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American Morning

Earthquake Hits the Midwest; Pope Meets With Sexual Abuse Victims; Citigroup's Quarter Loss Woes; What Parents Need to Know About Rotavirus; How Pilots Train for Trouble

Aired April 18, 2008 - 07:00   ET


OLAN HORNE, SEX ABUSE VICTIM: We've been on and we've had a mission, and we've had a logic about what we really expected from this and we were bringing it. It was difficult for him.
JOHN ROBERTS, CNN ANCHOR: Typically, these audiences with the Pope are very scripted. It's stand over here. Here's how you act. Don't say this. Don't talk to him.

Don't speak unless being spoken to. Bernie, you were very direct with the Pope yesterday.

BERNIE MCDAID, SEX ABUSE VICTIM: Yes. You know, it is a limited time, although we were told, you know, half hour with the pontiff unrehearsed is unprecedented, so that's fine. But it's nevertheless a short moment in your life when you get to speak about something like this.

ROBERTS: But you told him that he had a cancer on his church.

MCDAID: On his flock. Has cancer in his flock is the way I referred to it.


MCDAID: Because that's the issue that most hurts me now. We're getting help, people are reaching out, but they still have people in there that have to resign or go that were accountable for moving these priests around that directed them to the children.

ROBERTS: Well, Faith, do you have trust that this will be anything more than just this short meeting with the Pope? And what about the thousand of other people who suffered abuse at the hands of these clergy? Do you really believe that now the Catholic Church will take concrete steps to address this problem not just at the papal level but also down at the pastoral level?

FAITH JOHNSTON, SEX ABUSE VICTIM: Absolutely. I think now that the Holy Father has sort of step in and taking a hand in this, I think we're going to see huge changes. And I think the most important part about yesterday's meeting was that he now sees each of us as individuals. We're not just victims of the sexual abuse crisis.

We are Faith, we are Olan, we are Bernie, and I think that's just -- yes, I think it's going to -- I think there are going to be huge changes. And hopefully those who haven't come forward, because I'm sure there -- I know there are others. I hope that they're able to come forward. I hope that they are able to take something out of this and get just as much hope and strength as we did from this.

ROBERTS: Well, maybe this truly is, as Bernie said yesterday, the end of the beginning of this crisis and that something else will get done. Faith McDonald (ph), Bernie McDaid, Olan Horne, thanks for being with us this morning. I know you're in demand, so we'll cut you loose. Appreciate you being with us today.

MCDAID: Thank you.

HORNE: Thank you.

ROBERTS: The Pope is heading for New York City about 90 minutes from now. CNN's Jason Carroll covered the sexual abuse scandal. He's been following the Pope's trip as well. He's here now. How important -- I mean, this is really extraordinary.


ROBERTS: You can see that they have taken away new hope that there will be some sort of resolution to this crisis and help for these people needed for all these years.

CARROLL: It's absolutely stunning that the Pope met with these people for a number of reasons. First, when you consider that they're from Boston, which was arguably the flashpoint of the sexual abuse scandal. You know, some 500 people eventually came forward in 2002. Just from Boston alone, saying they had been sexually abused. So from a symbolic viewpoint, it's extremely important.

ROBERTS: So why is it so extraordinary? He's got this huge crisis in his church. He is the leader of the church. Should he not be addressing it?

CARROLL: Well, of course, he should. But look at what happened with Pope John Paul II. I mean, he came out and made one declarative statement. And this man has come out and has addressed this issue three times even before this meeting.

You know, he did it on the papal plane on the way over. He did it again when he addressed the U.S. bishops. He did it again when he had that huge mass in Washington, D.C. But when you speak to some of the other victims, there's still a little bit of disappointment out there as well.


ROBERTS: Sure, there's anger. There's anger from some of the victims out there saying why not us? Why weren't we chosen to meet with him?

CARROLL: And also, why at this point hasn't some of the cardinals and the bishops been punished like the priests?

ROBERTS: Right. CARROLL: Why haven't those people been moved --

ROBERTS: That is the big thorn in the side of so many people. Cardinal Bernard Law who many people say turned a blind eye to what was going on in his archdiocese is now in Rome.


CARROLL: Right. In Rome.

ROBERTS: Shielded as many people claim by the Vatican.

CARROLL: And head of a basilica there. So he's living arguably a pretty nice life, you know, and a lot of these victims are not. And so, a lot of these victims are looking and saying even the man who was forced to resign in 2002 was given by Pope John Paul II, you know, this position in Rome.

And so, what happens to the other cardinals? What happens to the other bishops who are still here, still in the United States, who are still responsible for moving around these priests? Why do we not see these men being punished?

ROBERTS: Obviously, a long way to go to fully address this crisis.


ROBERTS: Jason, thanks very much -- Alina.

ALINA CHO, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Breaking news this morning. An earthquake hitting in the Midwest. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, a 5.4 magnitude quake hit southern Illinois. It was centered about six miles from West Salem, felt as far north as Milwaukee, and as far south as the Atlanta suburbs. There are no reports of injuries, but we are getting some brand new pictures of the damage.

This from Louisville, Kentucky, in our affiliate there. It could be one of the strongest earthquakes ever to hit the region. Patti Thompson of the Illinois Emergency Management Agency joins us now by phone. So, Patty, I know it's early, but what's your assessment of the damage?

ON THE PHONE, PATTI THOMPSON, ILLINOIS EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY: Well, at this point we've only received one report of damage here in Illinois, and that was some cracks in a roadway in Cairo which is in far southern Illinois, but it's still early. So we are sending out crews to try to assess damage.

CHO: And what sort of emergency operations are in place right now?

THOMPSON: At this point, we're in the process of activating our State Emergency Operations Center, and we'll be getting in information here as it comes in. CHO: You know, it's a 5.4 magnitude earthquake, considered a moderate earthquake, but extraordinary that it was felt in so many states. Have you ever dealt with anything like this before, Patti?

THOMPSON: You know, we have had other ones where we have felt it before, and like I said, I don't know that I can compare it to other ones yet because I don't know if -- you know, the extent of any damage.

CHO: Sure. Well, I know you felt it yourself. Where were you? What did you feel and what did you think at the time?

THOMPSON: Well, I was sleeping at the time because I think it happened around 4:30ish. And when we first woke up, I was a little concerned that something had happened to our house. But then as the rattling continued, I figured it was probably an earthquake because I had felt it before.

CHO: Well, smart assessment, but it is what you do. Patti Thompson of the State Emergency Operations Center out of Springfield, Illinois, the capital, following an earthquake there. 5.4 magnitude felt in several states. Patti, we thank you.

THOMPSON: Thank you -- John.

ROBERTS: Shocking testimony in the first day of hearings to determine custody of the 416 children seized from a polygamist compound in Texas. A child abuse investigator testified that pregnant teens believed no age was too young to be married. The state alleges that some children gave birth when they were as young as 13, and some were subjected to sexual abuse.


SUSAN HAYS, ATTORNEY: It's difficult to get the facts of the case when I don't have the typical documentation you'd have on a family. I don't have access to a father. I don't have access to any kind of records that may exist.

ROD PARKER, FAMILY SPOKESMAN: I think it's also apparent that what the state is trying to do here is tar a few -- tar all the families with the problems of -- or the alleged problems of a few families.


ROBERTS: Attorneys for the children say the state has acknowledged the kids are healthy and loved and that the separation from their parents has been traumatizing.

Well, Citigroup stumbles again. The nation's largest bank by assets records records another devastating quarterly loss. Why big bank woes matter to you, just ahead.

And the price of gas hitting yet another record overnight. How is it changing your life? We're talking with drivers daring to fill up, ahead on AMERICAN MORNING.


ROBERTS: Just in Citigroup, the nation's largest bank by assets, records yet another big quarterly loss. Ali Velshi here now with more on that. More on the subprime shake-up.

ALI VELSHI, CNN SENIOR BUSINESS CORRESPONDENT: Yes, a lot of it is subprime. Now, there are just credit losses so there's a combination here. Citibank losing more than $5 billion. That's their loss, but there's a write down of about $12 billion.

Now, as you know, a write down is different from a loss. A write down is an admission that basically all this stuff that we thought were assets, all the money we thought that was coming in against these loans is not going to come in. It's basically when you're -- let's say your house drops in value, and you've been putting it down as an asset worth $200,000. Now, you realize it's really just worth $100,000. That would be basically a write down.

So, Citibank losing $5 billion. Writing down more than $12 billion, and its profits, it's revenue, the amount of money it actually took in, down about 48 percent compared to the same time last year.

Now, this is the problem. We're in earning season right now. We knew the banking sector was going to be where the problems were, but this is worse than expected. And there is some feeling on Wall Street and among investors, particularly in the stocks that you hold, because many of them will be banking stocks that we want to see the end of the banking sector woes. We want to see the banks come clean and say that's it. This is how bad things are and we can move on.

Citibank today, proof again that that is not the case. That is likely to affect markets very negatively. By the way, Citibank is a Dow component, which means those of you have mutual funds that mimic the Dow or the S&P 500, and frankly, most mutual funds in America that are broadly based will have that.

ROBERTS: Do you know if the stocks up (ph)?

VELSHI: It was up prior to this announcement. It has now just been moving very rapidly. So I'll figure it out in a little bit. But it's obviously going to take a big hit today.

CHO: Google bucking the trend.

VELSHI: Google bucking the trend big time. Up 30 percent beating analysts' expectations. I think that stock was about 20 percent compared to yesterday.

ROBERTS: Still way down from where it was, though.

VELSHI: Yes, but I think we at about 520. The high was in the 700s. I mean, it's -- Google jumped just last night with 75 bucks.

ROBERTS: 200 bucks.

VELSHI: Yes, but 75 bucks in a day that could make that all up in a week.

ROBERTS: Pick up some of what you lost.


ROBERTS: Thanks, Ali.

CHO: Ali, thanks.

We're following breaking news this morning. An earthquake rattles the Midwest. Rob Marciano monitoring this developing story. Hey, Rob, good morning to you. What's the latest?

ROB MARCIANO, CNN METEOROLOGIST: They haven't upgraded it or adjusted it. Still a three-mile in depth and still a 5.4. And from what I can tell, this is the strongest one since they have been keeping records in the state of Illinois. More on that, plus your weather forecast coming up after the break. Stay with us.


MARCIANO: Welcome back to AMERICAN MORNING. I'm Rob Marciano tracking this breaking news coming into us out of Illinois. 5.4 magnitude earthquake. And now, just out of the USGS, I mentioned before the break that they haven't adjusted the depth of this thing, but now the USGS has adjusted the depth to seven miles deep. Still very shallow and one of the reasons that has been felt in so many areas.

Here it is on the Google Earth map. And again, felt in places as far north as Chicago, as far south as Georgia, and this from what I have seen the strongest earthquake in the record books in the state of Illinois. Could very well be the strongest in the region in well over 100 years, and we're getting reports of some damage in and around that quake zone.

All right. Let's roll on to the weather here. We'll start you off with a different sort of tumultuous rocking and rolling that's across the I-10 corridor. This line has been severe in the past. Right now, it's weakening just a little bit as it heads towards the Sabine River. But folks who live in Beaumont, Port Arthur, Orange, Sulphur, Louisiana, and through (INAUDIBLE), you're going to get some rough weather here as you get your morning started.

Flash flood warnings were posted for southwestern parts of Missouri with this band of rain which was heavy at times. Also, some heavy rain moving across parts of Omaha. But today, the hot spot weatherwise will be across parts of southern Louisiana and southern Mississippi for the potential of severe weather. And we'll also monitor for the potential of, I suppose guys, of seeing aftershocks anywhere from Memphis to St. Louis today. Crazy stuff. Back to you guys in New York. ROBERTS: Yes. That really is kind of incredible. We've had people from as far south as Cherry Log, Georgia, and we had one person write us from Toronto...

CHO: Toronto, yes.

ROBERTS: ... saying that they felt it but the timing was a little off on that.

CHO: We'll have to confirm that. Hey, Rob, stay with us because, you know, we have some more breaking news to tell you about. And we have this just in to CNN. The newest member of the AMERICAN MORNING family. Some of you have been waiting for this. It's finally happened.

Kiran Chetry gave birth to a healthy baby boy late last night. It happened about 10:45, we understand.

ROBERTS: Yes, I mean, nothing like precision in the Chetry family either. Look at this. Seven pounds, zero ounces. Right on the nose at 7 pounds. Mom, baby, dad, big sister all said to be doing fine this morning. So big congratulations out there to Kiran and to Chris and to Maya and to...

CHO: Little Chris.

ROBERTS: ... the new little Chris.

CHO: Little Chris. That's right.


MARCIANO: Little Christopher coming in on almost the full moon and on the night before an earthquake. Hopefully he grows up to be a weatherman like his dad.

ROBERTS: I wonder if that was the labor or the scream or what it was. The earth shook.

Hey, Dr. Gupta is with us this morning as well. Momentous occasion this morning, Sanjay. You're actually late last night.

DR. SANJAY GUPTA, CNN CHIEF MEDICAL CORRESPONDENT: Oh, yes. I mean, I remember those nights so well, long nights that I actually got a couple of e-mails from Kiran in the middle of the night. So I know she's still on AMERICAN MORNING time even though she has this new edition to her family for sure. So, huge congratulations to her for sure.

ROBERTS: Nothing like checking with your neurosurgeon when you're having a baby.

GUPTA: Long night, long night.

ROBERTS: It was, but it's great. Hey, you're talking about things that obviously a lot of parents have to face. Vaccines for rotavirus. Children under 5 getting these vaccines, and there's some concerns about these things.

GUPTA: Yes, very young children. In fact, Kiran is going to have to think about this sometime soon. Rotavirus is one of those viruses that is pretty ubiquitous. It gets a lot of kids sick.

Should you vaccinate or should you not? What are the pros and cons? I'll have them for you coming up on AMERICAN MORNING. Stay with us.


ROBERTS: Well, there is growing concern about childhood vaccines and their possible link to autism. Today the Centers for Disease Control is out with new information on the Rotavirus vaccine, and our chief medical correspondent, Dr. Sanjay Gupta, joins us now from Atlanta. Just a quick primer (ph) if you would, Sanjay, what is rotavirus and what should parents know about the vaccine being given to the kids?

GUPTA: One of these viruses that is in a lot of different places and is the virus that gets kids pretty sick. Gives them the diarrhea that oftentimes is transmitted by people or kids, in this case, sticking their hands on dirty surfaces. Oftentimes everything goes in their mouth. That can lead to kids getting pretty sick.

Now, there have been a sort of sequence of vaccines over the last several years. There has been RotaShield, RotaTeq and Rotarix, the newest one, John, that a lot of people are focusing on.

Part of the issue with these vaccines was that in the past they were given as three doses and you had to give them over a certain period of time. As with most parents and busy schedules, it was hard to come back for three separate visits. This new one, Rotarix, is two doses, still a little bit difficult, but designed to give your child some protection against getting some of those awful GI, if you will, symptoms, John.

ROBERTS: So, you know, we ask this question a lot every time we talk about childhood diseases and childhood vaccines. What's a parent to do and how else could you prevent rotavirus if not from this vaccine?

GUPTA: Well, yes, and you're right. There has been a lot of concerns about vaccines for the reasons that we've been talking about for several months here. So that's obviously a decision that parents want to make with their doctor. It is -- I'll give you an example.

For example, RotaShield, one of the first vaccines specifically for rotavirus was subsequently taken off the market not so much because of autism, but because of concerns that it caused something known as intussusception. What that means is that the intestines sort of spiraled on itself and made it very difficult for things to sort of move through, if you will, through the intestines. So that was a concern. It was taken off the market.

The new virus, the one that was just approved this year, does not seem to have those side effects. It is relatively new. What is a parent to do? It is very difficult. Having two small children myself, I mean, you got to try and keep them as clean as possible and keep dirty things from going into their mouths, which can be hard especially when you leave them to play for a bit or something like that. So, as clean as you can possibly keep them, and then have that discussion with your doctor about the vaccine.

ROBERTS: I was taking the subway the other day and this father was there with a couple of kids, and one of them was sitting with hands full down on the subway platform. And I'm thinking to myself, there is a disease ready to happen.

GUPTA: And those hands go straight to mouth shortly after I'm sure.

ROBERTS: Sanjay, thanks very much.

GUPTA: OK, thanks.


CHO: Human petri dishes.

Other news we're following this morning. Chaotic testimony expected today in Texas, the second day of a hearing in the nation's biggest custody case ever. It involves 416 children taken from a polygamist compound. Welfare officials are arguing abuse. They say some of the underage girls are pregnant.

And that brings us to this morning's "Quick Vote" question. Take a look. What should happen to the children taken from that polygamist ranch? Right now, 55 percent of you say they should remain in state custody. Forty-five percent say they should be given back to their parents. Very close.

Cast your vote at And, of course, we'll continue to tally your votes throughout the morning. Of course, we're asking for your e-mails on this as well. Always nice to read your e-mails.

Head to our Web site Follow the links that say "contact us" and we'll be reading your e-mails in the next hour -- John.

ROBERTS: Twenty-three minutes after the hour. A nightmare in the sky. A jet's engines flame out at 35,000 feet. Not just one, but both of them.

How do pilots get the plane on the ground safely? Our Miles O'Brien goes into a simulator to take a look. Coming up next.

And a new era of healing. Victims of clergy sex abuse speak out after the historic meeting with Pope Benedict. What they said on behalf of the thousands who didn't get to sit down with the Catholic Holy Father, coming up.

(COMMERCIAL BREAK) CHO: Fire and ice. There's an emerging problem with plane engines. Ice crystals apparently getting sucked into the engines can cause stalls or even flameouts. CNN's Miles O'Brien join us now with a look at how pilots are training for this frightening situation.

You're a pilot yourself. It's amazing really how realistic these simulators are.

MILES O'BRIEN, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Yes, almost a little too realistic. When all the engines go out and the cockpit gets a little bit dark, Alina, suddenly you realize this is a problem to contend with. The good news is pilots have a little more time than you might think to contend with it. The bad news is we're talking about a problem of ice that is literally cropped up out of the blue.


O'BRIEN (voice-over): We are at 30,000 feet off Los Angeles in an Airbus, A340. And we just lost all of our engines.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE PILOT: Fill the master. Looks like we've lost them all.

O'BRIEN: Well, actually, we were only 12 feet off the ground in an amazingly realistic $15 million simulator built by the Wizards at CAE in Montreal.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE PILOT: One, two, three, four, engine master's off.

O'BRIEN: We had these seasoned airline pilots show us how they would grapple with these seemingly dire cockpit crisis because it is happening in the real world, too frequently for comfort.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: We don't have emergencies anymore. We have non-normals. So, yes, all four engines going out would be a very much non-normal.

O'BRIEN: The problem is ice -- invisible, high altitude ice crystals that get sucked into engines clogging the air flow and causing them to stall. A flameout.

The National Transportation Safety Board has tallied 36 such incidents in recent years where one or more engines quit out of the blue. Fortunately, they all ended with happy landings, usually after a successful midair restart.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: The safety board don't like margins this close, so we like to put more buffer into it. We like to keep those engines running all the time.

O'BRIEN: As a result, the FAA has issued a series of bulletins and directives affecting several airplane and engine models. In essence, the new rules require flight crews to turn on anti-icing equipment near thunderstorms even if they're not in the clouds. It's where those elusive ice crystals form. Engine manufacturers do a lot of testing to ensure their engines will run in all kinds of harsh conditions. General Electric says it has a software fix which may reduce the ice risk. Pratt & Whitney says it is working collaboratively with the FAA in an industry working group to solve the problem. Meanwhile, flight crews honing their skills in simulators like this are thinking about what they would do if they flamed out.


O'BRIEN: In our case, all four engines were spinning once again in about 10 minutes, and we were on the ground in less than half an hour.


O'BRIEN: Alina, a plane with no engines can actually glide if it's at about 36,000 feet, can actually glide for about 12 minutes or 100 miles. That's a lot of time to solve the problem.

CHO: That is a lot of time. Well, you're lucky you do have that time in a kind of situation.


O'BRIEN: Yes, indeed.

CHO: But why are we just hearing about this now? I mean, this is a new product?

O'BRIEN: Well, it's a bit of a mystery but there are a couple of things. A lot of these instances have happened over the pacific where there's a lot of warm-weather type storms that generate these things. There's some reason to believe climate change may have something to do with it. The other factor is frankly, there's a lot more airliners flying the pacific rim because the economy is booming there, and maybe that's why we're seeing more of these instances.

CHO: I see.

O'BRIEN: Also, planes are flying right at the edge of the envelope as it were. So anyway, they will figure it out.

CHO: Well, that simulator is something, really something. Costs millions of dollars. Miles O'Brien, thank you.

O'BRIEN: You're welcome.

CHO: John?

ROBERTS: Twenty-nine minutes after the hour. Pope Benedict XVI arrives in New York City in just a few hours. The Pope will head to the United Nations for an address to the general assembly, and then he'll visit a Manhattan synagogue and end his day with a prayer service with Christian leaders. This weekend he will also visit Ground Zero and celebrate a huge mass at Yankee stadium. The Pope's trip to New York comes just a day after his extraordinary meeting with tearful victims of sexual abuse at the hands of Catholic priests. Three of them sat down with us earlier on AMERICAN MORNING.


OLAN HORNE, SEX ABUSE VICTIM, MET WITH POPE: I talked to him about my hate toward the church. I talk to my hate toward the administrations and the bishops and all that needed to be done. But I asked him to forgive me for having such hate.


ROBERTS: A papal spokesman told "The Associated Press" that Boston's Cardinal O'Malley presented the Pope with a notebook listing more than 1,000 abuse victims from the Boston Archdiocese alone.

More now on that breaking news in Illinois this morning. Just minutes ago, the U.S. Geological Survey adjusted the magnitude of this morning's earthquake. It's now a 5.2. That's down from initial estimates of 5.4.

It is still the largest earthquake in 40 years. Struck just miles from West Salem. That's about 40 miles from Evansville, Indiana, down there in the southeastern part of Illinois. And here is the picture of some damage this morning in Louisville, Kentucky. This is an old building, Decker College downtown. Part of the roof came off. It looks actually part of the, maybe part of the cornice there just before the roof came down.

ALINA CHO, CNN, ANCHOR: We hope that's the extent of the damage.

ROBERTS: Yes. Not many more reports of damage coming off here. You can see just the cornice just fell off the building there. It's been felt almost 400 miles away though, south and in some of Atlanta's suburbs. Dave Applegate is a senior science adviser for the U.S. Geological Survey. He joins us now by telephone. He is in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Dave, tell us a little bit more about the fault system that this earthquake hit this morning.

DAVE APPLEGATE, SENIOR SCIENCE ADVISER, U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY (ON PHONE): Sure thing. This is -- this quake is a reminder, of course, that earthquakes are something that can happen all across the U.S. This particular region is known as the -- in the Wabash Valley fault system. And it's just adjacent to the New Madrid fault system. New Madrid was, of course, the area where there was a series of very large earthquakes back in 1811, 1812 time period.

As you said, this part of Illinois is not stranger to earthquakes. Back in 1968 there was a magnitude 5.4, and pretty typically for these eastern central U.S. earthquakes, they're felt over a very broad area.

ROBERTS: Why is it, Dave, that they are felt over such a wide area compared to a earthquake in California, let's say? APPLEGATE: Well, part of it has to do with the age of the earth's crust in this area. It's not as broken up as it is out in the western U.S.. It's older and colder crust. Really when you have an earthquake, it rings like a bell, and so the seismic waves travel much more broadly. You also have very deep sediment layers. So the accumulation of the erosion over millions of years of old mountain belts, and those deep sediments shake a lot.

In fact, that's a big concern we always have that buildings on these -- in these basins tend to shake much more strongly than they do on solid rock, and so you also get that effect over broad areas. Very deep sediment there in the Mississippi Valley and all the accompanying river valleys.

ROBERTS: You know, we're seeing a little bit of damage. The only damage that we have seen so far this morning is from Louisville, Kentucky. It looks like a portion of the brick cornice of an old building came off and fell into the street. Because of the geology of the area, could we expect to see more damage such as this?

APPLEGATE: Yes, particularly - and that fallen cornice is a good example of what the challenge is for the central U.S.. You have a lot of buildings, brick buildings, what we call unreinforced masonry. A lot of pieces where you have heavy structural elements high up, and so those are particularly vulnerable structures. So, we would expect to see some additional damage to brick buildings. So far we have had over 7,000 reports on our Web site of shaking from all across that region with the highest being reports of some very strong shaking in the immediate area.

ROBERTS: Do you expect that there would be aftershocks as we typically see in a California quake or because of the nature of this fault system, might we just see this one and then nothing else?

APPLEGATE: We would expect aftershocks, absolutely. They're usual - they're typically the largest aftershocks will be about a magnitude smaller. So they'll be felt but would not necessarily be damaging. Although of course things that have already been shaken and close to failure can be pushed over by that. The one thing though we always say that there is a small probability for this to be a foreshock to a larger earthquake. So that is always a potential, but it is -- the likelihood is it will simply be a number of smaller quakes as the earth readjusts after this big shift.

ROBERTS: All right. Let's hope it's the latter and not the former. Dave Applegate, senior science adviser to the U.S. Geological Survey joining us on the phone this morning. Dave, thanks very much. Appreciate it.

APPLEGATE: Certainly.

CHO: This morning we're "Uncovering America." Visiting historically black colleges and universities as part of CNN's "Black in America" series. Those colleges have a distinguished past but today, while some are thriving, others are struggling with graduation rates at less than 50 percent. CNN's Chris Lawrence is on the campus of Howard University in Washington, D.C.. Hey, Chris, good morning.

CHRIS LAWRENCE, CNN, CORRESPONDENT: Good morning, Alina. You know, Howard University's graduation rate has risen more than 10 percent over the last ten years and is now one of the highest of any historically black college. But it's still not where it wants to be, especially when it comes to one part of its student body.


LAWRENCE (voice-over): It takes ten seconds on campus to see what's missing, men. They're outnumbered by women nearly 2 to 1 at Howard University in historically black colleges nationwide.

Do you see the gender gap on campus?

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I definitely notice the gap on campus. In all my classes I have maybe two males, if anything.

LAWRENCE: We gathered some Howard students to talk about the gap.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: I'm in school communications. Some of those classes -- it's maybe me and another guy.

LAWRENCE: To be fair, white women outnumber white men at schools across the country too. But the gap is wider among black students. Howard recently graduated 863 women and 339 men.

What are black women on campus doing that black men aren't?

DR. ALVIN THORNTON: Oh, I think they're more academically focused.

LAWRENCE: Dr. Alvin Thornton said black men accepted at Howard have higher SAT scores than women.

THORTON: It suggests that once you get into the educational environment, she studies harder. She works harder.

LAWRENCE: Overall, out of 100 historically black colleges, only eight graduate more than half of their students.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: You start out with a class of maybe 1,000 and end up with 500 because half the people couldn't make it.

LAWRENCE: By contrast UCLA graduates 73 percent of its black students. And at elite schools like Harvard and Yale, black students graduate at nearly the same average as whites, well above 90 percent. But those schools have huge endowments that can erase students' financial needs. And money matters. Seven out of 10 black students who enrolled but didn't finish college say they dropped out because of high loan debt.

Experts say the key to keeping more black men in college can be found in the elementary schools they attended. THORNTON: Let's go back 12 years and see what's the size of his class? Did they have a certified math teacher? How many male teachers were there? What kind of after school programs were there?

LAWRENCE: The graduation rate for black men is improving, just not as much as black women.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I'm focusing on the positive of it. I think it's great that so many women are in college because for so long it was the opposite way.

LAWRENCE: And for its part, Howard graduates more black male doctors and lawyers than nearly any school in the country, public, private, white, or black.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: It's like there are no black males coming to college because you have three or four black males here, one will be graduating in a few days and will be going to law school.

LAWRENCE: The question is how many more will join in.


LAWRENCE: When we spoke with Calvin, James, Nicholas, some of the other men on campus they said even though they are successful along the path to graduate, they feel a real responsibility to the other men on campus. Very much a sense of I am my brother's keeper. And of course, all day today we hope to get a lot more feedback during the "Black in America" tour. Alina.

CHO: Very interesting report. CNN's Chris Lawrence. Chris, thank you.

And the historically Black College Tour rolls on next Tuesday at Clark Atlanta University, Morehouse College, and Spellman college. And you can learn more about our special series on our Web site

ROBERTS: 38 minutes after the hour now. Ali Velshi joining us this morning. A little late this morning because you had a little crisis of water. A little water shortage at the apartment building this morning.

ALI VELSHI, CNN, SENIOR BUSINESS CORRESPONDENT: It's all good. You know, yesterday on "Issue Number One," we had Suze Orman, our personal finance expert. She was taking questions and you know, one of the questions we're getting a lot on "Issue Number One" and you know, just across the network and everybody is that as times get tough and people can't go back to their homes to take money out, they are looking at tapping into their 401k.


VELSHI: We got that question.

ROBERTS: Bad idea. VELSHI: And Suze Orman had a very definite answer to that. So, we are going to come back --

ROBERTS: Was it like mine?

VELSHI: It was very similar to John's response to what - whether or not you should stretch you 401K. So AMERICAN MORNING is going to come back and I'm going tell you what Suze Orman said about touching your 401k in hard times.


CHO: Welcome back. All morning long AMERICAN MORNING is taking a closer look at the effect of high gas prices and the effect it is having on Americans. We are calling our special "Running on Empty." The AMERICAN MORNING gas gauge shows the current price of a gallon of regular unleaded is $3.44. That's another record that was hit overnight.

We're live from a Shell station in Doraville, Georgia. That's north of Atlanta. Talking with drivers and our latest person we're talking to this morning, Kevin Lievsay drives about 1,000 miles a week for his job. Hey, Kevin, good morning. So, you don't really have a choice. You're in sales. So, how much do you spend a week in gas?

KEVIN LIEVSAY, GAS STATION CUSTOMER: Quite a bit. I just filled up now. It cost me about $60 to fill the tank.

CHO: And how often do you have to fill up in one week?

LIEVSAY: Well, it's maybe one week or every other week.

CHO: So monthly what are you paying now versus say a month ago or a year ago? I mean you must be feeling the pinch given the amount that you drive?

LIEVSAY: Yes, absolutely. And I drive about 1,000 miles a month, and I just filled up, and it was about 20 percent higher than what I paid just maybe two weeks ago.

CHO: So where are you having to cut back or are you?

LIEVSAY: I do. I try to cut back and not travel as far, consolidate my trips, stuff like that.

CHO: And in terms of - I mean, listen, you got to buy the gas, you got to pay for food. So are you cutting back in other areas as well? I understand you may not be taking as many vacations as you'd like to.

LIEVSAY: That's right. We'll watch our budget. And if we, we might have to take a shorter trip, maybe not stay as long to accommodate the cost of the gas.

CHO: Kevin Lievsay, we thank you for joining us from that Shell station just outside Atlanta. Thanks and good luck. A lot of people feeling the pinch. And you know, that psychological level of $4 a gallon already feeling it in San Francisco.

ROBERTS: And so many people experiencing so many different financial pressures from so many different areas. And some of them are tapping into their savings, their retirement savings to try to pay the bills.

VELSHI: Yes. That's the tough part. When you don't have the house to go to and you got all these extra prices and you've got inflation, where do you go? A number of people have e-mailed us and yesterday somebody called us. Well, we had Suze Orman with us to say that they wanted to put in -- take money out of their 401k. Wow, the reaction was pretty clear. Listen to this.


SUZE ORMAN, PERSONAL FINANCE EXPERT: Do not throw good money after bad. Do not take money from a retirement account just to catch yourself up because you have brought yourself, you know, up to date but you won't be able to stay current. And then what happens to all of you? You end up claiming bankruptcy. So, be careful. Leave your retirement accounts alone.


VELSHI: Very clear on leaving your retirement accounts alone. In many cases, it's the only -- when you're tapped out, it's the only thing that looks like savings. It's the only pot of money that you can actually access. And for some people that's the only freedom they have.

CHO: Well, sure, especially if retirement seems like a lifetime away.

VELSHI: Right.

CHO: If you're young --

VELSHI: But very hard to catch up as she said. You know, it's a forced savings account. It's got tax benefits. There are penalties to touching your retirement accounts.


VELSHI: And those penalties are -

ROBERTS: And you can never make it back up. Because then you're putting post-tax money back into your 401k to make up for it.

VELSHI: And by the way, people don't often have that discipline to catch up. People say when we take it and I will double up my contributions next year when times are better and just psychologically we don't do that.

ROBERTS: We asked this is a "Quick Vote" question a little more than a month ago, I guess. A surprising number of people have tapped their 401k. VELSHI: Yes. You know, a very common problem right now. So, please try and do everything you can and really take a whole look at your financial situation. We understand, and that's why we're bringing you all of these information about prices --

ROBERTS: Pretend that money is gone.

VELSHI: And you're talking to Jeffrey Sachs a little later on this morning.

ROBERTS: One of the smartest men in the universe.

VELSHI: he really is one of the smartest men in the universe and we're trying to give you some sense of where this is going, where this trend goes. So, please, continue to follow that. We'll also have all of these topics covered on "Issue Number One" every day at noon Eastern right here on CNN. So please do that, and you can watch your money on the weekend too. We're not giving up on money coverage on this network. "Your Money" Saturdays and Sundays in the afternoon.

ROBERTS: Hugely important issue. Jeff Sachs is called by some people as Bono's brain because he's done so much work with the lead singer from U2.

VELSHI: But it is great. He's very smart but he's very understandable. It's really worth tuning in to listen to him.

ROBERTS: Looking forward to that. Ali, thanks.

CHO: Thanks.

ROBERTS: Good to have you here. Glad you got your water problem fixed. We're following breaking news this morning. An earthquake shaking the Midwest and Rob Marciano monitoring the developing story from Atlanta. It looks like we got a radius of about 400-plus miles that this was felt in. Rob.

ROB MARCIANO, CNN, METEOROLOGIST: Yes, a lot of folks feeling this one. 5.2, so they've adjusted slightly but still looks like the strongest this region has seen in about 40 years. Chat about that, plus a decent storm rolling across the country. Weather, that's coming up right after the break. Stay with us.


MARCIANO: Welcome back to AMERICAN MORNING. I'm Rob Marciano. If you're just joining us, a 5.2 magnitude quake centered about 127 miles east of St. Louis rocking and rolling those folks this morning. A little bit of damage, and looks to be the strongest earthquake that region has seen in about 40 years. All right. Some rock and roll and some rough and tumble weather heading across Louisiana today. That's going to be the main focus of our attention, but it's a storm system that stretches all the way to the north. So it is stretching out quite a bit.

Houston, Texas, stretching towards Beaumont, across Sabine. This is a pretty strong line of thunderstorms about to head in the Calcasieu Parish here and Cameron Parish as well across I-10, Sulphur, (Preon)ph and through the Ritter and Lake Charles and (Macadosia)ph as well. Up to the north, Omaha, you're getting a little bit of rain and thunderstorm activity there and some heavy rain or heavier rain will be rolling across parts of the Ohio River Valley during the day today.

So on the next couple days could see 1 to 2 inches of rainfall from Indianapolis all the way to Columbus stretching almost to Pittsburgh. John, back up to you in New York.

ROBERTS: Rob, thanks very much.

The Centers for Disease Control says a passenger was possibly infected with tuberculosis flying on a plane.

CHO: Yes. Incredible. Lots of questions about how she got on that plane, why she was allowed on that plane. So, we're "Paging Dr. Gupta." He has more on the investigation.

ROBERTS: Exactly.

And the security concerns raised by a visit from the Pope. Coming up, we're going to be talking with the New York City Police commissioner, Ray Kelly, about how his department is working to keep the Pope Benedict XCI safe.


ROBERTS: Centers for Disease Control is investigating whether a 30-year-old woman with active tuberculosis infected another passenger on a flight from India to Chicago. Our chief medical correspondent Dr. Sanjay Gupta joins us now from Atlanta. You know, we all remember the Andrew Speaker scare, which you covered so extensively. Is this another case like this? Should passengers be worried, people who were on that flight?

DR. SANJAY GUPTA, CNN, CHIEF MEDICAL CORRESPONDENT: Well, it does raise some concerns. There's no question. There are some similarities and some differences. They both had had drug-resistant tuberculosis. They both took transatlantic flights. A couple differences though, one is with the case of Andrew Speaker, we now know that no one was infected as a result of his travels and that he didn't have any symptoms. He wasn't coughing. He wasn't sick when he actually flew. This woman was sick apparently. She was coughing quite a bit and had to be admitted straight to the hospital when she eventually got back to the United States, and now there's a concern that one person who has tested positive may have been infected by this woman as well. We don't know for sure.

Let me just -- this is a real medical investigation. Let me just tell you real quickly, the way that this works is the woman was diagnosed when she got back. What they have to do is they have to look at the plane and figure out who was most likely to have also been infected. They actually look at the two rows in front, two rows in back of where the passenger sat. You could take a look though. This was 777, 16-hour flight. They identified 44 people. 27 people were identified as at risk. They have tested all those people and now a few months after her flight, which was back in December, they found that one person tested positive.

Now, John, this person who has tested positive, it means they just had the skin test and it came back positive. They're not sick necessarily. They don't have the tuberculosis bacteria that the doctors can find. So there's no way to say for sure these two cases are related, but they're obviously going to keep an eye on them.

ROBERTS: Everybody else cleared at this point?

GUPTA: It seems the other 27, 26, I guess, people were cleared, and there's been enough time that has elapsed now to adequately clear them.

ROBERTS: All right. So, maybe it ends here. Sanjay, thanks very much. And you can catch Doc Gupta this weekend on his own program "House Call." It airs Saturday and Sunday morning at 8:30 Eastern right here on CNN.

CHO: Coming up, holy security as the Pope mobile heads for Broadway. We'll talk to the man in charge with keeping the pope safe in America's biggest city. That's ahead on AMERICAN MORNING.


ROBERTS: Five minutes now to the top of the hour. Pope Benedict XVI leaves Washington for New York within the hour. The New York City Police Department will track his movements from the land, the water, and the air. The Pope speaks at the United Nations this morning. This weekend he's going to celebrate mass at St. Patrick's Cathedral and Yankee Stadium. He's also going to pray at Ground Zero.

New York City Police Commissioner Ray Kelly joins us now to talk more about the security surrounding the Pope's visit. Commissioner Kelly, good to see you. Thanks for coming in.

RAY KELLY, NYPD COMMISSIONER: Good to be with you, John.

ROBERTS: We always hear the word unprecedented used anytime any one of these big events comes along. Is this any bigger than anything else you had to cover?

KELLY: Well, of course, the Pope was here in 1995, but this is a post 9/11 event so it just requires counter terrorism overlays. It's a very big deal for us, for the city. Very important event, and we're looking forward to it.

ROBERTS: So, this counter terrorism overlay that you talk about, how much does it change things from the security that was provided for the Pope back in '95?

KELLY: It just adds additional resources. Obviously we're now focused on intelligence throughout the world. The Pope is an iconic world leader. There have been threats against him. So, you know, it is a major evolution for all of law enforcement, not just the police department, certainly the Secret Service is very much involved as well.

ROBERTS: You say that there have been threats against him? General threats? Anything specific that you know about?

KELLY: No specific credible threats against the Holy Father, but March 19th Bin Laden made a statement criticizing the Pope for leading a sort of crusade against Islam. Those sorts of comments are out there, and, of course, it just adds to our concern.

So how much does that factor into your planning? Is that seen more as rhetoric? Hyperbole on Bin Laden's part or could there be a plot?

KELLY: It's difficult to say but it really hasn't generated any more security because we're doing everything we reasonably can to protect his holiness.

ROBERTS: And of course in a case like this, in an event like -- or series of events like this, it's not just a direct threat against the Pope you have to prepare for because just the nature of the event itself could attract somebody who wants to make a statement, a big show, correct?

KELLY: Absolutely. You know, we've had two successful terrorist events here in New York City, of course the horrific events of September 11th and this is a world stage. So we have to be on guard and we certainly are.

ROBERTS: So give us some kind of an idea, commissioner, of how many people are involved there in providing security for the Pope. You know, how many agencies, different agencies are involved? How much coordination does there have to be? Is it air, land, and sea?

KELLY: Well, there are many agencies involved. We'll use several thousand police officers each day, the Secret Service will be here in significant numbers, and, of course, all of the other first responding agencies, the fire department, office of emergency management, other federal agencies are here. This is a team effort, and it's going to be a major evolution for all of us.

ROBERTS: It's the Secret Service that provides the direct protection for the Pope?

KELLY: Secret Service will provide direct protection for his holiness. He's a head of state. This is what, you know, he requires, and we'll be working certainly to support them.

ROBERTS: So, what is life going to be like in New York City here in the next three days? How much inconvenience, road closures?

KELLY: Don't drive in Manhattan. Certainly on the east side of Manhattan today, the United Nations, the holy father will be staying on 72nd street between Madison and Fifth. That immediate area will be closed the immediate area. But the impact in traffic in that area. And also he will be going to a synagogue later this afternoon and to a church service in the upper east side. So the east side of Manhattan is going to be particularly affected today. It's not a good day to drive. Now, the same thing on the weekend but of course, traffic will be lighter. Tomorrow, he'll be conducting a mass at St. Patrick's Cathedral. And then he'll be having, in essence, a parade or a movement up Fifth Avenue from St. Patrick's to 72nd Street.

ROBERTS: So, leave the car at home, take public transportation.

KELLY: Leave you car at home, public transportation. Sunday, of course, a mass at Yankee Stadium. Again, public transportation is the way to go.

ROBERTS: You know one of the things I'm most interested in is you got radiation detectors, vehicle mounted radiation detectors. What will they be looking for? How do they work?

KELLY: Well, we have the state of the art radiation detection and we're able to use in our helicopters, in or boats and certainly we have handheld devices as well. They'll be looking for any radiological emission that maybe taking place anywhere.

ROBERTS: So, this speaks to the threat of a potential dirty bomb attack.

KELLY: Correct.

ROBERTS: All right.

KELLY: Correct.

ROBERTS: How are they - what kind of radio so effectively can you have a car driving by a couple of blocks away and detects something or do you have to be right on it?

KELLY: Both. We have the ability to do it in a fairly long range but also we Also can do it in the immediate area. They've come a long way in just the last few years.

ROBERTS: You mentioned that the top of this, one of the most significant events that the Pope will be participating in is a visit to Ground Zero.


ROBERTS: You're of the Catholic faith. A lot of the firefighters who died on ground zero.