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One World with Zain Asher

President Biden Wraps Three-Nation European Trip In Finland; Russian Submarine Commander Gunned Down; Hollywood Actors Go On Strike For The First Time In More Than 40 Years; Actor Kevin Spacey Takes The Stand In His Sexual Assault Trial In London; U.S. Secretary Of State Antony Blinken Meets With Top Chinese Diplomat Wang Yi; Nearly 20 Million African Children Are Out Of School; NOAA Releases Global Report Saying The Earth Saw Its Warmest June On Record. Aired 12-1p ET

Aired July 13, 2023 - 12:00   ET



ZAIN ASHER, CNN ANCHOR: Hello and welcome to "ONE WORLD". I'm Zain Asher in New York. A show of unity, strength and solidarity happening right now

on Russia's doorstep. U.S. President Joe Biden is wrapping up his three- nation European trip in Finland, where he welcomed NATO's newest member. Earlier, Mr. Biden attended a Nordic Leaders' Summit, meant to highlight

the Alliance's growing influence.

The addition of Finland to NATO more than doubles. Russia's border with the world's most powerful military bloc in a strategic blow to Vladimir Putin.

During a joint press conference with the Finnish leader, the U.S. President pledged rock-solid support for NATO's new ally and said the latest addition

to the alliance makes the world a safer place.


We discussed, Mr. President, where we stand at an inflection point in history, where the decisions we make now are going to determine the course

of the history for the next four, five, six decades. And this week, we affirmed how Finland and the United States, together, together with allies

and partners, are working in lockstep to set us on a stronger, safer, and more secure path not just for Europe, not just for NATO, but for the world.


ASHER: Finland's Former Prime Minister Alexander Stubb joins us live now from Helsinki. Mr. Stubb, thank you so much for being with us. So, with

Finland joining NATO, in addition, you've got Sweden on its way to becoming a NATO member. You also have Denmark, Iceland, and Norway already NATO

members. You effectively now have this Nordic bloc, this very robust Nordic bloc within NATO. Just explain to us how will the Nordic nations contribute

to the strength and the security of the alliance as a whole.

ALEXANDER STUBB, FORMER FINNISH PRIME MINISTER: I think Finland and Sweden joining NATO basically make us into prime security providers, both in the

Baltic Sea region and the Nordics. Just to give you a couple of figures, if you take the Air Force of the Nordic countries combined, that's 250 fighter

jets. Add on to that what Finland has. We have 62 F-18s. We just bought 64 F-35s. We have obligatory military service, 900,000 men and women in

reserve, 280,000 that we can mobilize at wartime. So, basically, what NATO is now getting is a safe pair of hands with Finland and Sweden joining and

the Nordic Defense Alliance being strengthened.

ASHER: I should also mention we're looking at live pictures of President Biden meeting embassy staff in Helsinki as he wraps up this three-day visit

to Europe. He's on his way back to the U.S. He'll be departing shortly. So, walk us through what your thoughts are on the significance of these

traditionally sort of militarily non-aligned countries joining the alliance. You've got places like Finland, which sort of sees itself as an

arbiter of peace, as a mediator. That's a sort of identity that some of these countries have taken on in the past. What is the significance, Mr.

Stubb, of I guess the end of the so-called Nordic neutrality?

STUBB: Yeah, there's probably a difference there between Finland and Sweden. So, Sweden had been a neutral state for the better part of 200

years. Finland, on the other hand, fought World War II against the Soviet Union. We lost eight percent of our land, including Karelia, where my

grandparents and my dad was born. Then we were kind of neutral because of necessity, not free will. But we dropped that doctrine in 1990, 1991, when

the Cold War ended. And we forged a very close relationship with NATO, as did actually Sweden.

And I think the basic thinking for both countries was that, let's be as NATO-compatible as possible so that on a rainy day, if necessary, we can

join. And that certainly now happened. Finland becoming the fastest ever member. Sweden will be the second fastest. So, it is significant. But for

us, you know, security policy is basically existential. So, we're quite quick at turning the tide when need be. And that's what we did basically on

the 24th of February last year.

ASHER: I mean, especially given that you are right on Russia's border. I mean, Finland joining the alliance as I was saying earlier, effectively

doubles the sort of border length between NATO and Russia. What sort of message do you think that sends to Vladimir Putin?


STUBB: Well, I think it's a clear indication and in many ways President Biden put it quite well in his press conference. Putin wanted the

Finlandization of NATO, but he got the notification of Finland and that was not part of his playbook. So, everything that he tried to do actually turn

around. He wanted to Russify Ukraine and became European. He wanted to split Europe, never seen it more united. He wanted to split NATO. Well, it

has new -- rejuvenated its course. And the icing on the cake, of course, is that Finland and Sweden join NATO as the 31st and 32nd members.

And I think, especially for your American audience, it's very important to understand that there's a steadfast and strong belief in the alliance that

we have with the United States. We are now signing and working on a so- called DCA agreement with the U.S. which is a defense corporation agreement. So, I think it's pretty much a two-way street. And that's why

President Biden was so adamant to meet all the Nordic leaders here in Helsinki today.

ASHER: And of course, he met Sweden's prime minister as well. I mean, we all know that President Erdogan had spent quite some time blocking Sweden's

ascension to NATO. That sort of seemed to change quite quickly, I would say, just this week when he sort of indicated, look, I actually will be

backing Sweden joining NATO. Will we ever get clarity on exactly what sort of concessions were given to President Erdogan?

Obviously, we know the U.S. was giving F-16s. We know that Sweden changed its constitutions and its laws, you know, just to sort of match what

President Erdogan was asking for. But just walk us through whether you think we will get sort of detailed clarity on the concessions that were

given to Erdogan.

STUBB: Well, I think the first thing to understand is that foreign policy is quite often a balance between interest and values, and very often

actually transactional. And I think everyone understood from the beginning that it was clear that both Finland and Sweden would join NATO. It was just

a question of the sequence and the time.

Now, what was the deal done? I guess one could say, and I can say this as a humble professor at the European University Institute, rather than a former

leader, when Finland was given the green light from Turkey, Turkey got service on their F-16 planes. And now one could imagine that part of the

deal has been an agreement of sorts, at least political, that Turkey will get F-16s. So, you know, President Erdogan was playing a little bit of a

bargain, to put it diplomatically.

ASHER: Yes, right after, right after the Turkish elections. All right, Alexander Stubb, live for us there. Thank you so much. We appreciate it.

CNN's Wolf Blitzer sat down for an exclusive interview with U.S. Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin in Vilnius on the heels of the NATO summit there.

Austin told Wolf that he has no doubt Ukraine will eventually join NATO. Listen to what he said when Wolf asked him about how Vladimir Putin views

the growing alliance.


WOLF BLITZER, CNN ANCHOR: As Sweden is not set to join NATO, how is, from your analysis, and you've got good analysts, how is Putin reacting to this

expansion of data?

LLOYD AUSTIN, U.S. DEFENSE SECRETARY: Well, I'm sure Putin's very concerned. This is probably something that he didn't expect to happen,

although President Biden warned him of this at the very beginning. But you know, he's brought NATO closer to his doorstep. And so, you know, if you

were him, you'd certainly be concerned about what you're seeing.

But countries like Sweden and Finland bring a lot to the Alliance, and we're happy to have them on board. I was just in Sweden a couple of weeks

ago. I got a chance to spend time with the Minister of Defense and visit some of their troops, look at their capabilities. They will bring value to

the Alliance right away and it's a strong democracy, that's really the most important point.


ASHER: And you can watch Wolf Blitzer's exclusive interview with U.S. Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin on the Situation Room tonight, that's at 6PM

in the evening if you are watching from New York, and that is 11 o'clock at night if you're watching from London.

All right, their controversial weapons banned in more than 100 countries, and they're now in Ukraine. The Ukrainian general tells CNN that American

cluster munitions have now arrived in Kyiv. The general says the weapons can radically change the battlefield, although Ukraine has yet to deploy

them in its counter-offensive.


OLEKSANDR TARNAVSKYI, BRIGADIER GENERAL, UKRAINIAN ARMY (through translator): In general, this is a very powerful weapon.

ALEX MARQUARDT, CNN SENIOR NATIONAL SECURITY CORRESPONDENT: Have you used them already? And how much do you think they're going to change the fight?

TARNAVSKYI (through translator): We just got them. We haven't used them yet, but they can radically change the battlefield.


Because the enemy also understands that with getting this ammunition, we will have an advantage.


ASHER: Meantime, Ukraine's air force says it downed 20 Iranian-made drones and two cruise missiles launched by Russia overnight. Officials say at

least one person was killed in the Ukrainian capital amid falling debris.

Meantime, a senior Russian general in southern Ukraine says that he was fired after he accused Moscow's defense ministry of betraying his troops by

not providing sufficient support. That move comes amid a spate of dismissals, deaths and other mysteries surrounding senior linked to Russian

forces. CNN's Nick Paton-Walsh reports.


NICK PATON WALSH, CNN INTERNATIONAL SECURITY EDITOR (voice-over): For Russian generals, a home once so distant from the front is no longer safe.

Here, former Russian submarine commander Stanislav Rzhevsky runs his usual route at the usual time, but with a new unnoticed companion on a bicycle.

Moments later, he was gunned down.

Ukrainian defense intelligence said they had noting to do with it, but they knew a lot about it, saying he had been shot seven times with a Makarov

pistol, and heavy rain meant no witnesses. Brzezinski commanded a Russian submarine accused of many attacks on civilians, Ukraine also said, although

his family reportedly denied that. Ukraine added later, perhaps sarcastically, that he had been killed by his own men, who refused to kill

Ukrainian civilians.

Russia was quick to respond with their own propaganda, claiming to have captured the gunman within hours. Video, we can't verify. But it was a

crude bid to show they are in control of the fate of their top brass after now, weeks of chaos. Russian media said the killing hinged on a clumsy

detail, that Rzhevsky (ph) had made his daily run public on the running app Strava, which has a long history of accidentally exposing the location of

people who don't want to be found, revealing U.S. military bases in Syria and Yemen five years ago.

There are the dead and also the missing. News, Wednesday, too, about this key Putin Lieutenant, Sergey Surovikin, vanished since he appeared early in

the armed Wagner rebellion to plead for it to stop. A top Russian lawmaker claimed he was, quote, resting, whatever that means.

UNKNOWN (through translator): Are you communicating with Surovikin?

UNKNOWN (through translator): With who?

UNKNOWN (through translator): With Surovikin. There are various rumors about where he is.

UNKNOWN (through translator): No, he is resting for now. Not available.

WALSH: Yet more mystery adding to the bigger one, where is Russia's most prominent military figure, Wagner rebellion leader Yevgeny Prigozhin? Not

seen since the weekend revolt, despite Kremlin claims he met with Putin days later and pledged a sudden reversal and continued allegiance. Dead

jogging or still missing? A turbulent time in the top brass. Nick Paton- Walsh, CNN, London.


ASHER: The discovery of a mass grave in Western Sudan has U.N. officials demanding an investigation into the deaths of 87 people. While all the

bodies have not yet been identified, the U.N. says that many were from the oft-targeted ethnic group, the Masolites. It cites incredible, or rather

credible information tying the killings to the rapid support forces and allied militias.

Today, Egypt is hosting a summit for Sudan's neighbors aimed at brokering an end to the conflict. The Egyptian Minister of Foreign Affairs spoke to

CNN's Eleni Giokos on Connect the World earlier. He says the risk of civil war is as pressing as it's ever been.


SAMEH SHOUKRY, EGYPTIAN FOREIGN MINISTER: It is a very dangerous situation. It can de-escalate to consequences that, as I mentioned, the

fragmentation of Sudan entering into a civil war, the various military factions that exist, and whether they decide to participate directly in

support of one element vis-a-vis the other. So, the dangers have existed at all times and will definitely escalate as the situation deteriorates. And

we all have to avoid that.


ASHER: CNN's Senior Africa Editor Stephanie Busari joins us live now. So, Stephanie, what more do we know about these 87 souls that -- found in this

mass grave in western Sudan and also the culpability of the rapid support forces here?

STEPHANIE BUSARI, CNN SENIOR AFRICA EDITOR: Sure, Zain. So, what the U.N. agency is saying -- is that many of these bodies were from the -- appear to

be from the Masulet ethnic group, which gives an indication that there is some sort of ethnic racial element to this.


This is a non-Arab community. They're one of the key non-Arab communities in West Darfur and have always been targeted. They've been targets of

violence by militias. So, it gives you an idea of the kind of racial motivation towards these attacks. And Zain, history may be about to repeat

itself. We're 20 years this year from the Darfur genocide which killed 300,000 people and displaced millions.

And the United Nations has warned that Darfur -- there's war crimes -- crimes against humanity happening in Darfur, and the world is watching

again as this violence, these numbers rack up of bodies and the violence in this region. And so, you know, what we're learning is that some -- the U.N.

says it has credible information that the rapid support forces are behind these attacks but they have in the last hour denied this.

A senior official told "Reuters" news agency that they had nothing to do with this. But you know, the Janjaweed militia that was involved in the --

in the Darfur genocide evolved into the rapid support force. So, there is some precedent there in the -- in this issue, Zain.

ASHER: And just in terms of hope when it comes to a resolution for this conflict, we know that leaders from Sudan's neighboring countries, many of

whom, by the way, have been dealing with conflict in their own countries, but they're essentially meeting in Cairo to try to figure out how on earth

can we stop this war, this civil war that is essentially happening in Sudan. What sort of progress, I mean, I guess it's early right now, but

what sort of progress are you hearing of?

BUSARI: Well, so the summit has ended. It happened earlier today in Egypt with about seven countries, including South Sudan, Libya, Central African

Republic. Ethiopia, Eritrea, countries, as you say, that are very fragile themselves, who are dealing with economic challenges, political challenges.

And so, these countries came together to just really say, we must try to put a stop to this. And President El-Sisi of Egypt tabled some motions out

of this summit.

I'll just read some of them to you. That they're looking at some -- ending the -- including a three-month ceasefire to end the conflict, secure safe

passage for aid, and bring communication dialogue between the warring factions. But it's the latest in a long line. The U.S., Saudi Arabia have

tried to bring these two factions together with no us, no luck, and no resolution.

Ethiopia just a few days ago tried to bring them together also, and the Sudanese army refused to be part of that, saying that Kenya was biased and

they were not party to those talks. So, it remains to be seen if these Egyptian talks, and it really rests on Egypt's historical ties with the

Sudanese army, that's a lot of what is at play here. So, it remains to be seen if they succeed where others have failed, Zain.

ASHER: Stephanie Busari, live for us there. Thank you. The governor of the Mexican state of Jalisco calls it a brutal act of terror. At least six

people were killed and 14 wounded in an attack carried out with explosives. The governor says police received an anonymous complaint about alleged

human remains on a roadway. Officials say when they arrived at the scene they walked into a trap. At least seven IEDs went off.


JOAQUIN MENDEZ, PROSECUTOR, MEXICAN STATE OF JALISCO (through translator): The attack took place against our colleagues and well, regardless of the

fact that there were civilians, regardless of the fact that there were civilian vehicles in the area. The information that we received on the

decision to detonate the devices from anti-explosive specialists is that it was calculated. It was at the moment they wanted to do it. That is the part

that we are working on and what we are going to investigate on.

ASHER: That's the latest in the string of violence in Mexico we've been reporting on. All right, still to come here, Hollywood set and sound stages

are about to fall silent. The actors are preparing to go on strike. The issues behind that plan, walk out, when we come back. And she has become an

international symbol in the fight for girls' education. We'll speak to Noble Laureate Malala Yousafzai later on this hour.




ASHER: For the first time in more than 40 years, Hollywood actors are going on strike. In just a few hours, the Screen Actors Guild is expected

to join the Writers Guild in a strike against major studios and streaming services. Fran Drescher, President of the Actors Union, said the final

offer from producers was insulting and disrespectful. It will be the first- time actors have gone on strike since 1980 and the first time that both actors and writers have been on strike since the 1960s.

Natasha Chen is tracking strike developments for us in L.A. So, Natasha, did Hollywood, did the studios, did the streaming services underestimate

the resolve of the actors here? What are your thoughts?

NATASHA CHEN, CNN U.S. NATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: Well, Zain, that's certainly what SAG-AFTRA says happened. Their negotiations went on for

quite some time. This was actually an extension of the original deadline, and even a federal mediator was brought in yesterday, but that did not seem

to work.

Now, the Actors Guild, 160,000 members, had previously overwhelmingly authorized a strike if there was no deal reached, and so now we are waiting

for the union's national board to vote on that strike to begin. We expect that announcement noon in Los Angeles.

I want to read you a little bit of what the guild said in their statement that studios and streamers have implemented massive unilateral changes in

our industry's business model, while at the same time insisting on keeping our contracts frozen and amber. The studios and streamers have

underestimated our members' resolve as they are about to fully discover.

Now, while the actors and the writers, who, by the way, have been on strike for more than 70 days, are definitely in lockstep here with what they are

asking for, better residual pay, better compensation protections when it comes to A.I. threatening their work, there are executives and members of

the studios who say that their demands are not realistic, and that includes Disney CEO Bob Iger. Here's what he said. Here's what he said.


BOB IGER, CEO, DISNEY: There's a level of expectation that they have that is just not realistic. And they are adding to a set of challenges that this

business is already facing that is, quite frankly, very disruptive. I respect their right and their desire to get as much as they possibly can in

compensation for their people and I completely respect that. I've been around long enough to understand that dynamic and to appreciate it.


But you also have to be realistic about it with a business environment and what this business can deliver. It is and has been great for all of these

people and it will continue to be even through disruptive times.


CHEN: And the studios released a statement saying that they did offer historic pay increase, as well as groundbreaking protections when it comes

to AI. As part of their statement, they said, we are deeply disappointed that SAG-AFTRA has decided to walk away from negotiations. Rather than

continuing to negotiate, SAG-AFTRA has put us on a course that will deepen the financial hardship for thousands who depend on the entry for their


So, we're not just talking about the people who have production jobs on these film sets. We're also talking about the local economies who serve

these productions, people running restaurants and delis, the janitors working at these studios, makeup artists, dry cleaners. I've spoken to a

lot of them who are deeply concerned about their ability to pay the bills and not knowing how long this is going to go on for, yet many of them did

tell me they are in support of the union getting a fair deal thing. Zain.

ASHER: Yeah, it's interesting. I mean, it's not just about the actors and the writers, as you point out. There are so many people who depend on the

economy of a movie getting made. Just the production of a movie generates so many jobs and what happens to those jobs right now. Natasha Chen, live

for us there. Thank you so much.

CHEN: Thank you.

ASHER: Turning to the U.K. now, the wife of BBC Anchor Hugh Edwards has confirmed that Edwards is the BBC presenter who was suspended earlier this

week following allegations of payments for sexually explicit images. Her statement made on behalf of Edwards was released just moments after the

London Metropolitan Police said on Wednesday that there was no information to indicate that a criminal offense had been committed. These developments

are the latest in a week of British media frenzy. CNN's Scott McLean reports.


UNKNOWN: This is the BBC Home Service. Here is the news.

SCOTT MCLEAN, CNN INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: The British Broadcasting Corporation has been covering the news for more than a century. But lately,

it is the news. On Friday, "The Sun" newspaper printed anonymous allegations accusing an unnamed but well-known male BBC presenter of paying

a young person for explicit images. The BBC reported that they had suspended the presenter, and the U.K., known for its sensational tabloid

culture, was thrown into a frenzy of speculation over his identity. Several well-known BBC faces were quick to distance themselves online and even on


UNKNOWN: It's his decision, but he needs to come forward now.

MCLEAN (voice-over): Alongside, questions of who, came questions about what, with the young person at the center of the controversy themselves

even disputing the allegations made by their mother to the son. The BBC referred the complaint, which it originally received back in May, to the

London Metropolitan Police.

TIM DAVIE, BBC DIRECTOR-GENERAL: It is a very difficult and complex situation. And we're trying to calmly and judiciously navigate our way

through quite difficult circumstances, whereas I said you've got to balance duty of care issues, privacy issues.

MCLEAN: On Wednesday, the MET declared there was no information to indicate that a criminal offense has been committed. The second police

forced to draw the same conclusion. Shortly after, the wife of Hugh Edwards, one of Britain's most famous and one of the BBC's highest paid

journalists, made a statement on his behalf confirming the accusations were made about him and asking for privacy, writing, I am doing this primarily

out of concern for his mental well-being and to protect our children.

Hugh is suffering from serious mental health issues. Events of the last few days have greatly worsened matters. He has suffered another serious episode

and is now receiving in-patient hospital care where he'll stay for the foreseeable future. Once well enough to do so, he intends to respond to the

stories that have been published. Edwards has been open about mental health struggles in the past, saying at one point, things got so bad he couldn't

get out of bed.

In the meantime, the BBC now says it will continue its internal investigation. Other less serious allegations have been made against

Edwards. Police say they are aware but haven't received specific information and that there is no police action on them at this time.

Questions about the BBC's handling of the complaints will surely not fade from the front pages anytime soon. Now, neither will questions about the

veracity of the original reporting in "The Sun" newspaper. Scott McLean, CNN, London.


ASHER: Coming up, she spoke at the United Nations when she was just 16 years old, demanding that the world listen to girls. Ten years later, the

Nobel Laureate is still speaking up for girls' education. There she is. We'll have a conversation with Malala when we come back. education. There

she is. We'll have a conversation with Malala when we come back.




ASHER: Hello and welcome back to ONE WORLD. Let's catch up on the headlines. Actor Kevin Spacey took the stand Thursday in his sexual assault

trial in London. He testified that he had a sexual encounter with one of his accusers, but said it was part of a pleasant evening and was

consensual. Spacey also got emotional when testifying about the financial hardship he's endured as his acting career has stalled and his legal bills


An Italian court ruling is sparking outrage. Online, judges declared a 66- year-old school janitor was not guilty of groping a 17-year-old student because the act lasted for less than 10 seconds. The ruling has since gone

viral with people criticizing the decision on Instagram and TikTok.

Candid and constructive discussions, but no breakthroughs. That is how the U.S. official described Secretary of State Antony Blinken meeting with top

Chinese diplomat Wang Yi at the ASEAN foreign ministers meeting in Jakarta. Both nations have been trying to mend frayed ties.

Activists call it an education emergency. Nearly 20 million children in Africa's most populated country are out of school, that's according to

UNICEF, and the overwhelming majority of them are girls.


The crisis in Nigeria is worse in rural areas in the north, but it doesn't end there. You've got violence, extreme poverty, forced childhood marriage,

and systemic gender bias nationwide, all contributing to denying girls their basic human right, further undermining their status. The COVID-19

pandemic only worsened those pre-existing inequalities.

A decade ago, a Pakistani teen who was shot in the head by a Taliban extremist on her way home from school drew international attention to the

importance of education for all. An impassionate speech to the U.N., Malala Yousafzai delivered her message of strength, forgiveness and compassion.

MALALA YOUSAFZAI, EDUCATION ACTIVIST: When we were in Swat, the north of Pakistan, we realized the importance of pens and books when we saw the

guns. The wise saying, the pen is mightier than sword, was true. The extremists were and they are afraid of books and pens. The power of

education, the power of education, frightens them.


ASHER: What an incredible journey she's been on since that speech was made over the past 10 years. Malala, of course, now a global education rights

advocate and Nobel Peace Prize laureate, marks the 10-year anniversary of that historic speech by visiting Nigeria on her 26th birthday.

ASHER: Time now for The Exchange, and Malala joins us live now from Abuja, Nigeria. Malala, I hope that my home country is treating you well, and

happy belated birthday to you. I just wanna start by talking about something that I know has weighed heavily on your heart, and that is the

fact that you have in Nigeria 18 million children out of school right now. Two-thirds of them are girls. And there are myriad reasons as to why this

is, but you have got gender bias, you have got forced marriages, you have got the COVID-19 pandemic.

But particularly in Northern Nigeria, you have got terrorists attacking schools. And that has meant that parents have been so reluctant and afraid

in various parts of Northern Nigeria to send their kids to school. The fear is that, listen, if I send my daughter to school, I may never see her

again. So, in that kind of environment, where do you begin in terms of dismantling the barriers that exist to a girl receiving a good education?

YOUSAFZAI: There are many challenges to girls' education in Nigeria, and we know that the issues vary from state to state, from area to area. And

what gives us hope in this situation is that there is this huge demand for education among girls, among communities.

And I had the opportunity to visit Borno State. I was in Maiduguri and I met girls in three schools. And I was able to sit down with them and hear

from them and they valued their time in school. They valued their education. And if you could see them, how much they loved their books,

their classrooms, their science labs and they want to be the next innovators and scientists and cardiologists and healthcare workers and even

decision-makers and leaders.

So, when you look at that optimism that girls have, that gives you hope despite all the challenges that you see around them. And I know that if the

civil society, if the non-profit organizations, and if government partners come together, we can change a lot. We have already seen progress in the

past few years. But I know that we would need bold commitments going forward as well, from commitment through law that guarantees 12 years of

free complete education to also increasing financial commitment towards it, as well.

ASHER: I mean, it's interesting because, yes, you're right, politicians do absolutely have a role to play. You know, the Nigerian constitution does

promote gender equality on paper, but of course women still suffer so much in terms of marginalization and bias. And completely, they're completely

left out of the political conversation, if you will. There's a disproportionate effect of poverty on women as well. Change is slow in

Nigeria. And even though you have, you know, politicians who can change laws, implicit bias. Implicit bias and stereotyping is so much harder to

combat. Where do you begin on that front?

YOUSAFZAI: I believe that despite all these challenges, whether they are explicit or implicit, you have to begin somewhere because it seems like

there's a mountain right there in front of us and we can't see ahead of that.


But I believe that we have to start taking steps. I think it is the responsibility of governments, as well, to ensure that they guarantee the

protection of the right to education to every girl, to law, and that is the beginning. That doesn't mean that they stop right there. We need to

implement these laws, as well, to ensure that they give complete quality education to every girl in the country.

Of course, there needs to be more work done on the teachers training on improving the quality of education, making sure that students are getting

access to sciences and computer education. And also, they get the menstrual hygiene products and they are able to protect themselves and remain safe,

as well. So, all of those things are equally important. But at the same time, I do believe that we need to engage parents and the community, as

well. And we are lucky that at Malala Fund, we have so much support for this cause and we are able to work with local organizations.

In Nigeria, we have more than 20 partners who are working in nine states and they are working in the South, in the North, and they are addressing

the challenges that girls are facing from gender norms and social norms to extreme poverty to even the emerging conflicts, as well. So, it's the work

of these people that gives us hope that things will change. They push for policy level change, they do research work, but they also engage the

communities, as well. And they have done this work for decades. Our goal is to provide them more support, more funding, so that they can reach to more

girls, as well.

ASHER: You mentioned in your previous answer that you'd spend time in in Borno State. I think we actually showed pictures of you in Borno State.

Just to sort of remind our viewers, Borno State is where Chibok is. That is where that kidnapping, the famous kidnapping in Chibok took place back in

2014. We know that there are at least 98 girls, just under 100 girls that are still in captivity.

And since the Chibok kidnappings, several, many more countless abductions have taken place since then. You've got so many parents who are in anguish.

So, when you list out all the things that need to change, is security, pretty much the most important, especially in northern Nigeria, is security

the most important building block in terms of eventually reaching equity between both genders?

YOUSAFZAI: Security is a priority for access to education. And it's really important for girls especially because we have heard about these cases,

these incidents have happened where conflicts and insurgencies have impacted girls. Girls have been kidnapped, as well. I came to Nigeria back

in 2014 when I heard about the Chibok girls. And, you know, we are happy that some girls have returned, as well. And, you know, just hearing their

stories, how they have made it universities and they're following their career path, as well.

So, that gives you a lot of hope that, you know, what a girl is able to do when she's -- when she gets the opportunity to complete her education. And

when I hear like the stories of four or five girls, I -- it gives me a lot of hope. But I also want to remind everyone that there's nothing that can

stop a girl. We just need to make sure that she gets this equal opportunity to get her education, to be able to complete her studies and choose a path

for herself.

This is the right of every girl, whether she's out of Nigeria, south of Nigeria, whether she's in Pakistan, Afghanistan, Brazil, U.K., in any part

of the world. We need to live in a world where every girl gets this chance. Right now, there are up to 120 million girls who do not have access to

education, and there are millions of boys, as well. But at the same time, we know that gender plays a critical role for why girls are out of school.

We have issues like child marriage. We also have issues like the menstrual hygiene and safety. So, there are specific issues that girls are facing

because of which they are seeing either less involvement into schools or drop out, as well, later on. So, we need to address the issues that girls

face. We also need to make sure that there is on the supply side, we are providing schools and infrastructure and the facilities to them so that

they're able to learn and lead. And so, that's the dream that I have.

ASHER: Yeah, you know, nowhere, I think, I mean, obviously, that there are major issues in Nigeria when it comes to gender equality, but I don't think

there's anywhere on earth that is facing a more sort of dire situation than Afghanistan right now, where women are not just losing their education, but

also pretty much their identities. You've got women who were once doctors, women who were once teachers, lawyers, students, now have little hope of

reaching their potential.

There are stories out right now about beauty salons in Afghanistan being forced to shut down.


These are spaces that were, you know, a social space for women, a place where women could make money, now closing down. And on top of that,

humanitarian aid has dropped, significantly because the Taliban has banned women from working for international NGOs. Where does that country go from

here, Malala?

YOUSAFZAI: I think Afghanistan will not have a future if they keep women away from work and if they limit women to their houses. I think Afghanistan

will be collapsing if they leave half of the population from their basic right to work and to education. So, it has been up to two years now, this

year, that girls' education has been banned. Women cannot go to universities anymore. Women are banned from work, as well.

And just this fundamental right of education is taken away, and they're adding more to it, like including now salons and other things, as well. So,

I think, just looking at what the women are going through, we can call it a gender apartheid, as well, because women are completely isolated,

segregated, and they're completely left behind just because of their gender. And there is no justification for these acts under culture or under

Islam. I have the same faith and I come from the same culture, as well.

And I am, you know, I want to say that, that is what -- that is not what defines us. That's not who we are. And I want to say that within our

culture, within our religion, a girl is able to complete her education, follow her dreams, do take a job. And we look at other Muslim countries as

well, like no other Muslim country would ban education for girls. Of course, there are challenges. Of course, there are other issues, as well.

But it's, you know, we can, with time, we can address those.

But in Afghanistan, it's a complete reversal. I hope that leaders and people will speak out. And what gives me a little bit of hope in this time

is the bravery and courage of Afghan women and girls who are not remaining silent and who are speaking out. I think it's time that we listen to them

and we make no compromise on their rights. It should be a non-negotiable condition in any conversations that the rights of girls and women are


ASHER: All right, Malala, thank you so much. And we are honored. I think I speak on behalf of many Nigerians. We are so honored that you chose to

spend your birthday in Nigeria. You were saying to me during the commercial break that you're a huge fan of Jollof rice and also Puff Puff which is

fantastic. You should definitely try Moi Moi. That is one of my favorite Nigerian dishes, as well. So, if you get a chance and you're at a Nigerian

restaurant later on, do try that, as well. Malala, always a pleasure having you on. Thank you so much.

YOUSAFZAI: Thank you so much.

ASHER: All right, still to come. A look at the extreme weather around the world, ranging from floods to heat domes. We'll discuss all of it when we

come back.




ASHER: A perfect climate storm is brewing across the globe as much of the world is seeing extreme weather. The U.S. state of Vermont saw rare

catastrophic flooding earlier this week. Thousands of businesses and homes were destroyed. While in northern India, an estimated 30,000 people have

left their homes, forced to flee rising water. At least 67 people there have died from flash floods and landslides this week.

And Europe is bracing for a sweltering July with the islands of Sicily and Sardinia possibly hitting the hottest temperatures ever recorded on the

continent. And the sizzling temperatures in China caused the country to break a record in its electricity use earlier this week. The NOAA just

released its global report saying the earth saw its warmest June on record.

Meteorologist Derek Van Dam is in Miami, Florida, where they've been experiencing a heat dome. Normally, I love Miami, Derek, but I'm guessing

it's a little bit too hot even for me. How brutal is it right now?

DEREK VAN DAM, CNN METEOROLOGIST: Zain, I mean, you can literally drink the air here. It is that humid, that muggy. I mean, it is brutal. And I say

that because it is the dangerous heat. We actually had someone within our crew this morning that had heat stress issues, as well, and had to go to

the emergency room. So, we are feeling the effects. People here are trying to beat the heat as best as possible.

We're at the beach in Miami, but you know, we're here because records are being shattered across the globe from Florida where I'm located all the way

to California. In Miami -- in Miami Beach, in particular, we have had, get this, 33 days of a heat index, that's what it feels like on your skin when

you factor in air temperature and humidity, over 32 degrees Celsius for the past 33 days. That's the longest streak that has ever, ever occurred to me.

So, that's saying something.

And you know, when we start talking about these records, this isn't a new phenomenon but what's interesting is that it's becoming more of the norm,

right? So, the climate emergency is here, it is now. And I want to bring your attention to these water temperatures that we are feeling here in the

Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. Record-high temperatures that, hey, you know what? This isn't even bath water, this is hot tub water.

We're talking about water temperatures at 37 degrees Celsius or 97 degrees Fahrenheit. That is rivaling some of the hottest temperatures in our oceans

across the entire globe. And this has serious ramifications for the marine life and the coral reefs that protect our coastline. So, we went and talked

to an expert on coral restoration, Dr. Andrew Baker, and asked him what he thinks is coming our way. Listen.


ANDREW BAKER, PHD., PROFESSOR, MARINE BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY, UM ROSENSTIEL SCHOOL: Certain parts of the Caribbean like Belize are already bleaching

and bleaching pretty severely. And Florida is where Belize was about a month ago. So, all things being equal, this bleaching event will develop

and it's beginning to encompass Florida, too, and that's what we're worried about.


VAN DAM: It's a fragile ecosystem, but without coral reefs, marine life dies, and also that natural barrier between storm surge and hurricanes is

also diminished, as well. So, we want to save these vital, vital ecosystems, that being the coral reefs. Heat waves across the world,

including here where I'm standing, in Miami Beach. Back to you, Zain.

ASHER: Yeah, definitely a sobering report, although that live shot is gorgeous. I'm envious still. Derek Van Dam, live for us there. Thank you so

much. We'll be right back with more.




ASHER: The ocean is changing color, and scientists say that human-induced climate change is likely responsible. Researchers studied 20 years of

satellite images. They discovered more than half of the world's oceans have changed color to a degree that cannot be explained by natural causes alone.

Tropical waters close to the equator in particular have become greener. Scientists say that imbalances like this can ripple through the food chain.

All right, thank you so much for watching ONE WORLD. I'm Zain Asher. "AMANPOUR" is up next. You're watching CNN.