had no official part, or at least the senior members of the

government had no official part of those death squads and assassination squads as something that many people find, or found very hard to believe.

So the true reconciliation that maybe never came also reflects the continued maybe lack of reconciliation in this country. Max?

FOSTER: And do we have any sense of how he might be remembered the funeral, you know, how public it will be? And perhaps, you know the sensitivities

around marking it in a particularly large way?

CULVER: It's a very good question. I think you will find that he will get a state funeral of some kind. They haven't announced the details. As a former

president, that is what owed to him, I guess is not necessarily the right word.

The current President Cyril Ramaphosa has praised his path, though and part of the transition of South Africa to democracy. And of course, de Klerk did

play a very important role in forging the new constitution, which is widely admired across the political spectrum here in South Africa.

So it will be interesting to see how the current government marks the passing of de Klerk. There is, you know, a great deal of animosity, either

for theatrics or genuinely from younger politicians here in South Africa, to the former leader, Max.

FOSTER: Okay, David in Johannesburg. Thank you. Now all this week, we've been focusing on the climate crisis and efforts to address it at the COP26

summit in Scotland. One consequence of climate change happening now is a second straight season of severe drought in parts of Kenya. Larry Madowo

shows us the devastating impact this drought is having on the animals and the people who live there.


LARRY MADOWO, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice over): Who leaves a cow by the roadside where it dropped dead? Only someone helpless watching her

livelihood crumble. Kenya has declared this year's drought a national disaster. But here in -- County, it is a personal tragedy for people like

Vasista Monje.

MADOWO (on camera): Every time one of her cows or cows drops, they can't raise it again because it's got no energy, there's no grass. And so this is

what's left of her herd.

MADOWO (voice over): The land has dried up, and the future looks uncertain. Shaky.

VASISTA MONJE, RESIDENT: I can't find grass and I have to buy water for them. That's the big burden I have.

MADOWO (voice over): Their livestock later the landscape here, they're dying faster than the owners can dispose of them, so they leave them to

rot. Thousands of livestock have died here from poor pasture conditions and water stress. Dama Ngala tells me she's worried sick about her dying herd.

MADOWO (on camera): This will be the eighth cow in two weeks that they have had to slaughter and no -- is the Kufa and she's afraid these two will go

as well. So that'll be the ninth and the 10th.

DAMA NGALA, RESIDENT: My family depends on these cows. Even the economy of this area is built around them. God show us the way because I don't know

what I'll do.

MADOWO (voice over): This once prosperous agricultural community has become a dusty, barren wasteland. The region has suffered two consecutive poor

rain seasons and has seen more frequent droughts over the past decade.

KELLY BANDA, CLIMATE ACTIVIST: Why are we -- should we go through this yet? There are people out there who are the biggest polluters who are making us

go to undergo through this kind of stress.

MADOWO (voice over): Kelly Banda is a lawyer who says the impact of climate change on his area, turned him into climate activists -- in his community

cope with a new reality.

MADOWO (on camera): What does it take here?

BANDA: The situation is going to worsen and I feel like my people are going to vanish, the whole situation is going to worsen people are going to die

more people are going to die.

MADOWO (voice over): Food and water have become scars for the people of Kilifi and the animals, a perfect storm for a community dependent on the

land and their livestock. The government distributes food aid to those most in need, but they say it's irregular and insufficient. The water got all

the way here.


MADOWO (voice over): A village elder shows me one of the many dams that have dried for months, leaving the people, animals and land thirsty. Some

have changed to producing charcoal to support their families, a major strain on the already depleted environment. This heat will sell for about

$4 hardly enough to feed one family for a day, let alone three.

MADOWO (on camera): It's rare to see older women they're all older than 60 doing this chocolate business, usually younger man. But to the drought

haven't hit this hard and many men having left the village, this is the only way they have a way to raise their families and to make a little cash.

MADOWO (voice over): A stone's throw away, Kilifi's coastline is a gem by the Indian Ocean. But even this marine ecosystem is under threat from

rising sea levels and destruction of the mangroves, but those who live around them. A local official also blames it on the world's worst


MADOWO (on camera): Because you live here, and you have to deal with the flooding and the hunger and the rising sea levels. And the deaths that this

leads to are you angry about it?

ZENA MOHAMMED, KILIFI DIRECTOR OF ENVIRONMENT: Of course, we're very angry about it, because they are not the cause of all these mess. There are

people in their countries that caused all this. Yeah, and they've been they continue doing so without fear without any commitment to reduce the


MADOWO (voice over): That evening, the community prays for blessings from above to come down, maybe a little rain to save their crops and their

animals. Africa contributes less than 5 percent of the greenhouse gases responsible for changes to the climate, but as a continent most vulnerable

to its consequences. Larry Madowo, CNN Kilifi.


FOSTER: Now one of India's holiest rivers is now coated with toxic foam as Hindus gather to celebrate a religious festival. Despite the possible

health risks a number of devotees have been wading through the polluted waters of the Yamuna River to bathe and to praise. And CNN's Vedika Sud is

near the river with more.

VEDIKA SUD, CNN REPORTER: What you see behind me is form, a thick layer of toxic form that covers part one of India's sacred rivers, the Yamuna that

passes through the National Capital Region. In the final report published in 2020 by the Yamuna Monitoring Committee, the cause for this toxic snow

like form is sewage, industrial waste, and the lack of fresh water.

In the last two days, hundreds of devotees have been thronging the banks of the Yamuna River to celebrate a Hindu festival. A part of the ritual is to

take a dip in the waters which according to medical experts, is hazardous because it could cause skin problems.

Well, this is not the first time you're seeing this thick layer of foam over the Yamuna, it's been happening over the years, but it worsens in the

winter seasons. In the last few days, the air quality index in parts of Delhi has been in the severe to very severe category.

According to the central government at least 24 projects have been commissioned to reduce. The pollution levels in the water only five have

been completed to allow. The Delhi government has been facing extreme criticism over the levels of pollution in the water.

New Delhi's water board has deployed workers to clean this foam using ropes and water sprinklers, a temporary and belated action to a problem that has

been persisting over the years in this region. Vedika Sud, Noida in Uttar Pradesh, CNN.

FOSTER: Stay up to date on some of the stories that we're following right now. The United Nations Security Council is calling for an immediate end to

violence in Myanmar. Statement comes amid reports of a Military buildup in a volatile region in western Myanmar ahead of a possible fight against

militia groups.

The Security Council wants the ruling Military hunter to ensure all civilians remain safe. Officials from the U.S. Russia, China and Pakistan

held sideline talks with senior Taliban Representatives today in Islamabad.

The countries agreed to continue practical engagement with the Taliban to encourage stability in Afghanistan. They also welcomed the Taliban's

commitment to allowing safe passage to travelers.

United Nations says it's not received any official explanation from Ethiopia as to why at least nine of its staff members are detained. It also

says 70 other people contracted by the U.N. and NGOs to drive eight trucks are also detained the trucks filled with supplies for Tigray are sitting

idle. Now coming up, one man's mission to restore Bangladesh's endangered turtle and tortoise species one step at a time.



FOSTER: Today on "Call to Earth" many of Bangladesh's turtle and tortoise species are under threat from poaching and destruction of their natural

habitat. Conservationists Shahriar Caesar Rahman has started a breeding center to help restore for those endangered species with the help of system

scientists from an indigenous community in southeast Bangladesh.


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: In a leafy corner of Bowell National Park, a high stakes courtship is taking place. The future of this critically endangered

species in Bangladesh depends on it. The Asian giant tortoise was thought to be extinct in the country until 10 years ago, when a few were discovered

in the wild with the help of this man. And now conservation biologist Shahriar Caesar Rahman is on a mission to bring them back.

SHAHRIAR CAESAR RAHMAN, CO-FOUNDER AND CEO, CREATIVE CONSERVATION ALLIANCE: We realize that if we want to prevent extinction of the species from

Bangladesh, we must take drastic efforts.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: Rahman runs a conservation and breeding center for four critically endangered species of turtle and tortoise in an effort to

help restore their populations in the wild.

RAHMAN: Unfortunately, most of the species are threatened with extinction. The major conservation challenges are hunting for food, fair trade and the

destruction of the freshwater ecosystem and forest habitats.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: On the front line is the Chittagong Hill Tracks, a remote region on the Bangladeshi border with India and Myanmar considered a

biodiversity hotspot, but one that is threatened by poaching logging in agricultural development.

Rahman first visited in 2011. And working with the indigenous and rural community, he and his team trained former hunters as para biologists, or

citizen scientists that collect data and monitor species to help protect local wildlife.

RAHMAN: We're empowering them to be the guardian of the ecosystem that they have been protecting for hundreds of years, those people become the ears

and ice for conservation. And eventually -- species are released back in the wild; these are the individuals who will be monitoring them every day.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: While there Rahman learned that a few Asian giant tortoises still existed in the region and the idea for the breeding center

was born. These juveniles have been bred from specimens rescued from hunters by Rahman's team of parabiologist like Passing Mro.

PASSING MRO, PARABIOLOGIST: In the past, our family hunted, but today, we don't hunt the tortoises. We make people understand not to hunt them as

they are on the verge of extinction. I feel very happy to work on it. If we don't, the tortoises will have vanished from the world.


RAHMAN: The captive bread's critically endangered Asian giant tortoises, which are bred here in our center for the first time in Bangladesh. We'll

be releasing these individuals back in the wild, end of this year.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: His hopes for the future of this species in Bangladesh, slow and steady wins the race.

RAHMAN: I do believe there are reasons to be optimistic. And it all depends on us and the future generation to make the decision and to take action.


FOSTER: Well do let us know what you're doing to answer the call with the #Call to Earth. We'll be right back.


FOSTER: Another four member crew is now on its way to the International Space Station after blasting off Wednesday night aboard a SpaceX rocket

from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Florida docking with the space station is scheduled in just a few hours' time after that the U.S. and

European astronauts will spend six months conducting experiments.

This is the fourth time NASA is using SpaceX, a private company, which sends crew members to the space station of course. CNN's Space and Defense

Correspondent Kristin Fisher joins us from Washington DC. How did this one go? Then it appears to be very smooth.

KRISTIN FISHER, CNN SPACE AND DEFENSE CORRESPONDENT: Hey, Max, I'm having a bit of a hard time hearing in my ear. But I mean can we just talk about the

fact that nighttime launches are by far the best. I mean, that was such a spectacular launch from NASA and SpaceX.

And remember, this was the crew that was supposed to launch on Halloween. First it was delayed due to weather, then it was delayed due to a minor

medical issue involving one of the astronauts but last night you saw that picture perfect launch from the Kennedy Space Center.

And Max, what really stood out to me was the fact that SpaceX has now launched 18 people into space in 18 months, just an extraordinary explosion

in human spaceflight.

When over the last decade or so, between when NASA retired the space shuttle fleet and now there were no human launches from U.S. soil and so

we're really getting to see the dream of NASA and SpaceX in particular, working hard to make spaceflight human spaceflight.

Quick turnarounds, quick flights making this all happen at a very rapid rate, it is finally coming to fruition. And so, the other thing that was so

fascinating from last night's launch is crew too returned on Monday they splashdown in the Gulf of Mexico.

And then just 47 hours later, SpaceX and NASA were able to turn it around different capsule, but still you've got all those crews trying to work

together to make a second launch happen.

And they did that just 47 hours later, the first time in human spaceflight history that that is ever happened. So Max, here in the United States and

really around the world, we're starting to get used to this explosion in human spaceflight once again, Max.

FOSTER: Yeah, it's definitely keeping you busy. Kristin, thank you very much indeed now French professional football player has been arrested in

connection with an alleged attack on her teammates. The club says Aminata Diallo was taken into custody after teammate was brutally beaten last week.

CNN Cyril Vanier has more from Paris.



CYRIL VANIER, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice over): This is a very mysterious and deeply troubling story first reporting by the French Sports Daily Mckeith,

that is raising serious questions about possible player on player violence within the PSG women's soccer team.

The clubs have confirmed the 26 year old Aminata Diallo was arrested at her home outside Paris early on Wednesday in connection with last week's

assault on a teammate.

Multiple reports identify that teammate as Kheira Hamraoui. According to the keep the timeline of the story is this. Kheira Hamraoui was being

driven home by Diallo after a team dinner on Thursday when she was pulled from the car by Masks assailants, who then beat her with an iron bar

focusing on her legs.

They keep sight of source saying that strangely nothing was stolen during the attack and Diallo was not beaten. At this stage we don't know what

information what evidence Police are working on whether Diallo is indeed involved in this and if so how, but it's impossible not to notice that they

play the same position for club and country.

And when Hamraoui is sidelined, for whatever reason, it means more opportunity for the younger Diallo as was the case in Tuesday's game

against Real Madrid. And Rory is currently at the peak of her football powers. She won the Champions League last season.

She is the starting midfielder for PSG and a veteran on the French national team. And when injury kept her away from the Women's World Cup qualifiers

last month, Diallo was called on the squad to help fill that spots.

In a statement, PSG say they have taken all necessary measures since the assault to protect their players. CNN is also seeking comment from Diallo,

from Hamraoui and from the prosecutors. Cyril Vanier, CNN, Paris.


FOSTER: Thanks for joining us. "One World" is next with Eleni Giokos. Do stay with CNN.