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Urgent Calls for Change as U.N. Climate Conference Opens; WFP Estimates 22 Million People are at Risk of Starvation across Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia; Ron DeSantis seen as Trump's Biggest Republican Rival in 2024; South Africa's Energy Dilemma; Iranian Lawmakers call for Severe Punishments for "Rioters"; Climate Activist Confronts European Commission President. Aired 11a-12p ET
Aired November 07, 2022 - 11:00 ET
THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT. THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED.
BECKY ANDERSON, CNNI HOST: Well, I'm Becky Anderson at COP27 Sharm el- Sheikh in Egypt. Hello and welcome to the second of our special climate coverage here on "Connect the World".
Well, the calls to combat climate change are urgent. How to act on them with speed and as just as importantly, equity coming into focus at the
start of this climate summit here in Egypt? Hundreds of world leaders and top diplomats gathered here for the better part of two weeks to find an off
ramp for what the UN Secretary General today called a highway to climate hell.
Well, this is just a second Climate Summit held in the Middle East in the past decade, particularly noteworthy in a region with economies tied to
fossil fuel production, but also looking for innovative ways to get desperately needed help for a region, which is at risk and to developing
nations that bear the brunt of the climate crisis one such example of coordination the United Arab Emirates where I am based.
And host of the next year's Climate Summit and the U.S. reaching agreement to spend $100 billion on clean energy projects, there are calls for other
nations to do similar things to follow the UAE's example and do more to help lower income countries.
Well, CNN's David McKenzie back with me this hour. We are on a road to climate hell look, Antonio Guterres never want to, to mince his words when
it comes to climate crisis. But the beginning of an event like this, it is important to point out just how bad things are David?
DAVID MCKENZIE, CNN SENIOR INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: They are bad and the stakes couldn't be higher, Becky. Of course, we are playing catch up
now. Because the emissions that are going out are more each year, they're not being cut enough.
Some countries are putting aggressive plans to cut those emissions, but they what's known as mitigation here, but we're going to blow past that 1.5
degrees Celsius Paris Agreement to mark far beyond that, in fact.
And if you already see the impact of the climate crisis floods in Pakistan, the drought in the Horn of Africa and East Africa, all across the world,
the worlds most vulnerable are dealing with the impacts. One big topic of discussion here is known as loss and damage.
What that means is we are beyond the phase of trying to adapt to the climate crisis in some countries, there needs to be money put up to help
people survive. And I spoke to Mohamed Adow who's with the Powershift Africa, and he explains what's at stake very clearly.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
MOHAMED ADOW, DIRECTOR, POWERSHIFT AFRICA: What we have is a system that has largely been set up by the historic polluters that has over the years
prioritized mitigation, which means cutting emissions and has failed to deliver those cuts.
And as a result, we now have to adapt, but not just adapt, we also have to actually prepare for any eventuality where our adaptation limits are going
to be exceeded. What is called loss and damage in this process?
And so because the historic polluter wants to actually keep the focus on mitigation, and particularly by the big emitters, they haven't provided the
support system, particularly for the vulnerable on the frontlines, who already suffering climate in personnel.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
ANDERSON: What's realistic to expect from this meeting?
MCKENZIE: Well, the problem is, is that rich nations didn't even want to get to this point until very recently. You know, it's really interesting. I
mentioned the Pakistan flood several players involved in these negotiations say it was those floods and the worldwide attention from us and other news
agencies that went to them that really pushed some rich countries over the edge to acknowledge that funding needs to happen.
The problem is they haven't even agreed yet on dollar amounts or even how this facility will work. And rich nations are very careful not to want to
be compensating as if they are at fault for this even though they are. And the liability issue is very tricky one because there could be open ended
lawsuits as the climate impacts build up.
So what people are saying they need to move beyond this kind of blame game? And they need to be a partnership as the African Union Head said between
rich countries and developing countries to try and figure this out somehow, because the most vulnerable are those who will be the most effective.
ANDERSON: David McKenzie in the house with us some more from David in the days to come as we continue to press those who are here for solutions for
those who are impacted most. Well, earlier I spoke with the President of the European Commission, Ursula Von Der Leyen who was here at the
conference. Have a listen.
URSULA VON DER LEYEN, PRESIDENT, EUROPEAN COMMISSION: We have to accelerate. And this COP 27 now is about implementation. Via my very clear
messages for of the European Union we are on track. We have cast in law our climate targets not just put targets out but cast them in law.
LEYEN: Minus 55 percent to 2030 and climate neutral 2050. And now we have to accelerate. We've put forward, I think, the most ambitious legislative
package now worldwide to achieve these goals.
ANDERSON: Given the war in Ukraine, the consequent energy crisis in Europe and the fall back on fossil fuels, at least in the short term, certainly
the EU hasn't increased its pledge for 55 percent cut in emissions by 2030 is an increase given what Europe is going through specifically, in order to
help the fight is an increase out of the question.
LEYEN: So here is important, this is really a decisive moment. You're absolutely right what to describe. We are completely getting rid of our
fossil fuel dependency from Russia. And now it's the crucial moment not to be locked in, and other fossil fuels from other suppliers, but to leapfrog
forward and accelerating the renewables.
And therefore, for this year, that's the International Energy Agency that estimated Europe will be able to double its additional renewable energy
deployment. And next year, if we accelerate, and if we scale up, as we are planning, then we're able to quadruple this additional renewable energy,
its 100 Giga watt that I'm speaking of.
This whole energy demand from Russia that is we are winding down. If we do it, right, we'll shift it through the global south, when you have
renewables, and here mainly hydrogen, I'm signing for example, three hydrogen MO use on this COP 27, with Egypt, with Libya and Namibia and with
Kazakhstan. And if we do it right, we immediately do this jump forward to infrastructure. That is hydrogen ready.
ANDERSON: That's and I understand that and that is good news. But that is long term at this point. Short term in 2015, the world sign up to $100
billion a year funds for the poorer countries, because there was an understanding that they needed financing on adaptation and mitigation two
questions. The world hasn't ponied up that money. The U.S. is way behind. That's wrong, isn't it?
LEYEN: It is wrong, we have to do more. Europe is doing its fair share $23 billion or Euros. We've said we're going to pledge that last year, we did
it. And we're going to give more than 23 billion euros this year, too. But you're right. I mean, there's still a gap. And this gap has to be filled.
ANDERSON: Loss and damage is the phrase that viewers will hear a lot about here compensating poorer countries for the loss and damage caused by
climate change. Pakistan is the poster child in the most awful way for that 1000 lives lost this year 40 billion, the price of damage. The EU and other
developed countries are frankly, not interested in engaging in a conversation about loss and damage why?
LEYEN: I think loss and damage the discussion about is very important. And therefore I'm happy that it's an agenda point, this time at COP 27. It
wasn't so far. There's a lot of work ahead of us to define what is loss and damage, and then to look into the possible funds to compensate. So that's
the work that's now ahead of us. And therefore it's good that it is on the agenda at that specific point, we're going to discuss.
ANDERSON: Because the EU of course and briefly blocked a proposal at last year's UN climate talks to establish a fund agreeing instead to simply
dialogue. Can you imagine this call could go some distance towards that fund for loss and damage realistic?
LEYEN: It may be. It depends on the discussion. We're the first day of the COP 27 and it's going to last two weeks and the negotiations will only
start. But as I said, it's already a big step forward that it is an agenda point. So there has to be a deliverable on it.
ANDERSON: Ursula Von Der Leyen speaking to me earlier. Well, it is important that we remember the effects that climate change is having on all
of us on our diets, higher temperatures, killed crops and livestock while destroying fertile soil up.
Our oceans are vulnerable to climate shocks are depleting fish inventory and cutting off vital transport links increased flooding wiping away
infrastructure and causing havoc for farmers. [11:10:00]
ANDERSON: The bottom line, people all over the world are already facing hunger caused by climate change. Joining me to detail exactly what type of
catastrophe we could be facing and what sort of solutions might be available are the World Food Programme Chief and good friend of the show,
David Beasley. It's good to have you here! It's important to have you here. What are you seeing out there?
DAVID BEASLEY, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, WORLD FOOD PROGRAMME: Well, Becky, if not good. And just when you think it can't get any worse it does, whether
it's a Pakistan flooding, or whether it's droughts in Somalia, the Horn of Africa, we've seen it all over the world.
I was just in the United States, this past week talking with farmers in the Midwest, and we're talking about just devastated drought on the grain
production. So you thought it couldn't get any worse when you and I talked months ago, before the Ukraine crisis, because we had seen 80 million
people marching towards starvation five years ago, go to 135 million rights before COVID.
COVID comes along just devastates the poorest of the poor, the number goes from 135 to 276 million people not knowing where the next meal is coming
from? So you think it can't get any worse. Ukraine, breadbasket of the world, now, Becky, we're talking about 345 million people on the planet,
not knowing where the next meal is? And 50 million of them in 45 countries are knocking on famines door.
ANDERSON: You have been raising the alarm of climate change for years. And as you rightly point out, that was way before the Ukraine war. I just want
to press you on one point associated with that, how important is it that the Black Sea grain deal is reactivated?
I mean, the ships are on the move just. But that's only because the Russians are have accepted that they should be back in that deal. How
important is that the movement of that grain at this point?
BEASLEY: Well, given what we're facing today, around the world, because of droughts like in the horn, and other places where you've had four harvest
seasons of worst droughts we've ever seen in 50 years in Syria, and I go on and on.
We don't have time to play with moving grains and trade around the world. So when you look at Russia, Ukraine, 30 percent of the world's supply of
wheat comes from that region. 20 percent of the world's supply of corn comes from that region. The fertilizer number one producer of fertilizer in
the world exporter is Russia.
I don't care if you love or hate Russia, that fertilizer, and these grains need to be moved in because right now production around the world is down
because of climate. And you think is bad now? Well, we got a pricing problem right now, next year; you're going to have a food availability
problem, unless we are all hands on deck all over the world.
ANDERSON: So that means what? Talk to me about the sorts of solutions that you want, at least discussed in principle here is not actually affected.
BEASLEY: There are actually two or three things. Number one, move the grains. Open the Black Sea; make certain that's less necessarily critical.
Number two, safety net programs in the short term so nations can survive and not destabilize and number three, while you're debating mitigation we
got to have adaptation on the ground so that people can survive.
And if you don't, you will have destabilization and you will have mass migration. And maybe that costs 1000 times more than move to go in and do
it right. When we go into places like the Sahara, where you have drought after drought and very little water and do land rehabilitation programs,
harvesting the water, things like that in like school meals.
Here's what happens. Teen pregnancy drops, marriage rate of 12, 13 year old drops, migration drops. Recruitment by ISIS, Al Qaeda, Boko Haram and
extremist groups drops. It's a lot cheaper to go in advance and that's why early warning systems and adaptation programs are critical.
And so donors, you don't have enough money right now to fund everything you want to fund. You've got to look at what are the icebergs in front of the
Titanic versus rearranging the chairs on the Titanic.
And right now the leaders in the world have got to prioritize. They got to end wars help have safety net programs for countries that are very
vulnerable and less have adaptation programs.
ANDERSON: You make a very good point. And governments around the world have an enormous amount on their plate and, you know, to a certain extent could
be forgiven for reprioritizing where they are at?
Enter the private sector how important is it that as we continue this journey that Antonio Guterres has suggested is a journey to climate hell at
this point? If we ought to prevent that, how does the private sector help? And are you an advocate for these private public partnerships, catalyzing
cash to ensure it gets to the people who need it most?
BEASLEY: Yes, so there is a couple of things here. Number one, when you think about climate financing, 80 times more of the money goes to non-
fragile states than the most extreme fragile states. So hello, what are we doing wrong there?
Number two on the private sector. I've been clear all along that the answer to poverty and hunger is not charity. And that's important. It really is.
We need the charity. And so as I've been saying, to Elon Musk, and Bezos and others, look, you've made so much money during COVID, please, we need a
few extra billion dollars to get through this crisis that we're having right now.
But more importantly, I need the private sector to engage help take ownership of addressing and resolving these issues in the poorest of the
poor countries. Because when the private sector engages, and designs and develops and implements the systems that are needed for supply chain, well,
you end poverty, and you end hunger.
ANDERSON: Are you seeing enough evidence of that at this point?
BEASLEY: And - evidence of it. Maybe that much evidence. I think they're starting to step into the game more than they had before. But as I tell
them, I said, look, a nice photo op, give him some money to a nice little program. No, no, you need to engage in a big, big way.
When it happens to happen now, Becky, and as I've been meeting with private sector, from big companies, to small companies, particularly the big
companies, I said, look, you need to be willing to come into these countries and make a little less over a longer period of time to stabilize
and create supply chain and successful systems. If you do that we'll all win-win.
ANDERSON: David Beasley here with me in Sharm el-Sheikh always good to see you, sir!
BEASLEY: Good to see you.
ANDERSON: Thank you. Up next on "Connect the World" Election Day eve, we are just hours from polls opening across the United States and Joe Biden is
hoping to help his party maintain control of Congress. And is Donald Trump's fault Republican candidates he seems to have his eye on a bigger
prize in the future more on that, after this.
ANDERSON: Well, we are in the final hours of the U.S. midterm election campaign and candidates across the country making their final pitch to
voters ahead of Election Day on Tuesday. Well, a handful of Senate races are likely to determine which party controls that branch of Congress? The
closest races are in Nevada and Georgia and Pennsylvania but Wisconsin, North Carolina, New Hampshire and Arizona also appear to be extremely tight
Well, Joe Biden has largely avoided campaigning in those states because of his low approval ratings, but he didn't make an appearance in Pennsylvania
on Saturday alongside his Former Boss Barack Obama. Well, our MJ Lee is at the White House.
ANDERSON: And MJ the story with the president hasn't been where or when, or he's been campaigning as much as why he hasn't been where he hasn't been.
Why is he been staying away?
MJ LEE, CNN WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT: You know, first of all, it has been a busy final stretch for this president. We saw him out on the campaign
trail over the weekend and then later today, we will see him hit the campaign trail again, in Maryland. But you're absolutely right, that he has
had to be selective in where exactly he goes.
And we've not necessarily seen him holding political rallies with some of the most vulnerable candidates. And that is simply because of the political
reality, as you pointed out, he's not necessarily in demand in some of these places where these candidates would like to run on his agenda, the
legislative accomplishments of the Democratic Party, but not necessarily stand on stage with the president.
Now, that having been said, of course, when the president has hit the road, we have seen him in a broader way; sell that message about the Democratic
Party's accomplishment and really his own agenda. We've also seen one central theme that's really emerged over the last week or so.
And that is the president taking on election deniers and campaigning for Democratic candidates who are running against Republican election deniers
and skeptics, that has been a very important theme, not just in this election, but remember, going all the way back to the 2020 presidential
campaign would really that was one of the central reasons that he decided to run for president in the first place.
Now, what we are going to see later today is the president heading to Maryland, as I said to campaign for Wes Moore, he is the gubernatorial
candidate there and Democrats are feeling good about that race. It just goes to show that Democrats are warning the president to end this midterm
campaign season on a bright spot because that is a race that they feel good about. But it may end up turning out to be a night where there aren't very
many bright spots for Democrats tomorrow.
ANDERSON: Thank you. That's the story on the Democrat side. Donald Trump meantime has been very active on the campaign trail in recent days rallying
for hand-picked Republican candidates and dropping hints about his desire to run for president again in 2024.
On Sunday that took him to Florida, the home state of Governor Ron DeSantis, who many says Trump's biggest 2024 rival in the Republican Party.
And it may tell you something about that relationship that DeSantis did not appear at Trump's Florida rally.
CNN's Steve Contorno covers Florida politics for us and he joins us now. There will be many watching this internationally, who don't know very much
about Ron DeSantis. So just explain why it is that Donald Trump might see him as a threat and hence perhaps why he is using nicknames to mock said,
STEVE CONTORNO, CNN REPORTER: Well, Ron DeSantis is someone who became very popular among Republicans during the pandemic, at a time when the lot of
the country was locking down their economies, requiring people to mask requiring people to get vaccinated. Florida eschewed all of that, which was
pretty consequential because it is the country's third largest state.
And DeSantis became a sort of Republican star in that moment and has in some ways, reached the president's popularity levels, with a lot of
Republicans across the country. And DeSantis is someone who actually owes a bit of his political past and his political stardom to President Trump.
Trump endorsed him during a very consequential primary in Florida, helped him win election in 2018. And now DeSantis, in many ways, is his biggest
rival going into a potential 2024 presidential primary and we are starting to see that relationship fray in the public in these closing weeks of the
We've seen Trump criticizing DeSantis on social media; we've seen DeSantis endorsing a candidate who is vocally anti-Trump. And then this past
weekend, as you said there was a rally Trump had in Pennsylvania, where he called DeSantis Ron De-Sanctimonious, not one of his catchy nicknames, but
nonetheless, it's something he tends to do when he spots a political rival merging.
CONTORNO: And DeSantis held events in Florida separate from Trump over the weekend as well, when the both candidates were here, really showing that
these guys in a moment when parties typically come together, there's quite a wedge in between them and it is being driven all through about 2024
ANDERSON: Understood. Join us folks Tuesday for in-depth special coverage of what are these crucial U.S. midterm elections that will determine
control of congress starting Tuesday night nine in London, that's 1a.m. in Abu Dhabi, if that's where you're watching, and I'm sure you can work out
the times wherever you are in the world if it is not London, or Abu Dhabi.
Well, Ukraine's President warns Russia could potentially use Iranian missiles to launch additional strikes on the country's power grid.
President Zelenskyy says about four and a half million Ukrainians are currently without power.
And that comes as Ukraine faces even more blackouts nationwide today in an attempt to reduce the strain on its energy infrastructure. Meanwhile,
Kyiv's mayor says his city is preparing for the worst case scenario that Washington attacks could potentially leave residents without heat,
electricity and without water this winter.
Well, many Ukrainians are already living out their worst nightmare. They have no idea what happened to their loved ones to join the fight against
Russia after the invasion began in February. CNN's Nic Robertson followed a Ukrainian military team attempting to find soldiers lost in battle. And a
warning his report contains graphic content and maybe just maybe difficult for you to watch.
NIC ROBERTSON, CNN INTERNATIONAL DIPLOMATIC EDITOR (voice over): Somewhere in this forlorn corner of a not so forgotten battlefield, six Ukrainian
soldiers are missing, believed dead. Leonid Bondar and his two man military recovery team have come to look for them.
LEONID BONDAR, UKRAINIAN ARMY SEARCH & RECOVERY UNIT: It's important for their families, for us for the country, that we bring them home.
ROBERTSON (voice over): They are the first to search since Ukraine retook this area from Russian troops six weeks ago. Dangers abound, mine's a
deadly menace, he explains. Russians shelled then overran the position late spring. What happened in the soldiers final moments and to their mortal
remains is the mystery Bondar and his team has come to solve. Lives ended in an instant. Now perhaps their story's not over.
BONDAR: We worked out the possibility of the bodies flying after the explosion and thus found the remains of two more fighters.
ROBERTSON (voice over): By the end of the first day, Bondar is finding clues and something else to something he feared Russian inhumanity.
ROBERTSON (on camera): There's a bit of metal from ammunition cases here and bone fragments a piece perhaps from a leg piece of skull over here. The
investigators think that perhaps the Russians tried to burn the bodies.
ROBERTSON (voice over): The following day, the team back digging in the bunker where they think the soldiers head during the shelling. Meanwhile,
Bondar collects the bones of a soldier thrown from the blast. Every fragment recovered a possible DNA lead and potential solace for loved ones.
And then he discovers a ring, helpful for identification he says, but the bones also confirmation of what he feared. Russians callously burned this
fallen soldier's body.
BONDAR: This is not the first time we have encountered a situation where the norms of humanity are neglected and soldiers are not properly buried.
ROBERTSON (voice over): Back in the bunker important finds bone fragments there hunch the soldiers huddled here getting traction. Then the
unexpected, other Ukrainian soldiers take the team to a dead Russian soldier they've just discovered nearby.
His remains recorded recovered, given the same respect as their own fallen. In the bunker, more progress several bodies located beneath the rubble.
Come on home brother, Leonid whispers as the fallen soldier's broken body gently is free.
ROBERTSON (voice over): Then the next soldier gun in hand is pried out, his documents located. Thank you for helping us identifies you, Bondar tells
BONDAR: We've seen five of our fellow servicemen; questions remain about one more body. When we raise these, we will see if he is there top.
ROBERTSON (voice over): Those found soon to be reunited with their grieving families. Their final moments better understood. Bondar and his team vow to
keep searching for the sick.
ROBERTSON (on camera): They know they may not be able to find out all the details of how these soldiers died. The only certainty here is that as long
as the war goes on, their job is far from over. Nic Robertson CNN, Druzhkivka, Ukraine.
ANDERSON: Welcome back, I'm Becky Anderson in Sharm el-Sheikh and you are watching a special edition of "Connect the World". Well as we've been
reporting the latest installment in the global efforts to fight climate change is now underway here in Sharm el-Sheikh.
This is COP27 as its known and this meeting kicked off with a grim warning from the Head of the UN Antonio Guterres told the world quoting now we are
on a highway to climate hell with our foot. He said still on the accelerator.
Over his part, the Egyptian president who's hosting these other world leaders here is earning urging this climate science to make progress for
the sake of future generations, have a listen.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
ABDEL FATTAH EL-SISI, EGYPTIAN PRESIDENT: Here and now we are facing a unique historical moment, a last chance to meet our responsibilities,
implementation, implementation, implementation.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
ANDERSON: Well, let's be clear. This is a meeting hosted by Egypt's which is set to highlight the very real challenges faced by Africa and the global
south in adapting to and mitigating the effects of climate change, forcing change on poor countries is simply not going to work without providing
financing to help smooth a real transition to cleaner energy.
ANDERSON: And nowhere is that more obvious than in a country like South Africa. CNN's Eleni Giokos shows this.
ELENI GIOKOS, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice over): A community living in the shadows of power lines with no access to the electricity that towers above
them, water that arrives in trucks and using coal as their main source of energy.
MARTHA, EMALAHLENI RESIDENT: Is another way you can do anything, paraffin, it's expensive. Gas is expensive.
GIOKOS (voice over): For Martha, everything comes from this cold stove, the food, heat, and the dirty air they breathe.
MARTHA: Well, some of them they have got TB and asthma because we're using this.
GIOKOS (voice over): Her home, a microcosm of South Africa's dilemma, an abundance of coal and the most unequal country in the world. That's dealing
with a crippling power crisis 34 percent unemployment with the potential of cleaner sources of energy. For many like Martha living here, the thought of
abandoning coal means more economic hardship.
MARTHA: Going to be paid. I don't want to lie. Many people have lost their jobs because of those contracts.
GIOKOS (voice over): We're in Witbank, known as - it means the place of coal in the Nguni language. This is also where I grew up. Mining has been
going on here since 1890. Greenpeace says it's the most polluted place on earth. The Mpumalanga province has the world's highest nitrogen dioxide
GIOKOS (on camera): I wish you could smell this. It's sulfur, its rotten egg. This is how you know you've arrived in Witbank.
GIOKOS (voice over): My first stop the National Union of Mineworkers officers. MALEKUTU BIZZAH MOTUBATSE, HIGHVELD CHAIRPERSON, NATIONAL UNION
OF MINEWORKERS: We can say 80 percent if not 90 are looking at their mines.
GIOKOS (voice over): 90 percent of South Africans electricity comes from coal. The majority of power stations and mines are here in Mpumalanga. Now,
the wheels of change are turning during COP26, South Africa committed to transitioning away from coal. The country's Minister of Mineral Resources
and Energy has an ominous warning for the fate of 10 towns.
GWADE MANTASHE, SOUTH AFRICAN MINISTER OF MINERAL RESOURCES & ENERGY: Those are the homes of the coal mining dealt which is the home of a number of
politicians and if you can just read it off once. That means you've got a culture --.
GIOKOS (on camera): It is the end of an era for Komati power station that was built in the early 1960s. And it is the first of South Africa's aging
coal fired power plants to be decommissioned. By the time you see this, it'll be completely switched off.
ANGEL MOKWENA, DAUGHTER OF KOMATI EMPLOYEE: My dad works.
GIOKOS (voice over): Angel Mokwena is dealing with the uncertainty firsthand.
GIOKOS (on camera): How does it feel that your father might lose his job? Are you scared?
MOKWENA: If he doesn't work, who's going to provide for us?
GIOKOS (voice over): As Komati commodity employees leave the plants on its final days; they do so knowing they will also be left jobless.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: When Eskom is closed, everything is finished.
GIOKOS (voice over): Eskom is repurposing Komati to solar and wind with no start date announced.
GIOKOS (on camera): Just transition, do you understand what that means?
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: No, no. I don't understand.
GIOKOS (on camera): They didn't tell you at the mines, the Eskom --.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: No, not anyone came.
GIOKOS (on camera): Do you know that the coal mining industry is going to be over?
UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: No, we didn't know.
GIOKOS (on camera): Do you understand that South Africa's trying to transition out of coal?
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: I haven't heard anything yet.
GIOKOS (voice over): The West hypocrisy when it comes to re-firing up coal plants because of the Russian invasion of Ukraine hasn't gone unnoticed.
KOPI MATSHASHA, NUM BRANCH CHAIR, MIDDLEBURG MINE COLLIERY: We are not affording to grain energy. But we are saying it is premature for us to move
to grain energy.
GIOKOS (voice over): The people living here face a stark future. They can literally smell taste and touch the danger all around them. But can they
survive if it is taken away?
ANDERSON: Well, Eleni Giokos joins me now here at COP. This is really important that we see what is going on at the coalface and excuse the pun
for that. Because there's two sides of an equation here isn't it when we talk about energy transition.
There are clear issues about the decimation of an industry like the coal industry and the effect that has on a population like that was you in-feed.
And then on the on the flip side, you know clear promises being made. That energy transition will bring job growth will re-energize areas that might
otherwise have sort of slipped away. Never the twain shall meet at present, what sorts of promises and or investment is a community likes to see?
GIOKOS: So there's a working policy document right now that's promising jobs, that is going to be more than one for one. And then you speak to coal
mining CEOs, and you speak to industries, specialists and they're saying, one for one jobs, that's not going to happen, we need to be realistic.
And then you look at the experience of the people on the ground that are so intertwined in this industry that's been going on for over a century and
they even know that they are in the middle of this transition, while there's a power crisis and an energy deficit playing out.
Let me tell you Becky, when I speak to African leaders, executives and other conferences, not at COP, they are unapologetic about the fact that
African needs to industrialize, the jobs are priority and that Africa needs to use its own resources to do, so they're aware of a climate emergency.
But for them the emergency of this generation is inequality is the fact that women need to use fossil fuels to cook for their families every single
ANDERSON: So how do you then equate that with the sort of promises not yet effected and the sort of funding not yet actually delivered that says,
everybody gets it, we're on a climate to, we're on a climate route to hell, we have to concentrate on the global south, they will get our resource.
GIOKOS: So on this road to hell, the money is not coming to emerging markets. They're saying that, you know, we've got to make it bankable
projects, we've got to create, we've got to de-risk projects in Africa, we'll guess what you can't de-risk projects in a low income country or a
middle income country, that's difficult to do.
The pages that have been put on the table, how much of that is really flown into emerging markets, it's a little miniscule amount. I think, like 5
percent of the $100 billion that was promised a few years ago.
The money that has been promised to South Africa, that eight and a half billion during COP26, that money has not filtered through, but that of
course, comes with caveats, it comes with a lot of rules. South Africa is still paying off a World Bank loan in 2010 that was approved.
That was specifically for building a coal fired power plant $3.75 billion, 700 million of that went to renewables. So there's so much irony, hypocrisy
that people are telling me that they're very aware of and the reality is for the people on the ground, they are going to be the collateral damage as
what they're telling me.
ANDERSON: Lot to talk, let's see if there's action, at least from this meeting, meantime, important to remember that at the coalface it's people's
livelihoods, at stake. Coming up, demonstrations breakout in western Iran in the hometown of a woman allegedly killed by Iranian security forces as
the country's lawmaker's call for no leniency for convicted protesters.
Plus young people demanding change for the world they are about to inherit. You'll hear from one activist who isn't waiting for action. I'm Becky
Anderson; you're watching "Connect the World", stay with us.
ANDERSON: Iranian lawmakers are calling for severe punishment for so-called rioters. According to reports from state run media, MPs wrote a letter to
the country's judiciary, suggesting those found guilty of taking part in a nationwide uprising be shown, "no leniency".
Well, this comes amid renewed protests in the city of Mariwan, that's hometown of Kurdish Iranian woman who died over the weekend allegedly
killed at the hands of Iranian security forces. Well, CNN's Jomana Karadsheh following these developments, she is based in Istanbul in Turkey.
What do we know at this point?
JOMANA KARADSHEH, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Well, Becky, really shocking news, again, coming from Iran, the country's lawmakers 227 out of 290 signing
this letter on Sunday, urging the authorities the judiciary to show no leniency towards the protesters essentially describing the demonstrators as
ISIS fighters and saying that they should receive the harshest of sentences.
And a lot of people believe this meant the death penalty. And this is what they were calling for and saying that these verdicts must be issued fast to
deter others. Of course, Becky, this is coming when you have more than 14,000 men, women and children who've been arrested in Iran since
September. More than thousands of them have been indicted, many of them facing charges that carry the death penalty in the Islamic Republic.
So you have human rights defenders who are very concerned that you are hearing this sort of statements coming from hardliners in the country that
these sorts of this sort of rhetoric is really an indication of what might be coming soon as a lot of these protesters are facing what human rights
groups describe as these sham trials. But Becky, the threat of these verdicts, the death penalty arrests, the violent crackdown that we've been
seeing on the streets, none of this seems to be stopping the protesters, protests continuing through the weekend and again today as well. The focus
of the protests has been in the city of Mariwan as you mentioned in the Kurdish region of the country. According to the Kurdish human rights group
Hengaw, they say that at least 35 protesters were injured when security forces opened fire on them on Sunday.
What triggered these protests is the death of an Iranian Kurdish Iranian woman Nasrin Ghaderi. According to Hengaw, they say that she was taking
part in the protests that she was active on social media, very vocal in her support for the protest movement and they say that she was killed by
security forces that beat her on the head with batons.
She was in hospital and died on Saturday. Authorities Becky are saying that she died of poisoning and that she had pre-existing health conditions. Her
family saying she died of the flu. But you and I have had these discussions over the past couple of months where authorities have blamed the deaths of
several young protesters on natural causes and suicides.
And you've got human rights organizations and the UN saying that their families are under a great deal of pressure to absolve security forces of
responsibility and that they're constantly harassed to try and hide the truth, Becky.
ANDERSON: Jomana Karadsheh is reporting for you, Joe, thank you. Well, Iran's beach Football Federation says it will deal with players who showed
solidarity with Iranian protesters. During an international tournament in Dubai, the Iranian player who scored the winning goal against Brazil
celebrated by pretending to cut his hair.
Beach Football Federation says political behavior should be avoided on the athletic field. Well, action, not words, that's the cry from youngsters
here at the COP27 Summit in Sharm el-Sheikh in Egypt. After the break, you'll meet one young activist who is literally getting in the face of
world leaders, that after this.
ANDERSON: Well, turning promises into action that seems to be one of the biggest challenges here at COP27. Some of the loudest voices demanding
action and accountability are young people and school kids to Greta Thunberg, the leaders of tomorrow want action today.
Well, many of them aren't here in Egypt. Well, my next guest is, she's one of those young leaders who confronted European Commission President Ursula
von der Leyen at this summit. Dominika Lasota urged her to fight for renewable energy expansion and for the EU not to make deals for more fossil
fuels saying, "You cannot fight fire with file".
Dominika Lasota joining us now live. Before we get into your confrontation with Ursula von der Leyen, tell me why you are here today and what you hope
you can achieve?
DOMINIKA LASOTA, POLISH CLIMATE ACTIVIST: Well, first of all, I think, you know, we are here gathering in Sharm el-Sheikh in a very, very interesting,
but also very difficult time. You know, it's been months into the Russian aggression in Ukraine, we've been facing incredible energy crisis across
And obviously, we're facing the destructive effects of the climate emergency. And so the reason why we came here and the reason why we so much
wanted to be here, even though it was so inaccessible and so difficult to come here to Egypt was because we must finally show to the world but also
most importantly, to those in power, that there is no more agreement for fossil fuel destruction, because the leaders come in here today.
And you know, they delivered all of those beautiful, nicely sounding speeches and express how they are concerned for the situation. But in
behind the doors, the conversations that are taking place are about, you know, securing more gas deals are about securing more businesses with other
ANDERSON: And they will argue that this is a period of energy insecurity and the Europeans as much as anybody else, for example, looking to further
gas investment in countries around the world in order to fulfill that energy needs. We introduce you by referencing the fact that you confronted
Ursula von der Leyen, the E.C. President while you were here. How did she respond?
LASOTA: Well, I think her, first of all, she agreed with me. And this is the striking thing. You know the President of European Commission said very
clearly, again, that it's obviously we must move away from fossil fuels that this is the reason this is the factor behind all of those crises, that
of course, we cannot have record profits of the fossil fuel industry, that we must expand renewables.
But then, you know, those are words, those are promises. But what is happening is there are gas deals secured with Azerbaijan, which has very
strong links to the Russian fossil fuel industry and to the Russian government. And overall, there's this myth being also pushed here that, you
know, we are in times of energy insecurity and so we must invest in fossil fuels. Well, this is a lie. There is no energy security with fossil fuels,
because fossil fuels mean inherently supporting dictators and causing crises.
ANDERSON: And I hear what you say, as will and those who are here and certainly voices like your own are having an impact, if only to ensure that
the rest of the world sort of listens up to what is going on at a place like this. There is also let's be quite frank, there are clear efforts
towards energy transition towards cleaner energy going forward.
Do you applaud the same principle, the solutions that are being suggested, the funding that is being affected, there are huge gaps. There are huge
gaps and that will be discussed here not least on things like loss and damage. But there are solutions out there.
LASOTA: I think there is clearly a reckoning that we just have to rapidly scale up the renewable expansion. And there are initiatives being put in
place. One of the examples of, I think a very good progress that has happened already is that loss and damage is very firmly on the agenda,
because we can no longer wait to start delivering this financial support to countries over the affected by the climate emergency.
However, you know, I'm very often told that, OK, just transition must happen, but it's too expensive. It will take time. Yes. But then I ask, how
is it then that there's always time and there's always money to support new fossil fuel projects. You know, President Macron, Ursula von der Leyen,
Olaf Scholz, they're all in favor of fossil fuels. Quite all of that money can be delivered over to the solutions. We do not have to wait.
ANDERSON: You heard it here. First, we do not have to wait. Climate Justice, front and center on your agenda, and front and center for so many
people who are gathered here. I'm Becky Anderson. "One World" with Zain Asher is next.