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Isa Soares Tonight

Rockets Or Missiles Hit Poland, Two Killed. Aired 2-3p ET

Aired November 15, 2022 - 14:00   ET



ANNOUNCER: This is CNN Breaking News.

ISA SOARES, HOST, ISA SOARES TONIGHT: if you`re just joining us, let me bring you up to date about breaking news we`ve been following in the last

17 minutes or so. Two missiles or rockets are reported to have hit a farm in Poland near the border with Ukraine. Two people are reported killed.

I want to bring in Russian affairs contributor, Jill Dougherty. And Jill, we are still waiting for more information. I can recall in the last few

minutes that the Pentagon has said that it`s aware of reports of Russian missiles striking Poland.

A location inside Poland near the Ukraine border, but there`s not currently -- have information to corroborate those reports. A lot we don`t know at

this hour, but alarming and inflammatory nevertheless.

JILL DOUGHERTY, CNN CONTRIBUTOR OF RUSSIAN AFFAIRS: Well, it definitely is, and you know, this is something, Isa, that a number of people who were

looking at this almost predicted that with the fighting and the attacks, especially today, where you had quite a lot of aerial attacks by Russia

across Ukraine, that something like this could happen.

So, I think at this point, no question. It has to be determined what exactly happened, what missiles were those, if they were missiles. It

appears they were. Where did they come from? Who do they belong to? And was there an intent to attack? Or was this something like a spillover mistaken

launching of some type of missiles?

You know, Russia has been saying a lot that it has very precise, you know, missiles it can hit any location it wants. But there has been a lot of

criticism of the imprecise nature of a lot of their weaponry. So, we just have to determine. And then, Poland would have to decide what it would want

to do vis-a-vis NATO, whether or not it would try to or ask to invoke Article 5, which would mean the other countries would support and defend

Poland as if it were their own countries.


But also, I think you need an explanation. If it is Russian, you need Moscow to explain exactly what that was, and what happened. I did notice,

and this is not official government policy, but there is one Margarita Simonyan who tweeted that, you know, this is kind of like the border.

She names a town in Russia which has been hit by some weaponry, and she said, so in effect, what did you expect? But the most important now is,

this is very serious moment, and it has to go quickly but step-by-step to determine exactly what happened and then what to do about it.

SOARES: Indeed, and we still have not heard from the Polish side. I believe there`s a meeting underway, equivalent of the Security Council in

Poland. We haven`t heard from NATO as of yet. We`re still hearing official word from the United States, but it comes on the day, of course, we`ve seen

a barrage of missiles inside Ukraine, and it comes on the heels, of course, of the -- of Russians leaving Kherson and as G20 leaders meet. The timing

of this says a lot too.

DOUGHERTY: It does. And certainly, that barrage you mentioned of attacks by Russia came just after a couple of things. Number one, Russia pulled out

of Kherson. And then, you had that extremely dramatic moment when Zelenskyy, the president of Ukraine, goes to Kherson and without a helmet

walks down the street and that, the Russians would claim is Russian territory.

Because after all, they nominally annexed that city and the region just a few weeks ago. That is what they claim. But of course, Ukraine won`t accept

that. So, you have that dramatic moment. And then also, I think you know, you see they have to mention what`s going on diplomatically. You have the

G20 meeting, which, you know, President Putin would normally be attending that.

It`s a very big deal. He didn`t go because Russia right now is under severe criticism around the world for its actions in Ukraine. So, he wasn`t there.

His Foreign Minister, Sergey Lavrov was there taking his place, and was under a lot of fire and criticism as well. So, that`s another dramatic

moment. Not to mention the United Nations, where Russia has actually been asked to provide reparations to Ukraine for the damage that it has carried


SOARES: And as we`ve seen the G20, you know, Ukraine has been front and center, and as you said, Putin was a no-show. Lavrov was there, represented

him -- representing him. But it does show how much of many ways a pariah, how isolated Russia is. What is the mood inside Russia vis-a-vis, of

course, the war.

DOUGHERTY: Yes, I would say, you know, that part of it feeling that Russia is a pariah. I think if you look at it from a western perspective, it does

look that way. But if you look at the Russian perspective and what they are trying to do, to me, this is very interesting because it reminds me of what

the Soviet Union did a long time ago.

Russia is now beginning to depict itself as a champion of developing -- of the developing world. That their argument would be, you know, these

colonial, former colonial nations of the West are actually out to take advantage and hurt the developing world. But here we are, Russia, we are

going to defend them and protect them. And we`re part of this worldwide movement.

So, they are really -- Russia is on the defense. It is trying to, you know, create this atmosphere and feeling among developing countries. But you`d

have to say, among the countries that are economically, industrially advanced, which are the countries Russia would like to be in communication

with, and trading with, if this is a very difficult moment. Of course, the question is, what is China doing?

SOARES: Yes --

DOUGHERTY: But China has been pulling back somewhat from any type of full- throated support of Russia. It`s playing a very careful game.

SOARES: Jill Dougherty, thank you very much for taking time to speak to us. I`m joined now by Christiane Amanpour. And Christiane, I`m just looking

at my phone, obviously, we`re trying to get more information of what exactly has unfolded. I mean, Jill, what -- a point that Jill made is

almost inevitable, right? We don`t know -- we don`t know --

CHRISTIANE AMANPOUR, CNN CHIEF INTERNATIONAL ANCHOR: Well, there`s some -- there`s some information coming in, in terms of how other countries around

-- other NATO countries are reacting.


First and foremost, to repeat, the Polish government spokesman has said that there is an emergency, because of this, quote, "emergency", there is a

national security meeting going on, and that they will give details of whatever comes out of that meeting after the meeting wraps up.

Secondly, we have been told -- my team has been told that they are investigating, but they`re not confirming anything right now. We hear now

from the Latvians, and there`s a statement being issued by the defense minister. "My condolences to our Polish brothers in arms. Criminal Russian

regime fired missiles which target not only Ukrainian civilians, but also landed on NATO territory in Poland.

Latvia fully stands with Polish friends and condemns this crime." Again, there has been no confirmation from Poland as to what it was or what they

want. The foreign minister of Latvia has said on Twitter, "Russian missiles hitting the territory of the NATO member is a very dangerous escalation by

the Kremlin. Latvia expresses full solidarity with our ally Poland and will support any action deemed appropriate by Poland.

Russia will bear full responsibility for all the consequences." So, we have also confirmed that this actual town in question is some 5 to 6 kilometers

away from the closest point on the Ukrainian border. So again, you know, we`re waiting, we`re being responsible, we don`t know whether this was a

deliberate attack --

SOARES: Yes --

AMANPOUR: But you`re already seeing NATO nations, particularly the Baltics, Latvia in this --

SOARES: Yes --

AMANPOUR: Case, which feel the most vulnerable as well as of course, Poland because of where it is. But they feel most vulnerable, and they are

coming out hard right now. Backing up their statements throughout this war and particularly from the beginning of this war, that if, and I will say it

again, quoting all the world leaders and the NATO secretary general. "If one square inch --

SOARES: Yes --

AMANPOUR: Of NATO territory, or even airspace, is violated by Russia, there will be a response." So, I assume that the next big things to wait

for is, what does Poland say?

SOARES: Yes --

AMANPOUR: What has it discovered? What does it want from its other NATO partners, in terms of response? And what does Russia say? I found it very

instructive from Jill that she mentioned Margarita Simonyan who is the head of "RT", "Russia Today", right? A big public figure. And if she`s just

pooh-poohing this as, oh, well, you see, there was an attack on -- I don`t know whether it`s Belgorod -- Bel-go-rod or whatever it was, and this is

war, after all.

I don`t know if that`s their official stance. But if it is, it`s not very encouraging and we will see how the Russian government tries to explain

what this is. Either denial --

SOARES: Yes --

AMANPOUR: Or a mistake or it`s an escalation of the war --

SOARES: And of course, we`ve got yet to hear from the Russian side. The Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs also said, "Estonia is ready to defend

every inch of NATO territory. We are in full solidarity with our close ally, Poland."

I suppose the question is like you said, Christiane, what does Poland say? What does it do? And what about NATO? Does it -- does it restrain itself?

Does it show weakness if it doesn`t act?

AMANPOUR: No, NATO is not going to --

SOARES: How --

AMANPOUR: Go half-cocked. It just doesn`t need to.

SOARES: Yes --

AMANPOUR: And it has shown a remarkable, over the past nearly nine months of this war, and frankly, in the build-up to this war, it has shown an

unprecedented solidarity, an unprecedented discipline, an unprecedented support for a democratic country, a free and independent and democratic

country, Ukraine, that is not a member of NATO.

Therefore, NATO is not fighting in Ukraine, but it is providing legitimate defense to a member of the United Nations that has had --its, you know, the

U.N. charter has been violated by Russia. But all --

SOARES: Yes --

AMANPOUR: Ukraine`s -- you know, the rules and regulations that govern the international rule of the road have been violated. Therefore, that is how

the world says, or at least, well, as we know, the majority of the world denounced Russia`s --

SOARES: Yes --

AMANPOUR: Aggression at the very beginning. So, I think that what they`re going to want to do is to see what Russia says.

SOARES: Yes --

AMANPOUR: Was this intentional? Was it a mistake? And how do they calibrate their responses to any of the above?

SOARES: We shall wait, of course, as soon as we have more information, we`ll, of course --


AMANPOUR: And I think, it`s very -- you know, it`s very interesting that this comes -- you`ve seen what happens when Russia gets angry. So, when

Ukraine, on that weekend, damaged and brought down part of the bridge that leads --

SOARES: Yes --

AMANPOUR: Into Crimea, what did Russia do? On the Monday, the 10th of October, it sent a barrage of missiles all over the country, just slamming

into civilian infrastructure, most especially targeting very -- you know, important things like energy grids, trying to get -- trying to punish the

people. It was collective punishment --

SOARES: Yes --

AMANPOUR: For what was viewed as a humiliation by attacking this very -- you know, important bridge that`s personally important to Putin himself.

Now they see, as Jill was saying, that actually they are on the back foot.


They`ve been witnessing this for weeks now, ever since the late summer and early fall, whether it`s, you know-- obviously in the spring, in Kyiv,

where their forces have simply been methodically pushed back by the Ukrainians, who are, obviously, using their weapons to create great effect.

And so, this is what happened today. Russia got angry that --


SOARES: -- showing up, like Jill was saying --


AMANPOUR: -- but also, it didn`t happen yesterday. Zelenskyy was there, you know, yesterday. It happened after he addressed the G20, the summit

that Vladimir Putin decided not to attend.

And Zelenskyy basically was saying that here`s my 10 point peace plan which inter alia (ph) means that Russia has to remove its forces from our

country. That is the peace plan.

So he was saying there, despite what you hear in the atmosphere, we are not going to the negotiating table.


AMANPOUR: We are not going to be pushed and we will do it when we see -- and he said this to me, President Zelenskyy, on last week in Ukraine.

He said, look, we hear a lot about trying to end this war, about trying to have negotiations.

I asked him, are you being pushed to stop it?

Because, you know, who knows what`s going to happen in the United States, with all this economic problem around the world.


AMANPOUR: -- to stomach it. And he said, look, when we know that Russia is serious about wanting to negotiate a dignified and just end to this, then

we will know that we can negotiate.

Until then, as long as it`s illegally annexing our land, illegally conducting sham referendums, illegally bombing our civilian infrastructure

and killing our people, then who are we going to negotiate with?

That`s essentially what they`re saying.

SOARES: In terms of the diplomacy, because, of course, we know that the Turks played a role here, where does this leave things, Christiane?

Obviously, what we believe has unfolded, questions still remains here, this -- that peace plan, what does Russia do with it?

I mean, the territorial integrity?

This is what they`re calling for, right?


AMANPOUR: -- I think Russia is flailing around, trying to figure out how to recover and regroup from its defeat.

No matter how you spin Kherson, it is a defeat, right?

It`s a stinging and humiliating defeat. It was the city that the Ukrainian people, from day one, stood up and resisted in front of Russian armored

vehicles, tanks, in front of Russians with guns aimed at them.

And, you know, in the end, Russia did fire, the Russian troops fired into those protesters. And for nine, nearly nine months, they`ve held that city.

It`s the only major capital that they`ve held.

In any event, we`re talking about the big picture here. We don`t know whether this was a deliberate attack on a NATO country. And we are going to

wait to see what Poland says it is.


AMANPOUR: That is who actually has actually figure out what`s happened on their territory and how they want to respond.

But I`m sure, as you mentioned, you know, I`m sure, as you mentioned, the president of Turkiye and others, anybody with a relationship with Putin,

who can pick up the phone and call him and ask what`s going on, will be doing that right now and calling for calm.

SOARES: Thank you very much.

We have more details here. The Defense Department in the U.S. reported, the U.S. will defend every inch of NATO territory as U.S. awaits for more

information. When it comes to our security commitments and Article V, we`ve been crystal clear that we will defend every inch of NATO territory.

Went on to say, the U.S. is very confident in its force protection in Europe. We will bring you more after this short break. Do stay right here.





UNIDENTIFIED MALE (voice-over): This is CNN breaking news.

SOARES: If you are just joining us, let me bring you up to date with our breaking news in the last 36 minutes or so, reports that missiles have hit

inside Poland and killed two people.

Our Sam Kiley joins me now from Kryvyi Rih, which was also struck, if you remember, by Russian missiles earlier today.

Sam, just bring us up to date with what we are hearing regarding these rockets or missiles reportedly landing in Poland.

SAM KILEY, CNN SENIOR INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: Well, what we know, Isa, so far, is that two projectiles believed to have -- well, they landed

in Poland, hitting a farming area about five kilometers from the border with Ukraine, killing two Polish citizens or residents.

Now the Polish government has gone into an emergency session of its Security Council to figure out how to react because, of course, the issue

will be, who fired these projectiles?

Why did these projectiles end up in a NATO nation, killing people inside NATO territory?

This is in some senses a doomsday scenario, because if it were a deliberate attack carried out by, say, Russia, it would trigger or could trigger the

Article V, all for one and one for all, agreement between NATO members; in other words, war with Russia. That is the doomsday and most unlikely


But this has come, whilst there have been many, many dozens of rockets, missiles, cruise missiles, fired at targets, mostly critical national

infrastructure right across Ukraine in the last few hours.

Just this afternoon, really in what has been the heaviest bombardment since the beginning of October, with now 7 million Ukrainians cut off from

electrical supply because of these attacks.

Now it is probable -- and this is simply based on my analysis of having watched these things unfold here -- that this is a combination of a Russian

missile perhaps been shot down by Ukrainian anti aircraft missile.

And perhaps the warhead has landed and exploded inside a Polish territory. I`ve certainly seen that happen here in, indeed, the nation`s capital, Isa.

SOARES: Yes, and, at the moment, obviously we`re waiting to hear from the Polish side. Like you said, Sam, a meeting is underway. Emergency meeting

underway in Poland. Obviously, we need more information on that side. We have not heard, as of yet, from NATO, either.

The U.S., we`ve had a few words from the United States in the last few moments or so, NATO officials, though, waiting to hear for information. The

U.S., if I can find, it the Pentagon saying, aware of reports of Russian missiles striking Poland.


SOARES: But it said that U.S. will defend every inch of NATO territory. Went on to say that the secretary, the Air Force Brigadier General Pat

Ryder, that the U.S. is very confident in its force protection in Europe.

On the point that you were making the, Sam, this barrage, of course, of missiles that we`ve seen today, the timing of this is interesting. It`s the

biggest, I think, strikes we`ve seen since Kherson was retaken. Talk to us about how much did Putin lose here.

We feel this is a huge loss for him or retaliation, you think?

KILEY: Well, it`s a very major symbolic and strategic loss for Putin, the loss of Kherson city. His forces still control 60 percent of the province,

which, of course, they illegally annexed into Russian territory following a bogus referendum earlier this year.

So it is territory that Putin has declared to be sovereign Russian territory. And he`s been kicked out of it. So that is very, very

politically damaging for him. And it`s been a lot of criticism of the Russian military and the conduct of their operations as a result of it.

It`s also militarily problematic because they are now on the other side of the Dnipro River and they do now have that as a natural barrier. And it may

be, because of that natural barrier, that they switched tactics once again to attack in-depth against the critical national infrastructure,

particularly the electrical supplies, of Ukraine.

Of course, the internet has also been cut off, to about a third of the country, Isa.

SOARES: I wonder -- we`ll stay on top of all of the latest lines. Sam Kiley for us in Kryvyi Rih, thank you very much for, us Sam.

I want to go to CNN military analyst Col. Cedric Leighton, a well-known face on the show, who joins us now from Washington.

Colonel, thank you very much for joining us. Let me get your thoughts first of all of what we are learning, lots of questions, lots of answers; still

waiting to hear from answers from the Polish side, where a meeting, an emergency meeting, is underway; from NATO, from the U.S.

Your first initial reaction to what we`ve been reporting?

COL. CEDRIC LEIGHTON (RET.), CNN MILITARY ANALYST: Yes, I think the seems to be an accident. In other words, that if it was a Russian missile, like

we think it was, that it hit the town of Przewodow, the village of Przewodow, that is right on the Polish border, Polish-Ukrainian border.

And it seems to me, based on the initial reports that we`re seeing, that this was either debris that came from a missile or it was a missile that

had errant targeting coordinates in it.

If that is the case, that the Russians didn`t put the right coordinates in it, then of course, that is an act that has some issues associated with it

and could potentially present some difficulties from a NATO standpoint.

You know, clearly given the fact that two Poles were killed is a tragedy. And that is something that I think is, you know, not surprising,

unfortunately, given the closeness of the Russian attacks to the Polish border and the fact that they were creating, you know, this kind of an

incident right along the border.

SOARES: Let me break that down. If it was, Colonel, an accident, I think Sam Kiley talked about this, the likelihood of this happening, the debris

falling across the border.

We`re looking at the map now of Przewodow, where it`s five kilometers or so inside Poland.

I mean, is that -- can that happen?

Is that normal?

LEIGHTON: It can happen. And normal, I think nothing in this war has been normal, Isa. But the fact of the matter is that it is very possible that

debris could have fallen across a fairly wide area, especially if it was a missile that was shot down by the Ukrainians.

So that is possible. We don`t know yet if that is the case. You know, the other part of this, of course, is, if they did try to deliberately target

something in Poland, that becomes a completely different issue.

But as far as I can tell, there was nothing of military significance in that particular area. So that to me means that we have a situation, where a

tragic accident has occurred. But of course, this tragic accident has the possibility of getting way out of hand if we are not careful.

SOARES: Colonel Cedric Leighton, really appreciate you taking the time to speak to us. Of course, we will stay on top of this breaking news story.

Back after this short break.





SOARES: Updating you on our breaking news this hour: the Polish government has called a meeting of national security officials amid reports

that two missiles hit a farm in eastern Poland near the Ukrainian border.

We are told about five kilometers or so into the Ukrainian border. Two people were reportedly killed. A Polish official tells CNN, nothing is

confirmed yet and an investigation is ongoing. So still waiting for more details.

But Latvia`s defense minister has offered condolences and blamed the, quote, "criminal Russian regime." Let me bring in Kurt Volker of the Center

for European Policy Analysis and The Atlantic Council, the former U.S. ambassador to NATO. He joins me now from Washington.

Great to have you on the show.

First, your reaction to what we`ve been hearing?

I know we`re short on details as of right now but your thoughts?

KURT VOLKER, FORMER SPECIAL ENVOY TO UKRAINE: Well, first off, I don`t think we should be that surprised, with Russia launching all of these

attacks against Ukraine, that they might accidentally hit Poland. I suspect that is, in fact, what happened.

That being said, that`s unacceptable. We need, as NATO, to get together, have NATO consultations; Article IV calls for that in the case of any

concerns that any allies have about security -- and do several things.

We should ask for an explanation from Russia; ideally, the Russians would be telling us that this was an accident and they didn`t intend to strike

NATO territory. If they`re silent or if they don`t say that, I think we also need to warn them that any further attacks could generate a

proportionate response from NATO against their forces.

That`s something they would not want. But I think we have to not fail to respond. The worst thing would be silence from NATO support, which, I

think, would then encourage Russia to think that it can get away with this.

SOARES: Of course, we have yet to hear from Poland. A meeting is underway. We`ve yet to hear from NATO at this hour, of course.

But if it is an accident, what would NATO need to hear?

You`re saying just simply reasoning for hit, an apology?

Does that suffice?

VOLKER: Yes, well let`s start from where we want to be. We don`t want Russia to be attacking NATO countries. We want them to say that`s not their

intention. We also do not want to be escalating into a war with Russia ourselves.

This is no one`s goal, so we should be careful about that. So it`s very important we give Russia an out here, to say that this was an accident and

they will not be doing it again and to warn them that, if they do it again, even if it`s an accident, there would be a proportionate response.

SOARES: And what would that, I mean, what would that proportionate response be?


SOARES: If we have another accident, two accidents, three accidents?

VOLKER: Yes, I think that`s better not to specify. But I think we have to have in mind that NATO has a lot of capabilities -- not in Ukraine but in

Poland or offshore elsewhere -- where we can actually do some serious damage to Russian forces. And we have to be ready to do that.

SOARES: But NATO here should not be restrained, at least in its language, in its message to Russia?

VOLKER: At this stage, we want to be very careful. We don`t want to escalate. I don`t think Russia wants to escalate. And we need to make clear

that an attack on NATO territory, even if it is an accident, it`s unacceptable.

But we are going to try to exercise some restraint now to prevent this from escalating. The best position to be in is one where you`re preventing and

deterring, not where you`re actually getting engaged in fighting yourself.

SOARES: So what do you imagine is happening right now, Kurt?

I mean from, you know, the NATO side, they`re looking, trying to look at this evidence.

What do you think happens simply from behind the scenes at this hour?

VOLKER: Well, I think the first thing that`s going to happen, is people are going to analyze where the missiles were fired from.

What was their trajectory?

What was the potential target that the Russians may have actually been trying to hit?

Were they part of a larger barrage of missiles and just these ones went off course?

Do all of that kind of telemetry analysis and information analysis to see what we think actually probably did happen.

And then also, a lot of political maneuvering for countries to express solidarity with Poland, to make clear that no one will accept any attack on

any NATO ally. And it`s important that there be an emergency meeting in the North Atlantic Council in Brussels, to state that as well.

SOARES: It seems that some of the Baltic countries are already pretty nervous and pretty mad. Latvia, one Latvian minister was saying this is a

dangerous escalation. The important that Europol (ph) talking about, having this meeting, getting everyone on the same page.

But this comes, of course, on a day where we`ve seen a barrage, Kurt, of missiles across Ukraine, across different cities of Ukraine, making

people`s lives even darker, winter longer. Just talk to us where we are at this war, of course, at this stage of the war as, of course, Ukraine pushes

Russians further back, particularly in Kherson?

Your analysis, your assessment so far?

VOLKER: Well, what`s interesting here is that Russia is unable to win the war. They are not able to hold the territory that they`ve already taken.

Ukraine is pushing them back. We saw that east of Kharkiv, we`ve seen that in Donbas, we`ve seen that now around Kherson.

And this will continue. I think the Ukrainians will continue to claw back territory. So all Russia is able to do is terrorize Ukrainian cities by

raining bombs on them, forcing people into shelters; as you indicated, turning off the electricity. Maybe that interrupts the water supply. That`s

the kind of terror that Russia wants to inflict on the population.

Ukraine will not give up. They will continue to fight and not only Russia will be defeated. And I think Putin is facing some serious problems inside

Russia. But everyone knows that this war against Ukraine is failing and is deeply damaging Russia, both militarily and economically.

SOARES: Yes, and we saw as well how isolated he was at the G20, with Ukraine being front and center.


SOARES: Yes, absolutely. Kurt, well, we really appreciate taking the time to speak to us. Thank you very much, sir.

And we are back after this very short break. Do stay right with us here on CNN.





SOARES: We want to return now to our breaking news story this hour. We are seeing reports of missiles landing inside Poland, killing at least two

people. Now Poland`s neighbors and allies, they`ve been reacting the last 45 minutes or so.

Fellow NATO member, Estonia, as you can see there, calls these reports, "most concerning," its foreign affairs minister tweeting, "Estonia is ready

to defend every inch of NATO territory."

Latvia`s defense minister also tweeting, offering, as you can see there, his condolences and saying, "The criminal Russian regime fired missiles,

which targeted not only Ukrainian civilians but also landed on NATO territory in Poland. Latvia fully stands with Polish friends and condemns

this crime."

Well, the U.K. foreign office says, it`s liaising closely with allies as well on this. I want to remind you that Polish authorities have yet, of

course, to confirm that Russian missiles landed in their territory. We know that a meeting is underway at this hour in Poland -- pardon me, not this

hour -- is underway in Poland.

As soon as we have more information, of course, we shall bring that to you. I will be back with more on this breaking news story right here in the next

few minutes. Do stay with CNN.