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Isa Soares Tonight

Drone Attacks Hit Deep Inside Russia; Morocco Defeat Spain At Qatar World Cup; Indonesia Bans Sex Outside Marriage; State Memorial Service Held For Former Chinese President; Navigating Zero COVID Measures While Living In Beijing; Link between Ultraprocessed Foods and Brain Health; Georgia Voters Head to Polls in Crucial Senate Runoff; Beyond COP27; Historians Document Italian Landmarks from Mussolini Era. Aired 2-3p ET

Aired December 06, 2022 - 14:00:00   ET



ELENI GIOKOS, HOST, ISA SOARES TONIGHT: A very warm welcome to the show, everyone, I'm Eleni Giokos, I'm in for Isa Soares. Tonight, drone attacks

hit deep inside Russian territory in a shocking breach of the Kremlin's air defenses. We break down what was hit and why it matters.

Then a stunning victory for Morocco as they knock favorites Spain out of the football World Cup. We're live in Doha just ahead. And Indonesia

outlaws sex outside of marriage. The sweeping new criminal code that's got human rights advocates and holiday makers worried.

Right to Ukraine's defense chief believes Russia is running out of position missiles. He says Moscow has enough to launch a few more high-level attacks

on civilian infrastructure and energy targets. Then says they'll find -- they'll be in a bind. CNN hasn't confirmed that assessment of Russia's

arsenal. Meanwhile, Russian forces continue their assault on the eastern city of Bakhmut.

But Ukraine is projecting a show of strength with President Volodymyr Zelenskyy visiting a town just 40 kilometers from Bakhmut. And Ukraine

maybe using its increased capacity to defend itself in new ways for the third time in two days. The Kremlin says drone strikes have targeted

airfields inside Russia, and Moscow says Ukraine is responsible. Now, if true, this could signal a huge escalation. CNN's Nick Paton Walsh explains.


NICK PATON WALSH, CNN INTERNATIONAL SECURITY EDITOR (on camera): Monday's attacks deep inside Russia are something new in its calculus when it comes

to its unprovoked invasion of Ukraine. Deep inside the deepest yet, according to some western officials I spoke to today targeting, according

to analysts, the airfields that may well have been from where the airstrikes were launched across Ukraine hitting civilian infrastructure.

Damaging to Russia's credibility. Certainly, the Minister of Defense saying that Soviet era drones may have been responsible. Ukraine has been hinting

that it may have new capabilities. Some of its drone companies talking about new drones with a longer range. But they have not specifically said

they were behind these attacks.

Because it does certainly change the calculus in a war where it's really been Russia leveling damage against Ukraine's civilian population, without

Ukraine being able to respond back and hit military targets that Moscow would like to think were secure. And that damage continued again today in

Kursk, where another airfield was indeed hit.

You can see some pictures here of the damage that was in fact, done. And so, now Russia is left in a complex situation where it has to find some

sort of way of responding to this clear change in Ukrainian tactics, it seems, it's highly unlikely anybody else were behind these continued

attacks on Russia's military infrastructure.

But also Russia will be acutely aware, this conventional arsenal, where it's using pretty much all that it can against Ukrainian civilian targets

at this point, hitting infrastructure, and at times, even hospitals and shelters for the civilian population there. So, a complex meeting will

certainly have been had in the Kremlin with Russian President Vladimir Putin's security council trying to work out precisely what they may be able

to do to not convey weakness in this important change.

But Ukraine's President Volodymyr Zelenskyy doing his best to again convey strength, going to Kharkiv on, today, Ukraine's armed forces day to visit

troops there. But also earlier in the day to Sloviansk, and you can see pictures here of that particular visit. Important, I think for Ukrainians

to see him in that particular area where some of the most intense fighting in Ukraine has been around the towns of Bakhmut.

Sloviansk and nearby Kramatorsk and Bakhmut, they're part of a vital goal for Moscow to take Donetsk and Luhansk, but Zelenskyy was clear, he has

said the next time he came back, he hopes that Crimea, the peninsula in the south of Ukraine and Donetsk and Luhansk would be all in Ukrainian hands.

Again, that's the scope of Ukraine's ambition.



GIOKOS: All right, let's bring in Yuriy Sak, he is the adviser to Ukraine's defense minister. So thank you so much for taking the time to

speak to us. Russia is accusing Ukraine of strikes on two airfields. What is your government's response to this allegation?

YURIY SAK, ADVISER TO UKRAINE'S DEFENSE MINISTER: Good evening, and thank you for having me. The general staff of the Ukrainian armed forces which is

exclusively and solely responsible for planning and executing all military operations on the frontlines has not yet provided any official comments.

So, we will have to wait and see, you know, what is their official position.

But what you have rightly said in the report earlier is the fact that, regardless of the origin of these incidents, what is important to note is

the weakness of Russian air defense systems, that's number one. And number two, actually I watched a report on CNN just yesterday in which Russian

soldiers who are fighting Russian nationals that were fighting in Ukraine against Russia, they were trying to protect and helping Ukrainians protect

ourselves from the Russian enemy.

So we could imagine that there are a lot of Russians inside Russia who are also discontent with what is happening there. And you know, I'm not saying

that we know this for a fact. But we have to consider that as well. You know, there could be --

GIOKOS: Yes --

SAK: Some protests growing from inside Russia. And also, I would like to say that in the past, we have seen situations where Russian weapons systems

have malfunctioned and their missiles would fall on their own houses, on their own airfields. Plus, Russia is known for setting up provocations,

which they use to justify their atrocities and war crimes later.

So there are so many different factors that have to be born in mind when we are analyzing the situation. But the fact remains. You know, and I would

like also decide that, of course, Ukraine is --

GIOKOS: Yes --

SAK: Working very hard to develop our own weapon systems. Because we understand that with a naval like that, we in the future, we will have to

be able to protect ourselves. And we are investing a lot of efforts now into developing drones as well. This C-drone, you might have heard there's

a presidential --

GIOKOS: Yes --

SAK: Initiative -- yes --

GIOKOS: Yes. And it's multi-faceted, sir, and as you say, there are so many elements, and also Russia has been using certain incidents as a

pretext for more aggravation and provocation and bombardment on the ground, which you have been experiencing. I do want to take a step back in terms of

strategy because you've just said that you are working on developing your own weapons system.

You're advising the defense minister right now. Are you currently thinking of moving the fight onto enemy ground? Is that something that you're

considering at this point?

SAK: If you look at the map of the hostilities at the moment, you will see that unfortunately --

GIOKOS: Yes --

SAK: There are huge swaths of Ukrainian land which are still temporarily occupied by the aggressor. So, unfortunately, but we still have plenty of

targets on the temporarily-occupied Ukrainian lands. And our focus, number one, and our priority, number one, is of course liberating those lands.

So, this is where our military minds are working towards, right? And this is what we have to do in the foreseeable future. We have to drive the enemy

out of our own country. We are a peaceful nation. We never had any, you know, taste for bombing or attacking our neighbors. And this is a well-

known fact.

So, for now, we are focused on the frontlines. It's a huge frontline as you know, it's over to 2,500 kilometers. So there is plenty of work for our

military to be done there.

GIOKOS: You know, when we see the retaliation from Russia, and they're calling it a retaliation in response to what they say are strikes in

Russia. You have been at the receiving end of intense bombardment. That's causing massive damage to your critical infrastructure. Enormous power

cuts, and of course, it has been said that using electricity and power as another form of a weapon against the people in Ukraine. Could you give me a

sense of what you've been dealing with over the last few days?

SAK: Yes, indeed. Yesterday, we had missile, attack number eight, missile manned the number eight. Over 70 missiles were fired in Ukrainian cities

and our energy infrastructure. Our air defense systems which have been improved dramatically over the past month, they have been able to shoot

down 60, over 60 of those missiles.


But still damage was done. But one thing I want to stress is, this missile terror is not working. This missile terror is aimed at breaking Ukrainian

will. But this is not going to happen, because for us, for Ukrainians, you know, ask anyone in the central Kyiv, what is the most important thing for

us now?

It's to support the Ukrainian armed forces. We are -- care -- we care -- we care about, you know, whether our soldiers are in warmth, whether they are

fed, whether they have sufficient weapons. So we are OK. Yes, it's not easy. It's tough.

But we will break through as long as our army is fighting and pushing the enemy back. We are a nation of volunteers. Yesterday was the International

Volunteer Day. And all our hearts and all our efforts are aimed at helping our army win this war and protect Europe's freedom.

GIOKOS: Yuriy Sak, we're very much aware of the issues on the power front and lack of electricity. And we know that you have a lot of different

issues to deal with as this war continues. We thank you very much for your time, and I'm sure we'll be speaking soon again. Yuriy Sak; adviser to

Ukraine's --

SAK: Thank you --

GIOKOS: Defense Minister. Much appreciated for your time.

SAK: Thank you very much --

GIOKOS: We're going to turn to something totally different now. The World Cup round of 16 will be wrapping up soon in Qatar. The last game of this

round is being played right now. Portugal are facing off against Switzerland. The winner will go against Morocco in the quarterfinals. Now,

in a shocking upset, Morocco beat Spain, the 2020 -- 2010, pardon, World Cup champions a short while ago after a dramatic round of penalty kicks.

Don Riddell is standing by in Doha. Don, I have to say, I've been seeing some of the images from Casablanca. Wild with excitement, and of course, a

complete upset. I think so many people did not expect this. But when there are penalties, anything can happen.

DON RIDDELL, CNN WORLD SPORTS: Yes, quite right. I mean, it was not the most exciting game, but we certainly got the most exciting results. Let's

just show you how it happened. Let's just get straight to it, because as you say, Spain were the favorites for this game. They had so much of the

possession, they made 1,019 passes during this game, but they couldn't do anything with it.

And then they brought on this guy to help with the penalties, and he missed. That was Pablo Sarabia, then Carlos Soler was saved. That was a

pretty tamed penalty though, easy high for the goalkeeper to save. And then their third pen, Sergio Busquets, easy to save as well. Which meant that it

all came down to Achraf Hakimi who won it with the most audacious thing, right down the middle.

That's a Panenka. That's what that penalty is described as. And he is just an extraordinary story. He was actually born in Spain. He spent his

childhood in Madrid. And here he is stepping up with the opportunity to knock the country of his birth out of the World Cup. Achraf Hakimi has done

it. The Atlas Lions has had a phenomenal World Cup tournament so far, they're into the quarterfinals for the first time ever.

These are the scenes from Casablanca back home in Morocco, just so much joy, so much excitement. And you have to remember where this World Cup is

being played, it's the first ever World Cup tournament in the Middle East. The first ever in an Arab nation, and now, we have an Arab team through to

the quarterfinals.

And this team is getting support from everywhere during their last victory when they won their group, I went down to the suite behind me, where all

the fans were gathering, and it wasn't just Moroccan fans, it was Egyptian fans, it was Saudi fans, they were all just so excited that Morocco was

representing all of them.

And yes, it's just wonderful. Spain, by the way, have now lost their last three penalty shoot-outs. They're not very good at them. England have a

very --

GIOKOS: Wow --

RIDDELL: Similar record by the way, so I know how it feels --

GIOKOS: Yes. I mean, I'm sure a lot of people are licking their wounds. Look, I want to talk about Portugal. Because you know, Cristiano Ronaldo,

many people say, is there even a game if Cristiano Ronaldo is not playing? He's on the bench. Could you explain what happened?

RIDDELL: He would like you to believe that if he's not playing, then it's not a game. Yes, he's been benched, he's not playing. This is the first

knockout game involving Portugal where Ronaldo hasn't started in 20 years. So, yes, he's not involved. This is his final World Cup. This is a

tournament that he so desperately wants to win.

Portugal have never won the World Cup tournament before and they're playing without him. Now, they might find that it actually helps them. That remains

to be seen. But this is a potentially tough game against Switzerland. It's not going to be an easy game for them. But well, it's early door so far, 15

minutes gone, the game is still goalless.


I would imagine at some point Ronaldo is going to come on. But he's not someone that takes kindly to being left out. He doesn't like being put in

the corner. That's pretty much why --

GIOKOS: Yes --

RIDDELL: His run at Manchester United came to such a spectacular end recently. He didn't like not being involved. So, he will be steering on the

bench, but if he does come on, he will be determined to prove a point.

GIOKOS: So much drama, Don Riddell, thank you so very much for that update. Good to see you. All right, moving on now, no sex before marriage

even for foreign tourists. No living together for unmarried couples and no criticizing the government. Those are just some of the provisions of a new

criminal law in Indonesia, which can get you thrown in prison. Human rights groups are calling it appalling. CNN's Anna Coren has details.


ANNA COREN, CNN REPORTER (on camera): The Indonesian parliament has made sweeping changes to its criminal code which critics fear could harm

democratic freedoms and police morality in the world's third largest democracy. Offenses that will now be criminalized in what has been a

predominantly moderate Islamic country include sex outside of marriage, the law will apply not only to Indonesian citizens, but also foreigners living

in the country as well as tourists.

Those found guilty could face a year in prison. Other jailable offences under these new penal code are cohabitation among unmarried and LGBTQ

couples, blasphemy, apostasy as well as criticizing the president, the government or other state institutions. Human rights groups say they are

very concerned about the direction that Indonesia is heading, with the rise of ultra-conservative Islam in the nation's politics as it adopts what they

say are Sharia-inspired laws, fearing that minority groups will be targeted.

Critics are calling these new laws troublesome and counterproductive, and say they could impact tourism especially for the island of Bali, which

relies heavily on western tourists for its economy. Well, it's unknown how this new criminal code will be enforced, the Indonesian justice minister

says, there will be intensive outreach to police, prosecutors, lawyers and advocates. And that the laws will come into place in 3 years time. Anna

Coren, CNN, Hong Kong.


GIOKOS: All right, let's bring in John Sifton from New York. He is an Asia advocacy Director at Human Rights Watch. We just heard from Anna Coren,

it's not just no sex before marriage, it's a plethora of other laws that will be enforced as well. I want you to give me a sense of when you break

these new rules down, what kind of impact is it going to -- firstly, have on the local community and then, secondly on tourists?

JOHN SIFTON, ASIA ADVOCACY DIRECTOR, HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH: Well, these new laws, these are oppressive new laws will and they come out of force, result

in potential abuses of millions of Indonesians, as well as the millions of foreign tourists who come to the country. Because it basically opens the

door to the police to extort bribes from people under investigations, for officials to harass and jail anybody they want, including political


So, in one in fast(ph) swoop, Indonesia has essentially taken itself, you know, into a very dark place on human rights. In practice, you know, this

law is a clear violation of people's privacy. Because of course -- because same-sex marriage is illegal in Indonesia. Anybody who is in a same-sex

relationship, essentially, their conduct is prohibited. So it's criminalized the LGBT community, which has never happened in Indonesia's

history. And women who are involved in --

GIOKOS: Yes --

SIFTON: Sex outside of marriage may be targeted as well, which has happened in other countries where adultery is prohibited. So, there's going

to be a lot of problematic things that happen if this law comes into effect.

GIOKOS: Yes, I mean, let's look at the no sex outside of marriage, which is interesting. We've been -- you know, we've seen these kind of rules and

laws in other countries, other regions around the world where I am in Dubai, the UAE, abolished those just a few years ago. But there was always

an issue about the way to enforce this.

You know, when tourists comes to a hotel, do they have to show a marriage certificate? Or you know, how are they exactly going to do this? And then

there's also the question of allocating, you know, police resources to enforcing this. It seems like a very big stretch and being able to do it


SIFTON: Actually, absolutely. And the enforcement -- and it's practical impossibility is one of the sort of basic reasons the law is so

problematic. Besides being abusive, it's also just impossible to enforce without invading the privacy of millions of people, which is something, you

know, other countries have come to realize.


But the real thing is that they will have an impact on the business community, not just the tourism community, as corporations involved in

Indonesia in a broad area of sectors who voiced their concerns and perhaps direct investment to Indonesia will be effective. So Indonesia has a lot to

think about in the next three years before it does this.

Which is why we're calling on concerned governments, investors and you know, other companies that have swayed with the government of Indonesia to

voice their concerns to them and say, we cannot allow you to enforce a law that is a waste of resources and a violation of so many --

GIOKOS: Yes --

SIFTON: People's rights. Indonesia has so many problems that need to be addressed, climate change, economic inequality, poverty. The idea that

police resources --

GIOKOS: Yes --

SIFTON: On something like this is nonsensical.

GIOKOS: All right, John Sifton, thank you so very much for your time, great to have you on the show.

SIFTON: Thank you --

GIOKOS: And still to come tonight, businesses across Iran have begun a three-day strike ahead of a big anniversary. We'll have the latest, stay

with CNN.


GIOKOS: Welcome back, I'm Eleni Giokos in Dubai. Now, businesses in Iran have begun a three-day strike ahead of a prominent anniversary. Videos

posted on social media and geo-located by CNN teams shows stores and markets across -- closed across the country. Wednesday is Student Day. The

anniversary of the 1953 killing of university students by the Shiraz security forces.

Meanwhile, Iran state media as expected says it's business as usual distributing this video, showing open shops. CNN's Melissa Bell is standing

by for us. Two very different accounts, stores closed, stores open. And when you hear the stories on the ground, Melissa, they tell you about a

very dire situation, a very different reality.

MELISSA BELL, CNN CORRESPONDENT: That's right, and we've been hearing today from the head of judiciary warning people against closing their

shops, warning those -- threatening those who might encourage others to close their shops of consequences with the law. And despite that, the

repression of the last few weeks in that tone, it does appear to have been a fairly widely observed strike.


It's due to continue tomorrow. As you say, this is the country and the rest of the world, Eleni, waits to hear whether there's hints about some change

to the mandatory hijab law and the police force that try and force it will be forthcoming or not.


BELL (voice-over): It was her death in the custody of Iran's morality police in September that led to the outpouring of grief and anger that has

gripped an entire country. Demonstrations calling for justice for Mahsa Amini and for change that have now lasted for nearly three months.


Anti-government protests led by women around the rallying cry, woman, life, freedom and chants of death to the supreme leader.


But now, signs of a possible shift in the government's hard-line policy, Iran's attorney general saying that the mandatory hijab law is now under

review by the judiciary and parliament. But Iranian state media have pushed back strongly on his comments, noting that the force is part of the

Interior Ministry and not the judiciary. The Interior Ministry has not responded to CNN's request for comment.

NEGAR MORTAZAVI, IRANIAN-AMERICAN JOURNALIST: What one lawyer was saying is that the morality police has become so notorious and so -- such a bad

name, that no official is willing to take responsibility for it. Essentially, this official claiming that it has been disbanded. But what's

important is that the law of the mandatory hijab which goes back to early 1980s on paper has not changed.

BELL: Speaking to CNN, women in Tehran were skeptical about the possibility of change.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: It's the regime propaganda. They just change the name of their forces as they did before, so the media would announce that they

have backed down, then they continue all the brutal stuff they were doing.

BELL: With Iran's hard-line President Ebrahim Raisi hinting on Saturday that any reform may be limited in its scope.

EBRAHIM RAISI, PRESIDENT, IRAN (through translator): Iran's republic and Islamic foundations are constitutionally entrenched, but there are methods

of implementing the constitution that can be flexible.

BELL: The stance taken by several Iranian celebrities and athletes in support of the protests suggests the crucial barriers of fear of the regime

may have been broken. With a widening also of the protesters demands for more rights for women to the end of the regime itself. And a sense that any

reforms it undertakes now may prove too little, too late.


BELL: Now, since those hints over the weekend, Eleni, there's been nothing further, no hint, those compromises or concessions would be forthcoming. If

anything we've been hearing from a spokesperson from the judiciary saying that if any decision were to be made, it would take a meeting of the three

branches of government, and only then could it be considered.

So, for now, the protests, that strike continues, and again, another important day, as you mentioned with that Student Day --

GIOKOS: Yes --

BELL: Tomorrow.

GIOKOS: Yes, Melissa, and a story that is certainly developing and evolving very quickly. I just do have to ask you, because it is quite

distracting. Behind you, I see fireworks. What is going on in Paris?

BELL: Well, you can't quite hear the noise either. But it's extremely noisy down there on the Champs-Elysees. Morocco have just knocked Spain out

in the World Cup on penalties. They go through to the quarterfinals. And any time, Morocco has any footballing success, it is downhill here on the

Champs-Elysees, that it gets particularly crazy. That's what you're seeing behind me tonight, Eleni.

GIOKOS: Yes, it's a beautiful sight. Good to see you, Melissa Bell, thank you so very much for your reporting. All right, and still to come tonight,

China is easing some measures under its zero COVID policy. But many changes are slow in coming. We'll show you what's different and what may never be

the same.

Plus, a new study links ultra-processed food with dementia. We'll be joined by a doctor for tips on how to lower your risks. Stay with CNN.




GIOKOS (voice-over): Welcome back.

Now thousands of high officials of China's Communist Party attended the memorial service of former leader Jiang Zemin in Beijing on Tuesday.

China's president Xi Jinping paid tribute to Jiang Zemin, who died last Wednesday at the age of 96 and praised hi, quote, "long tested Communist


The president has called for unity among the unprecedented wave of protests against the country's zero COVID policy that erupted across China last

month. After those protests, China is changing some of its strict COVID testing measures.

Officials say Beijing's two major airports will no longer require departing passengers to show a negative COVID test. The move comes as multiple cities

are relaxing COVID-19 test requirements to enter public places. CNN's Selina Wang takes us through what a regular day in Beijing has been like

until now.


SELINA WANG, CNN CORRESPONDENT: This is the kind of line Beijing's standing in, outside in the cold, to get their COVID tests. A 48-hour test

is required to get into most places. But there aren't many places to go.

Much of Beijing is still closed down. This is one of the most popular tourist places, in the city. But the restaurants are largely closed and the

malls are pretty empty.

So this McDonald's is still open but for takeaway only. But even to get takeaway, you've got to prove that you're clear of COVID.

And here's how I do it. I open up the health app on my smartphone, I scan the QR code.

So it says, I've got a green code and I've got a recent COVID test. So I'm good to go.

This code dictates all of our daily lives in China. Green means good to go. Red means I may have to isolate at home or go to a mass quarantine

facility. This allows China to track the movements of virtually all 1.4 billion people in the name of contact tracing.

I've got to scan my code to get into a taxi, a public park, a mall or a coffee shop, even a public bathroom.

I ran into a group of delivery people, on the street. They've got to do COVID tests, every single day, to do their jobs.

This woman tells me the pandemic has been hard on her. I ask her why. She says it's because she's scared of the virus.

Getting COVID in China is unlike anywhere else in the world. You and your close contacts all get sent to a quarantine center.

This is a convention center, in Beijing that's been turned into a massive quarantine facility, with thousands of beds. But some of these facilities,

in the country, they are in very rundown and unsanitary condition. And then, your whole building or community could go into lockdown.

I spoke to a man, who has been in and out of quarantine, six times, already, just this year. He tells me, his whole building of more than 200

families went to a quarantine facility, last month, because they were considered close contacts.


He says he's not scared to get COVID, because Omicron is less severe and his whole family has been vaccinated.

I approached a few people just released from this mass quarantine center here. I ask, if they had tested positive for COVID. "Yes," the man nods and

says they have recovered. "How many days did you spend in there," I ask. "Seven days," he said.

Unprecedented protests recently erupted across China.

WANG: They're chanting that they don't want COVID tests. They want freedom.

Authorities swiftly crack down on the protesters. But they are finally softening their stance, on zero COVID. Some cities are lifting lockdowns,

changing COVID testing requirements. Under some conditions, people can now quarantine at home, if they have COVID, which is a huge deal.

But this country has already built up a whole infrastructure, around zero COVID, spending all of its resources on quarantine facilities and COVID

testing. So it's going to be a long and slow exit, from zero COVID-19 -- Selina Wang, CNN, Beijing.


GIOKOS: And a laborious undertaking for Selina Wang to get a takeaway.

Speaking of fast foods, scientists say they have found a link between food and dementia. A new study finds that, if you are getting more than a

quarter of your daily calories from ultraprocessed foods like those found in fast food meals, you've got a higher risk of developing dementia.

Let's bring in CNN medical correspondent Dr. Tara Narula to discuss how to sever this link.

I have to say, at some point in our, lives we start worrying about cognitive decline. It's not great news for people who do enjoy fast food in

terms of the link. But it's about processed food.

What is defined as processed?

DR. TARA NARULA, CNN MEDICAL CORRESPONDENT: Right, it's actually about ultraprocessed foods. When you think about unprocessed, we're talking about

vegetables, fruits, legumes, beans, fish, certain types of meat, eggs. So that's unprocessed, that's really the healthiest.

Ultraprocessed are going to be things like pizza, ice cream, candy, soda, burgers, French fries, processed meat. So all the things, as you, mentioned

that so many of us love to eat. Our kids love to eat.

Unfortunately, in general, these types of food tend to be loaded with saturated fat, trans fats, sugar and salt, really low on nutrient value.

They make up a large proportion of the calories consumed in the Western world.

So for example, 58 percent of calories in the American diet come from ultraprocessed food. That's about 57 percent for those who live in Britain.

So this is a big part of our consumption. Really, it's problematic.

We know there's a link in general with cardiovascular disease, obesity and cancer. What we haven't looked at yet is cognitive decline. This is the

first study, as you, mentioned to look at that.


GIOKOS: Could you give me a sense of how, how do they, how does it increase the risk for cognitive decline?

Do we know?

Can we quantify this?

NARULA: Yes, it's really important to find out with this research, this is not a cause and effect type of study. It's what we call an association

study so we can't definitively link it -- and maybe the people who eat ultraprocessed foods, for example, don't have as healthy lifestyles.

Really what researchers, did they took about 10,000 adults living in Brazil. They gave them a food questionnaire and then they followed them for

an average of about eight years. These adults were about 50 years old.

They gave them cognitive tests. They found as you mentioned in the beginning, that if their diet had a daily consumption of over 20 percent of

calories coming from ultraprocessed foods, they had a faster rate of global cognitive function decline and also what we call executive function, the

part of our brains that is so important for processing information and making decisions.

They hypothesized this may be from increased inflammation, from damage to some of the blood vessels in the brain and also changes in the microbiome,

those gut bacteria that may also affect our cognitive abilities.

GIOKOS: Yes, so much to think about, I, mean can we counter this negative impact?

Let's be realistic. Here people are going to want to eat pizza.

Does homemade pizza count?

Can I make homemade burgers?

Help me out here. There's a lot of things to take into consideration.

Can I exercise more to counter the impacts?

NARULA: As someone who loves her pizza, yes, the more you can cook at home and use your own ingredients the, better for sure. In, fact in this study,

they did find that people who in general had an overall healthy dietary score, that did counteract that declining cognitive functions.

So you can sneak in. Things if, in general, according to the study, you are eating a healthy Pattern that is always what as physicians, doctors and

nutritionists try to focus on is the overall pattern of eating. So keeping healthier snacks and options at home.


Cooking at home, being mindful about how you're eating. And then also, you know, in general, as a cardiologist, I often recommend the Mediterranean

diet. This is a very healthy diet. It actually has a lot of data supporting its benefits when it comes to cognitive function.

GIOKOS: It's a good thing I'm. Greek because I love the Mediterranean diet. Thank you very much. Good to see you, much appreciated.

All, right still to come tonight, it's a battle at the ballot box in the U.S. state of Georgia, what a win for either party and the Senate runoff

could mean for the 2024 presidential election. Stay with CNN.




GIOKOS: Washington held a ceremony a few hours ago to honor law enforcement who defended the U.S. Capitol during the January 6th

insurrection. The family of an officer who died after responding to the riot was there.

But as they went up to accept his gold medal, they refused to shake hands with White House Republican leader Kevin McCarthy and CNN Republican leader

Mitch McConnell..

CNN asked the officer's mother why and she accused the two leaders of being two-faced and being too close to former president Donald Trump.

Now in the U.S. state of Georgia, it's Election Day. And at stake is outright control of the U.S. Senate. Democratic incumbent senator Raphael

Warnock and Republican challenger Herschel Walker are facing off in the high stakes runoff.

If. Warnock wins it will give Democrats an outright majority and end the power sharing agreement that is currently in place. But Walker is a revered

former Georgia football player. And all indications are, the race will be very tight.

CNN's Amara Walker joins us now from a polling station just outside of Atlanta.

Always good to see. You this is a pivotal election for control of the U.S. Senate.

What are you seeing on the ground?

AMARA WALKER, CNN ANCHOR AND CORRESPONDENT: I'm sure the last time you were talking about voting in Georgia, you were seeing long lines snaking

around buildings. That was early voting. But talk about a stark contrast.

Today's Election Day for the Senate runoff and there have been no. Lines it's been so efficient, very easy, in and out within a couple of minutes.

In, fact the average wait time has been about one minute for the entire state of Georgia. We are talking about 2,700 polling locations.


I also spoke with the chief operating officer of the Georgia secretary of state office, Gabriel Sterling. He estimates that about 750,000 people have

already cast their ballots.

As you know, there has been a ton of interest in this election and early voting. It has been record-breaking, 1.8 5 million ballots were cast there.

The expected turnout today is expected to be over 1 million.

I've been talking to voters for much of the day. Some of them were eager to tell me who they voted for and why. Listen.


UNIDENTIFIED MALE: I'll tell, you I voted for Herschel Walker. Even though I'm an Auburn fan, I put on fight night here in Atlanta. Herschel came to

an event. So I liked him. I spent about 30 minutes with him and nice guy.

WALKER: Do you mind me asking who you voted?


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I'm Warnock, definitely. He's intelligent. He's for the people. He's assertive, he's efficient. He actually has moved some

ground here.


WALKER: Eleni, I do want to mention, we are in Cobb County. This is a county that a lot of people are watching. This is a county that was once

solidly Republican and now it's slightly leaning Democratic.

When you saw what happened in November, there was a lot of ticket splitting. You had a lot of Republicans or independents voting for the

Republican governor, Brian Kemp, not casting their vote for the Republican Senate challenger, Herschel Walker.

The question will be, for this runoff, if he will be able to pick up ground from Kemp's voters today.

GIOKOS: Amara, great to see, you thank you so much.

Still to come tonight, we will take you around Italy, the country's fascist era may have ended decades ago but in some places, it doesn't feel like

it's in the distant past. We will bring you the story right after this.




GIOKOS: At this year's global climate summit in Egypt, negotiators finally came to an agreement after nearly 30 years. It's a decision that could

bring relief to vulnerable countries suffering from climate disasters. Let's take a look.




GIOKOS (voice-over): The devastating ferociousness of natural disasters, the growing consequence of a growing climate crisis.

ANTONIO GUTERRES, UNITED NATIONS SECRETARY-GENERAL (voice-over): We are on a highway to climate hell with our foot still on the accelerator.

GIOKOS (voice-over): A stark warning at the opening of COP27 that took place in the Egyptian resort of Sharm El Sheikh. By the amidst the speeches

and within the corridors, a long held, contentious issue finally made it to the forefront of the agenda: loss and damages.

ANI DASGUPTA, WORLD RESOURCES INSTITUTE (voice-over): Loss and damages is when weather events, climate related weather events, are so severe that

families, communities cannot adapt anymore. Take for example in Fiji, where the water level rises. You have to move a whole village to a new location

and a new. Island.

Or if fishermen, when the tuna has moved on because of heat in the water, you can't recover, you find different employment. So these kind of shifts

that are taking place, it's something that you can adapt to. These are permanent losses that you need to compensate. This is what in U.N.-speak is

loss and damage.

GIOKOS (voice-over): According to the U.N., adapting to the effects of climate change could cost developing countries up to $340 billion annually

by the year 2030. China, Europe and the United States are the top three producers of greenhouse gases whilst Africa produces only 3 percent of

global emissions.

DASGUPTA (voice-over): So there is a disparity between who produces this impact and who is actually getting impacted.

GIOKOS (voice-over): All of this is now slated to change, thanks to a last-minute consensus to create a loss and damages fund.

GUTERRES (voice-over): This COP, it's taken an important step toward justice. I welcome the decision to establish our loss and damage fund and

two operationalize it in the coming periods.

GIOKOS (voice-over): However, it's still early days. Over the next year, negotiators will hammer out the details over who should pay and how the

money will be allocated and delay any concerns that wealthier countries will have to pay for the damage caused in poor areas.

DASGUPTA (voice-over): The loss and damage took so long, primarily because richer countries felt like they are being held liable for the damages

they've caused (INAUDIBLE) and that liability in a legal sense would be unending.

GIOKOS (voice-over): Many believe a major milestone has been achieved here in Sharm El Sheikh, a consensus that shouldering the burden of climate

change is finally being recognized as a global and multinational issue -- Eleni Giokos, CNN.


GIOKOS: All right, Italians today are living under the most far-right government since the fascist area of Benito Mussolini. But even before

that, there were reminders of that dark chapter in Italy's history in the country's local landmarks. CNN's Ben Wedeman explains.


BEN WEDEMAN, CNN SR. INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Benito Mussolini and his fascist party are long gone. His favorite balcony

overlooking Rome's Piazza Valencia is now just a balcony.

Yet the fascist era left a lasting mark on Italy's landscape. Now documented in a new online database, listing more than 1,400 sites linked

to Italy's fascist past.

Over the last four years, historian Lucia Cheche (ph) worked with others to catalog the sites.

"Our idea is even more important at a time like this," she tells me, "because it raises awareness and helps the circulation of anti-fascist


Those antibodies have yet to kick in, with a new far-right government in power here, led by prime minister Giorgia Meloni, who, in her youth, was a

Mussolini admirer. She now insists fascism is history.

Rome certainly is not short of landmarks that hark back to those days.

After the fall of Italy's fascist regime in the end of the Second World War, busts and statues of Mussolini were removed. Other monuments from that

era, however, have been left untouched.

Many here do not hide their appreciation for what fascism left behind, if not fascism itself.

"There is no point in cleaning up history," says the culture ministry's Vittorio Scala.


"Fascist architecture is the last recognizable style of Italian architecture," he says. "There is no Christian Democrat, no socialist, no

communist architecture. There is only horrific architecture of speculation of brutal capitalism that destroyed the landscape and the environment."

While postwar Germany went through a thorough process in denazification, Italy emerged from World War II and did not look back.

And even now, a whiff of nostalgia lingers here for the days when the trains ran on time.

"This idea that, in the end, fascism did some good things is something you often hear in Italy," says historian Lucia Cheche (ph).

At Rome's Foro Italico, previously known as the Foro Mussolini or Mussolini's Forum, statues the dictator commissioned still watch over

athletes in training. The past, blemishes and all, is never far away -- Ben Wedeman, CNN, Rome.


GIOKOS: Great report there by Ben Wedeman.

Thanks so much for watching tonight. Stay with CNN, "QUEST MEANS BUSINESS" is up next. I'm Eleni Giokos in Dubai, goodbye.