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Connect the World
U.S. & German Defense Ministers Discuss Aid for Ukraine; Prosecutor: Baldwin, Armorer to be Charged in "Rust" Shooting; Malpass: Declining Chinese Population is an Economic Challenge; EU Parliament's Terror Label for Iran's Revolutionary Guards; Thunberg Detained & Released at Germany Coal Mine Protest; UAE Climate Minister: On track to Hit Clean Energy Goals. Aired 11a-12p ET
Aired January 19, 2023 - 11:00 ET
THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT. THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED.
BECKY ANDERSON, CNN HOST, CONNECT THE WORLD: I'm Becky Anderson. Hello and welcome back. This is the second hour of "Connect the World". Coming up,
I'll speak to a member of the European Parliament about voting to classify the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps as a terrorist organization an
incredibly important story.
First up, though, we have no time, and neither does the world. Those words from the Head of Ukraine's Presidential Office today, part of his country's
latest urgent appeal for heavy weapons and its war with Russia.
The subject was under discussion today during what was expected to be a crucial meeting between the U.S. and German Defense Ministers in Berlin.
Germany still bulking at a U.S. request to send battle tanks to Ukraine, or at least approve the transfer of those tanks from other countries.
We could learn more on Friday, when NATO's Ukraine defense contact group as its known, meets at a U.S. air base in Germany. Nic Robertson back with us
this hour from London. So it's the only question in town at this point, will Ukraine get that military hardware that it wants? That it wants it
says so urgently?
NIC ROBERTSON, CNN INTERNATIONAL DIPLOMATIC EDITOR: It's looking increasingly likely isn't it? Richard Quest was speaking while at Davos to
the Dutch Prime Minister Mark Rutte who said look, we just want to kind of work this out with a bit of consensus.
It's no good one European country, one ally of Ukraine, sending tanks. We kind of want to do this together. We want to do it as an effort together.
So I think that gives you the understanding of where the broad thinking is? Switch forward to tomorrow, where you have that group that can these
Defense Ministers that can come to that consensus about it.
Obviously, there's some concern that the United States is not putting its battle tanks here mono A1 Abraham tank, which by the way, you know, I've
seen these things in the field. They're a massive, they're not, we're like, and they're not a petrol engine.
Excuse me; well I just fix my microphone here. They're not a petrol engine device. They are run on a jet engine. They are complicated. They are big
beasts. They take computers to set them up and run them in the field.
And that does seem to be some of the trepidation from the U.S. perspective about putting their battle tanks into Ukraine. But the other tanks that are
on the table, the German tanks that they have the leopard two that Poland has leopard two as well.
Looking to Germany to authorize sending France is also looking at selling a virtual tank the UK has already committed its challenger two tanks. So it
does seem to be you know, from the perspective that we've heard from Matt Rutte today this afternoon that this is coming together, but we won't know
for sure until tomorrow.
ANDERSON: Yes, this is a new German Defense Minister, his first decision, and it couldn't be a bigger one, Nic?
ROBERTSON: Yes, Boris Pretorius in the job this morning had a phone call with his French counterpart met with Lloyd Austin the U.S. Secretary of
Defense. Yes, this is big ticket stuff. I mean, just look at the handshake there between the pair of them. Pretorius looking up at Austin, Austin
smiling riley, you might be thinking because here he is in Germany meeting, a very newly minted Defense Minister.
Lloyd Austin is hugely experienced, has been in the role in the military for a long time a whole career. Boris Pretorius you know a more regional
politician before he's found his footing in this particular job.
So, you know, he's got a lot on his hands. It's not just Germany needing to step up and help European allies and partners, NATO allies and partners to
help out Ukraine. But it's also reformatting Germany's army. It's only in the past year with Russia's invasion of Ukraine.
Germany has figured out its army is not up to defense spending, not really at there, and it needs to do a lot more to make its army battle ready. They
are concerned of course, of not wanting to step over red lines that they think are perceived in Russia, but those red lines are now blurring and
fading it seems.
ANDERSON: Nic Robertson is our International Diplomatic Editor. Nic, thank you. Well, joining me now from London is Vera Michlin Shapir. She's a
Lecturer at the War Studies Department at King's College London. We know that Ukraine has been asking for more weaponry. Just how critical is it
that gets what it wants now?
VERA MICHLIN SHAPIR, LECTURER, WAR STUDIES DEPARTMENT, KINGS COLLEGE LONDON: So the Ukrainians are dealing with situations right now. Most of it
is --are in this for you. There are still territories Ukrainian territories that are under Russian control. And if they want to - take these
territories - we --. So when there is - going on in the West --we do provide heavier weapons to Ukraine that - offensive there --.
There are offensive purposes; you have to understand that you're questioning actually the ability of Ukraine to retake weapons or to
basically practice more than 100 countries around the world in the UN resolution. They are lacking Ukrainian territorial integrity.
ANDERSON: Right. Here's the Russian response to all of this. The spokesperson from the Russian and I'm not even sure which spokesperson it
is. I'll get that to you. But it's Peskov - Dmitry Peskov, who we hear from on a regular basis, the Kremlin Spokesperson.
He says, any military hardware that is sent to Ukraine that might reach Russian territory will mean bringing the conflict to a new qualitative
level, a level that will not bode well, for European security. And here lies the rub, correct?
This is the warning from Russia. And these are the concerns that the West has that they do anything that will be perceived as provocative. Anything
more than just providing defensive capabilities for Ukraine is a concern, let's face it?
SHAPIR: It is a concern. The problem that we're facing with the Russians is that they're constantly trying to set the term of the conversation, right?
So they are next part of Ukraine. They are next Ukrainian territories for Ukrainian regions, most of which they don't even control.
And now this is Russian territory. And now you're having this conversation with them on their terms, which is supposedly this is Russian territory,
which is not internationally recognized. The other thing I think that the Russians are trying to do and I'm not sure that they're very successful in
This is kind of to read the European audience to read Western audiences, and to say, well, you know, we will threaten, let's faces it. We will bring
you into this kind of institution. So I think a lot of the time was that when western allies of Ukraine think that they are trying to create a
consensus and they're trying to work together with the Russians is indecision.
And then these critical points they're making these threats. And they're making these threats so the decision continues, and every decision on the
western side, in terms of assistance of weapons to Ukraine translates into setbacks on the battlefield for Ukraine.
ANDERSON: There is an ideological shift by Germany in their position with regard their military and their ability to get involved in a conflict. This
is the problem that the Germans have at the moment. They are being leant on heavenly to allow for the re-export of German military hardware from other
countries or to transfer their own into the theater of war.
Can you just explain for our audience who may not be aware of what the German sort of military policy was for the last 70 years? How significant
shift this has been and how this decision might again provide another significant move?
SHAPIR: So the Germans, obviously, the lessons of the Second World War, as they're - in a political reference was that Germany doesn't do any
offensive policies. They doesn't provide any weapons that are to countries that are uncomfortable and can be used to get more. You know, and
aggressive more and more.
And so they find themselves in situations - they find themselves in a way, let's say for poorly prepared for this, because as this war goes on, the
war that they really didn't want to happen and hope that wouldn't happen as the war goes along.
They need to readjust the - disability, this policy that has been there for 70 years, and provided them a sense of security and stability in - of
foreign policy in years and now they have to under fire to shift this policy. But this comes to an extremely important moment of hard times.
And the point would, why the moment is so critical right now is that these tasks - German tanks and their approval to export them specifically from
Poland, but also from other countries is pivotal, because there are many of them.
And they are - they've been sold to many countries that are allies of Ukraine, and they can provide these tanks. These tanks will be effective on
the battlefield more so than other ones and then the Americans or even the British ones - because of the site, the sheer number of them.
ANDERSON: Yes. And the context is so important here. The background really provides further insight and analysis. And it's important that you're with
us and you've been able to provide that thank you very much indeed.
We'll coming up; I look at how the global economy is faring in competing tailwinds, including the impact of the war in Ukraine. I asked the
President the World Bank why he says he is deeply concerned? Thousands take to the streets across France as French President Emmanuel Macron prepares
for a major showdown over pensions.
ANDERSON: Well, this just into CNN Actor Alec Baldwin is being charged with involuntary manslaughter in connection with a deadly shooting on the set of
the movie "Rust". That is according to the prosecutor in Santa Fe, New Mexico.
ANDERSON: Hannah Gutierrez-Reed the armor, as the job is known on the set, who was in charge of the guns faces the same charges? Now the background a
cinematographer was killed and a director injured when the gun went off in Baldwin's hands. He says he was told it was safe.
Well, thousands of workers on the streets across France they are protesting a proposed pension reform which would see France's retirement age increased
by two years. The strikes paralyzing France's transport network teachers and energy workers have also walked out on the job CNN's Melissa Bell
joining me now from a protest in Central Paris.
We spoke last hour you were reminding us that we haven't seen strikes for some time or protest, at least on the streets of Paris, and it is looking
very busy behind you just explain what is going on?
MELISSA BELL, CNN PARIS CORRESPONDENT: It is. In fact what it has been Becky is remarkably slow going. Let me just show you what's happening down
there. At the end of that road of hip up from where they left, earlier today was 2 pm and they've been remarkably slow progress to get even here
as far as back.
This is a march that will then go all the way to Nashville. It's been fairly slow, there have been scuffles long away, and there's been tear gas.
What the trade unions are saying is that they reckon they're about 400,000 people in the streets of Paris today.
Their aim is to get a million on the streets of France. And what we were hearing from the trade unionists in the run up to this march and
demonstration and seriously strikes, Becky, is that their aim is to get to the levels of protests that we saw back in 2010.
That's the last time that pension reform is achieved here in France, by Nicolas Sarkozy. There were nine months of strikes and protests culminating
in a protest in the October of 2010 Becky that saw 3 million people takes to the streets. And it is a reminder of just what a sensitive nerve this
question of pension reform is here in France.
Because so many of the trade unions will explain to you it is part of the postwar social pact. It is something that is very dear to the French and
the fingers here out here today and some of the scenes that we've been seeing speak to that.
Authorities had been warning that there were about thousand protesters that they believed were likely to turn violent. We have seen the beginning of
scuffles, but again, this protest and this march has a long way still to go Becky.
ANDERSON: Melissa Bell, on the story of you, as she says this has a long way to go. Thank you! Well, 2023 is looking less bad than we feared. That
is what the Head of the International Monetary Fund told my colleague Julia Chatterley despite economic uncertainty caused by Russia's war in Ukraine,
take a listen.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
KRISTALINA GEORGIEVE, MANAGING DIRECTOR, INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND: They are signs of resilience. And we see labor markets in the United States in
Europe, holding consumers spending and a chance for the Chinese economy to bottom out. If all this holds, we might see a progress in bottoming out of
growth towards the end of the year.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
ANDERSON: Well, while no resolution to the Ukraine conflict is inside the IMF's Managing Director tells CNN a global economic rebound is expected in
2024, especially as China reopens. Well, that recovery is contingent on open trade according to South Korean President Yoon Suk Yeol.
He was speaking at the World Economic Forum in Davos. He said we must avoid protectionism and "Enhance resilience" of the global supply chain. If you
want a functioning multilateral trade system.
Well, for its part the World Bank it sees what it describes as a sharp and long lasting slowdown that will hit developing countries hard. World Bank
President David Malpass says he is deeply concerned but like President Yoon he agrees that avoiding protectionism will be key to riding out this storm,
have a listen.
DAVID MALPASS, PRESIDENT, WORLD BANK GROUP: As we look at the advanced economies, they may be able to have some kind of a recovery and we will see
strengthen in the U.S. are at least finding a bottom in China may be coming out of COVID. So that's good.
But as we look at where that goes in terms of developing countries, there's no new investment, the allocation of capital in the world is going to
relatively small populations in the advanced economies. It's a giant challenge because that leaves billions of people with not enough food, not
enough water, not enough fertilizer. And the prospect is that lasts for months and even years and that's my deep concern.
ANDERSON: You say the World Bank has strongly advocated quicker and more efficient debt restructuring processes, but progress remains stalled. So
why is progress stalled? Who is holding up any progress? And what happens if we don't see any action? There are three parts to that question, sir.
MALPASS: If we don't see action, the situation gets worse. And we're seeing countries almost weekly and monthly fall into deep debt distress that might
be a default in the case of Ghana and Zambia and others under pressure. As far as why that's happening, you know, there's no international system to
restructure debt for countries that hit the wall, there's not a bankruptcy process.
I've advocated for years, really decades, transparency in the contracts that are let with governments of countries, they can't keep going into
these contracts where there's non-disclosure clauses, there's collateral, because this makes it very difficult to restructure them.
And the international architecture is very slow moving right now, most of the world is aligned with the idea of taking as much money from governments
as possible. That's debt payments, even from the poorest governments. And I think we have to have a different mindset, where we actually look for
solutions to reduce their debt so they can get on with their growth and recovery.
ANDERSON: You say that protectionist measures, including the latest wave of export bans on food and fertilizers should be shunned. But David, frankly,
it is much more than food and fertilizers that we are looking at the moment; we are seeing a world pivoting away from cross border trade and
towards nationalistic policies. Globalization is teetering on the edge.
And frankly, multinational banks, organizations, like your own, are criticized at present for simply not being fit for purpose; do we need to
see wholesale change at this point?
MALPASS: Yes, this is a huge problem, we stand firmly against that and economics is really clear that trade between countries is additive to both
their growth. And that's because they can specialize and do better job for their people, for their workers and get more out of it.
ANDERSON: But the problem is David, let me stop you there for one second, I understand what you're saying. The problem is that, you know, global
growth, globalization hasn't worked for everybody. And that is one of the reasons that we are seeing these more nationalistic strategies, because,
frankly, they are coming out of an appeal by people all over the world.
For something different, those caught in poverty, don't see the value in globalization, at present, those who are caught in poverty in America don't
see the value in cross border trade. You've got to admit that.
MALPASS: Politically, it's hard to distinguish between globalization and actual beneficial trade. I think globalization went too far in terms of
dependency, for example, Europe became very dependent on energy from Russia. And that's, that's too much. And in the case of China, maybe the
world became too dependent on the supply chains coming out of China.
ANDERSON: David, you've suggested that you were in China in December, what did you come away with? And is this an economy that we should expect to
bounce back to the sort of growth rates that we saw pre-COVID? We've just seen some numbers out GDP growth of 3 percent. While that looks like a
robust number, for many people around the world.
It is - that's a very weakened economy compared to the growth rates and sort of a 9 percent that we've seen in the past. So, what are your
expectations on China? And how will what happen with China's economy post COVID affect the rest of the world?
MALPASS: It's important because it's the world's second biggest economy and has a large population. So, the population is actually declining now in
China, which is an economic challenge, all by itself, they also have high youth unemployment. The reality is they slowed substantially in 2022.
That's what picked up in that 3 percent number that you mentioned.
And what people are looking for is can they rebound as they open as they remove the lockdowns that were related to COVID. I think they can and the
question is will that be in the first quarter, the second quarter of 2023 I think it'll take some time.
MALPASS: But China will be a real force in the world in terms of the demand on global production, but also their huge supply that they can offer into
global production. What we can do is work with them, to have it be as market oriented and responsive to what the world needs as possible.
We work with them on a range of issues, some of them problematic, some of them very constructive. And so, the conversations that I had then were
about what they can do more on debt, transparency and sustainability. That's what we talked about earlier. But also on their own economy, how
they can do better in terms of training skills and educational systems that bring workers out that are prepared for today's markets and into the
ANDERSON: David Malpass speaking to me earlier just ahead, get tough vote in Europe sparks a warning from Iran. This is all about the EU's terrorist
list of the asking a member of the European Parliament about that, up next.
ANDERSON: A reminder of our breaking news this hour. Actor Alec Baldwin is being charged with involuntary manslaughter in connection with what was a
deadly shooting on the set of the movie Rust. This news according to the prosecutor in Santa Fe, New Mexico - armorer on the set, who was in charge
of the guns, faces the same charges.
Now a cinematographer was killed and a director was injured, and that gun went off in Baldwin's hand. He said he was told it was safe. More on this,
of course as we get it here on the CNN. Well, anti-government protests are expected to resume on the streets of Peru's Capitol on Thursday. Wave of
deadly protests have paralyzed the country for weeks now, more from Stefano Pozzebon.
STEFANO POZZEBON, JOURNALIST: Late on Wednesday night, the Peruvian Ombudsman's Office updated to 51 the total number of deaths in the wave of
protests that is sweeping across the nation since the ousting of former President Pedro Castillo last month. One person died on Wednesday in
protests in - province in rural Peru.
This occurred as thousands of people are travelling towards the capital Lima for a nationwide rally against the current President Dina Boluarte is
scheduled for Thursday.
POZZEBON: Among their demands is the resignation of Boluarte and a fresh round of election.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Well, as I said, there are several urgent needs. But right now, the political situation merits a change of representatives of
government of the executive and the legislature. That is the immediate thing, because there are other deeper issues, inflation, lack of
employment, poverty, malnutrition and other historical issues that have not been addressed.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
POZZEBON: Boluarte has called for any protestor to be peaceful but has so far resisted calls for her resignation, saying that she intends to full
fill our mandate until the next round of election is scheduled next year. For CNN, this is Stefano Pozzebon, Bogota.
ANDERSON: While Iran is warning the EU be "Shooting itself in the foot if it lists the Iranian Revolutionary Guards as a terrorist organization". We
get more on that story momentarily. Well, a trailblazing head of government is calling it quits in a shock announcement. Jacinda Ardern revealed she
will be stepping down as New Zealand's Prime Minister within weeks.
She is only the second world leader ever to give birth whilst in office and she has faced a series of unprecedented challenges. Well, speaking earlier
at a Labour Party retreat, Ms. Ardern choked up as she described her nearly six years in the job have left her exhausted. She also announced the
general election for October. Have a listen.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
JACINDA ARDERN, NEW ZEALAND PRIME MINISTER: This summer, I had hoped to find a way to prepare not just for another year, but another tomb, because
that is what this year requires. I have not been able to do that. And so today, I'm announcing that I will not be seeking re-election. And then my
term as Prime Minister will conclude no later than the seventh of February.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
ANDERSON: Well, Ardern won praise around the world for her handling of the COVID pandemic and for a personal style of speaking from the heart. But in
recent months, the cost-of-living crisis or her approval ratings fall at home. Well, back to a story that I promised you Iran warning the EU would
be, "Shooting itself in the foot if it lists the Iranian Revolutionary Guard as a terrorist organization".
Earlier the European Parliament said yes to a resolution urging EU member states to do just that lawmakers in Strasbourg today condemning what they
call the IRGC's terrorist activity, the repression of protesters and its supplying of drones to Russia. Well European Parliament Member Jakop
Dalunde back to that terror resolution as a key response to Iran. And he joins me now live near Luxembourg.
So, let's be quite clear about this. And thank you for joining us. Today's vote was on the motions text, not the adoption of the resolution itself.
Still, this is a very significant development, how certain are you that this resolution will be adopted by the European Union?
JAKOP DALUNDE, MEMBER OF EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT: So, thank you so much for having me on. And that is, of course, a decision for the European Council.
But the European Parliament today adopted resolution, calling for the Iranian Revolutionary Guard to be put on the terror list. And we do this as
a response to the atrocious actions of the Iranian regime, throwing dissidents into the prison, executing political prisoners and terrorizing
especially Iranian women.
ANDERSON: If this goes through, what practical impact will it has? What will this mean for those women on the ground in Iran?
DALUNDE: On the one hand, it's a very strong signal towards the Iranian regime. It will make it more difficult for them to operate in terms of
diplomacy in terms of economic activity. So, this will then in turn, strengthen the Iranian opposition and make it easier for them to push for
democratic transformation of the Iranian state.
ANDERSON: The reason I asked and you're right to point out that while this is symbolic, it is extremely important. It is that the next sort of phase
of these protests will be extremely important.
ANDERSON: And there have been significant calls for more action by the international community to support those who are protesting the Iranian
regime. So, this is part of that process, certainly by the European Parliament. Are you disappointed that this has taken so long?
DALUNDE: Yes, I think we need to move ahead, both in terms of showing the Iranian regime that what they're doing is unacceptable, but also as a show
of moral support to show that the Iranian people, that they are not alone, that we stand with them in solidarity.
ANDERSON: There has been much talk about the need for a change in the European strategy towards Iran. What's your perspective on that?
DALUNDE: Yes, I think that we have to be much harsher towards the Iranian regime, both in terms of sanctions, but also in terms of diplomatic
pressure. And we need to be united on this in the union, European political system. And that is why we took this decision today to call on the
commission and to call on the Council to act.
ANDERSON: And Jakop, you make a very important point there, because you said we as Europeans need to be united on that. Do you believe there is
overwhelming support for a change in the European strategy towards Iran? Do you believe that Europe on the whole would support more sanctions against
Iran, economically and diplomatically, as it were? Just describe where you believe Europe is at this point?
DALUNDE: Well, the vote that we took today was adopted by a very broad majority of the European Parliament, all the way from social Democrats,
greens, liberals and conservatives all across the ideological spectrum. And this is a decision that we have not taken before. So, I think it's an
important step in the broader political process in gathering that unity in the European system.
ANDERSON: That's fascinating. Russian President Vladimir Putin spoke on the phone with his Iranian counterpart President Ebrahim Raisi today. We are
told they discuss bilateral cooperation in a number of matters, including energy, those are the sort of readouts you get very amped sort of, you
know, anodyne. Are you concerned about Russia's support for the Iranian regime in its crackdown on its citizens?
DALUNDE: Yes, there is both the ideal ideological alignment, but also geopolitical alignment between Iran and Russia. And I think it's, it's no
surprise that these movements are happening at the same time that as Russia struggles with its war in Ukraine that the Iranian regime feels fear of
actual democratic movement in Iran, both in terms of the movement within Iran, but also the movement of support from the rest of the world, putting
political pressure and diplomatic pressure on Iran.
This is why I think it's a good time to put this pressure on Iran right now, as they are weakened by the diplomatic weakening of Russia at this
ANDERSON: Interesting. Good to have your perspective and interesting to see what has come out of the European Parliament with regard this action and we
wait to see what happens at the commission and at the council sorry, and whether Europe as a whole supports this. Good. Thank you. Coming out how an
Indonesian school is pioneering environmental education and creating the next generation problem solvers. That is coming up.
ANDERSON: From facilities built using zero carbon, bamboo and school buses that run on used cooking oil, two lessons in green financing and practical
permaculture nearly everything at the Green School Bali is designed to raise the bar on sustainability. Today on Call to Earth, we visit the
campus of the environmentally focused institution and learn why its programs are developed to put community first.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE (voice over): The Indonesian province of Bali is known for its rich culture, breath-taking natural beauty and rain, lots of rain.
But while tourism took a hit during the COVID-19 pandemic, a five-month rainy season doesn't stop millions from visiting island in a typical year.
And for those who live here, the seasonal deluge serves as a reminder of an ongoing water crisis. In fact, one innovative local school has made the
stuff of life the center piece of its curriculum.
LESLIE MEDEMA, HEAD OF CAMPUS, GREEN SCHOOL BALI: We chose water as the theme for last year and this year because despite what everybody thinks
there's a water shortage in Bali. We have rains for months and months and months, and they fill the reservoirs but very, very quickly those
reservoirs run dry.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE (voice over): More tourists and residents take a dramatic toll on the islands natural water resources. But that's not the only
MEDEMA: Just in the last 10 years, many, many villages have been noticing their once clean water has turned very, very dirty and no longer usable.
We've noticed a very serious water crisis arising in a place where that really shouldn't be the case.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE (voice over): Tucked away in a forested patch miles inland from the southern beaches. The Green School Bali was built to create
the next generation of problem solvers.
MEDEMA: Currently on campus, there are 50 student led projects that have been activated.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE (voice over): Built from bamboo and other sustainable material, the impressive open-air facilities were designed to inspire
imagination and creativity, each structure a base for what the school's founders call a living curriculum.
MEDEMA: The point is to be part of reimagining education to be something that inspires action-based learning now, all across the globe. We are
cultivating an optimistic, thoughtful and positive approach to climate and climate action. We want them to feel hopeful we want them to feel like they
have the skills. They have the ability to engage proactively in the world.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE (voice over): After a group of students became fascinated with biofuels, the school created a network of bio buses, each running on
used cooking oil, refined by science.
MEDEMA: You're looking at a really wide-ranging learning experience from enterprise to marketing to management because it became its own company and
the large biofuel transportation company in Indonesia.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE (voice over): Dipta is an 11th grader driven to find solutions by the desperate need close to home.
DIPTA, STUDENT, GREEN SCHOOL BALI: It starts off personally, right? The problem comes off from my hometown Kintamani we didn't have enough water.
And then after that, realizing that also a lot of other people don't have access to clean, drinkable water.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE (voice over): He launched liquefied a non-profit with a mission to provide sustainable filtration systems help residents build
recharge wells that replenish aquifers and water catchment systems to collect rainfall for other uses.
DIPTA: The innovation hub that we have a clean school, it gives me the tools to create what I need to create what I want to create, and to help me
help other people as well.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE (voice over): The Green School Bali opened in 2008 and now includes locations in New Zealand, South Africa and Mexico.
MEDEMA: Our mission is a community of learners making our world sustainable. And so, when you put community back at the center of a school,
you end up being more accountable for the actions that you take. And I think that's a good thing. It's the full spectrum of local to global action
based Environmental Learning.
ANDERSON: Well, let us know what you're doing to answer the call with the #Calltoearth. We'll be right back.
ANDERSON: Greta Thunberg this video showing her being detained by German Police for the second time this week. Climate activist has since been
released from custody from Berg joined protesters to oppose the expansion of a coal mine operation in Western Germany, which was continued our
activism today in Davos saying it was absurd to look for answers to climate change from inside the World Economic Forum.
Well, even the UAE climate change top of the agenda this week and indeed this year, the International Renewable Energy Agency IRENA, which is based
here in the UAE held its annual assembly here at the weekend against the backdrop of the Abu Dhabi sustainability week in the capital.
And this event is a taster of what is to come when Dubai hosts COP 28 later this year. Well, the big message from the IRENA gathering further
investment in renewables is needed urgently. This is especially so after Russia's invasion of Ukraine a war which has pushed energy security to the
forefront. Well, that's according to the Head of the International Energy Agency Fatih Birol; he said at Davos that the biggest driver of renewable
energy growth today is energy security.
When I was able to sit down with IRENA's Chief Francesco La Camera and the UAE Climate Minister Mariam Almheiri conversation gave a good indication of
where we are in tackling climate change and how far we need to go, have a listen.
FRANCESCO LA CAMERA, DIRECTOR-GENERAL, INTERNATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY AGENCY: So, there is no doubt that the energy transition is already in
place. The direction of travel is very clear. We are going to a new energy system, largely based on renewables complemented by allergen - and the
sustainable use of biomass, no one can stop this process.
So, the question is not the direction of travel and stay where we are. The fact is that the speed and the scale of this transformation is not putting
us in a track that is in line with the achievement of the Paris Agreement goals.
ANDERSON: The UAE will host the next COP meeting COP28 at the end of November last year. Ahead of that, there is what is known as a global stock
take. Now I hazard a guess, Minister that if I asked 100 people on the street, what a global stock take was, they would have no idea.
MARIAM ALMHEIRI, UAE MINISTER OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENVIRONMENT: I think the easiest way to explain what a global stock take is; it's basically our
report card. It's a way of seeing where we are compared to where we need to be. So, with the global stock take, we'll be able to see where our gaps,
where our strengths. And we'll be able to find more, or let's say focus more on areas that need to be focused on.
And that's where I come into play, along with many of my minister colleagues. And this is where we're going to showcase the UAEs efforts and
how the UAE is spearheading what we're doing on the climate --
ANDERSON: Minister, the UAE is hosting of this climate event and designates the first ever oil executive to be at the top table is not without
controversy, your perspective.
ALMHEIRI: You see for us convening countries means we need a whole skill set, or different skills, we need a whole set of experiences, we need a
whole set of networks. And that's why having Sovann - as the leadership team for the COP is for us an ideal situation where we bring in government
where we bring in business leaders of the sectors that need to be brought to the table.
We bring in NGOs, we bring in the vulnerable communities, and we bring in the youth. And that's how we see it. So, they are bringing in the
countries. And of course, they're working very closely with us as the UAE who's positioning ourselves on that center stage.
And making sure that us as an oil and gas country, we have a story to tell. For us to make sure that this is a credible COP we need to focus on what we
want to deliver, we need to be very results oriented.
ANDERSON: What are to your mind the most important obstacles that need to be overcome in order to reach a successful planet that is work for all of
CAMERA: We are convinced that it takes more than one century to build the infrastructure, I mean, physical policy, legal, institutional, professional
skills to sustain the energy system centralized based on fossil fuels. So, the first barrier is that we can move rapidly enough to build a new energy
system, if we don't intervene on the infrastructure.
And our main challenge that we don't have a sanctuary, we cannot go slowly and build this. We have to be disruptive.
ANDERSON: What impact has, for example, the energy crisis in Europe and the dash for natural gas and oil had on the world of renewables and on the road
to cutting emissions targets?
CAMERA: Trying to consider this in two steps, the short term and the medium long term because these two are different results. It's natural that in the
short term, the crisis is having an impact. So, the question is how far we go in accelerating the share of renewables. If you don't increase the share
of renewables, oil and gas will remain there.
This is the reason I told you that we have to move for just thinking about the supply also to the demand. And that infrastructure will be crucial for
having the chance to put more renewables into the grid and the spirit of this needle because if we don't do this, oil and gas will remain there.
ANDERSON: How do you square an increase in energy production here and an increase in investment in that infrastructure with a vision for a cleaner,
greener UAE and world going forward?
ALMHEIRI: When I talk about the UAE we have targets, we've set clean energy targets already at 2030 and 2050. And these targets are set and were on
them. So, we're now at about 9.2 gigawatts, we're heading to 14 gigawatts by 2030. And by 2050, 50 percent of our energy supply will come from clean
and renewable energy sources.
ALMHEIRI: Now, what's important is that there will be distractions along the way. And there will be countries that will be in need of oil and gas
and - milk is taking steps in that direction. Since last year, the first of January, they're completely running their operations on clean and
renewables. And by 2025, they're going to cut down their emissions by 25 percent.
So, we have our target set, but we're taking a two-pronged approach. So, we're ramping up renewables, decarbonizing, but also understanding that
since the world still will need oil and gas, we will be delivering oil and gas but delivering it in a responsible way and understanding that this is
the transition as we go to a world with more renewables.
ANDERSON: And we'll do a lot more on this as we move towards COP 28 of course at the end of this year. Thank you for joining us, CNN continues
after this short break with my colleague Zain Asher.