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Greek Officials Freeze Assets Of European Parliament VP; Suspect Faces Court Over Pan Am Terror Attack; US Scientists To Announce Fusion Energy Breakthrough; iPhone Users To Pay More For Twitter Blue; Euronext Surpasses LSE As Europe's Biggest Stock Market; Ex-Migrant Workers Recounts Conditions In Qatar; Quest's World of Wonder; Markets Rise To Start Critical Week. Aired 3-4p ET

Aired December 12, 2022 - 15:00   ET



RICHARD QUEST, CNN INTERNATIONAL HOST: After a long month on the road, back in New York and to celebrate, a positive start to the week. Look at the


We are up nearly 350-odd points. It's the best of the session so far. The Dow is up one percent. The Fed and the ECB are meeting. The question is

half a percentage point, and that's certainty, in a sense, is what the market is looking for.

The markets and the events of the day: Accusations of corruption at the very heart of the EU. There are four arrests, and that includes a member of

the European Parliament. We will have some facts for you.

The Lockerbie bombing suspect is due in a US Court, for the first time, 34 years, almost to the day after the horrific attack.

And scientists make a giant leap towards the Holy Grail of clean energy. Tonight, we give you the gist of the matter and what it means.

We are live in New York. It's Monday, December the 12th. Together again, I'm Richard Quest, and in New York as always, I mean business.

Good evening.

We begin tonight with the EU's credibility at stake as Belgium Police look into alleged corruption within the European Parliament.

Greek officials have frozen the assets of Eva Kaili, one of the Parliament's Vice Presidents, and Belgium prosecutors say they suspect a

Gulf country tried to buy influence over the Parliament's decisions.

Now there are now several reports, which is naming Qatar, as the country involved. Qatar to be clear, Qatar specifically is denying the allegation.

However, the European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen said the EU must meet the highest standards.


URSULA VON DER LEYEN, EUROPEAN COMMISSION PRESIDENT: The allegations against the Vice President of the European Parliament are of utmost

concern, very serious. It is a question of confidence of people into our institutions, and this confidence and trust into our institutions needs

highest standards and of independence and integrity.


QUEST: We need to dissect this in more detail. Anna Stewart, just the person to do it for us.

Let's start with the investigation, if your will, and the arrests. Money in sort of bags and things like that. Tell me about it.

ANNA STEWART, CNN REPORTER: Yes, I mean, it's quite an extraordinary story, and it is really fast evolving, actually, because the first arrest in the

first house raid only took place on Friday; further raids in Belgium and in Italy took place at the weekend.

Six people were arrested on Friday. We believe four have been charged, two have been released and the first pre-trial hearing will happen on


So, no names at this stage, but obviously, we should be finding out a lot more soon.

Now over the weekend, we found out that in all these house raids around Belgium, lots of cash was found. Three separate items, according to Belgian

Federal prosecutors, 600,000 euros in cash at one home of a suspect, several hundred thousand euros in a suitcase in a Brussels hotel room, and

150,000 euros in a flat belonging to an MEP.

Now, they all suspect of being paid these large sums of money for influence within European Parliament.

QUEST: Okay, so that is -- and the investigation has taken many months to get this far. The allegation, although the authorities haven't said so,

but everybody has got out there the name of Qatar as being the offender here.

Why would Qatar allegedly want to do this?

STEWART: Well, first of all, it is important to say that Qatar on know that everyone is naming them as the country and they categorically deny this

allegation. They have released a statement on Twitter saying they reject any accusation of misconduct and they're calling for -- they're actually

calling all these claims baseless and gravely misinformed.

Now, why would any country in the Gulf? We do know from the Federal prosecutors that a Gulf country is the country in question, why would they

want influence? Well, I think we can look to actually to what we heard from the European Parliament President just in the last couple of hours in a

statement, they were talking about how they're going to cancel a visa waiver vote that was due for Qatar and Kuwait this week. That has been



This was a statement relating to these allegations and she ended her statement, Richard, saying: "We are Europeans, we would rather be cold than


And I think it is worth remembering that Europe is in the grips of an energy crisis and is leaning pretty heavily on certain countries in the

Gulf for energy.

QUEST: Okay. I mean, a six-month investigation, serious arrests, large amounts of money found. Qatar is denying it. But one assumes that at some

point, in a court of law in Belgium, the facts are going to come out.

STEWART: Well, you certainly think so. But how long is that going to take? And I think the embarrassment for Qatar right now, especially, of course,

is the fact that the World Cup is going on, they are hosting that. So, they are denying it at this stage.

Who knows what's going to happen when this comes to Court? Everyone who has been charged is, of course, innocent until proven guilty, but quite

sensational, just in the last couple of days in terms of hearing about suitcases of cash in hotel rooms, I think this is going to be a very meaty


And for the EU, this has really shaken -- if you look at the comments we've had from various leaders in the European Union, they are absolutely


I think, it is the fact that it is not one person that's arrested, it is several, and you start to wonder whether there was a network involved.

The European Parliament President says the Parliament is under attack.


ROBERTA METSOLA, EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT PRESIDENT: And I also say that while we can always look to increase deterrence and transparency, there will

always be some for whom a bag of cash is always worth the risk, and what is essential is that these people understand that they will get caught.


STEWART: And they will get caught, and clearly she believes that some people have -- Richard.

QUEST: Anna, you'll keep watching this for us. I'm grateful. Thank you.

In Washington at the moment, a suspect in the Lockerbie bombing is facing Court in the US for the first time. The Libyan Abu Agila Mohammad Mas'ud

Kheir Al-Marimi, and he is the man accused of making the bomb that brought down Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie in December 1988.

In fact, if I'm not mistaken, it is almost to the day that this actually happened. It was in early December. The attack killed all 259 people on

board the aircraft and 11 people on the ground.

On Sunday, the authorities confirmed that Al-Marimi was in US custody and his first appearance in Washington is set for today.

Nic Robertson is with me. He is watching the event in London.

So Nic, what is he accused of? Bearing in mind that there have already been al-Megrahi's conviction some years ago and of course, he served time in

prison, was then released and then died. So what's this person accused of?

NIC ROBERTSON, CNN INTERNATIONAL DIPLOMATIC EDITOR: Specifically, this person is accused of being a longtime Libyan Intelligence agent, almost 40

years under Muammar Gaddafi's rule and that he was an expert in bomb making.

He is being accused specifically of flying to the Maltese Airport and being in the airport the day and at that very time and moment when the bag

containing the bomb was placed on board the plane that took it to Frankfurt and the suitcase transfer because back in the day, you didn't have to

accompany a suitcase on an international flight, transferred to ultimately what was going to become Pan Am 103, which was taking off from London

Heathrow flying to New York.

So he has also said that he set the timer on this device. So, he has implicated himself as being directly involved. The catch on this is, he

told this to a Libyan law enforcement official back in 2012.

The FBI didn't get wind of it until 2017. The FBI didn't get to talk to that Libyan law enforcement official until 2020, and there is a question

how did Mas'ud, as he is being called in FBI documents, how did he end up suddenly, one minute being in jail in Libya, and the next being about to be

in a courtroom in Washington?

QUEST: And the other interesting thing is the jurisdiction here. Now, yes, Pan Am was, it was a US plane and there were Americans, amongst others

on board the aircraft, but the event happened over Scotland.

And if we remember the last trial, that was done by a Scottish Court, sitting in The Hague, you'll recall this. We've both been around long

enough to remember the actual crime being committed.

So why is this now with the US authorities and not the Scottish authorities?

ROBERTSON: Yes, that trial where it was a Scottish Court, Scottish jurisdiction at Camp Zeist in The Netherlands, you were probably there to

and covered it. I certainly was.


And it always felt odd, but this was the compromise that Muammar Gaddafi settled for, to offer up two Intelligence agents, Abdelbaset al-Megrahi,

one of them who I did see shortly before he died and still professes innocence at that time, and the other one, al-Fhimah, who got off with the

charges back then in the Scottish Court in The Netherlands.

What's different now? We've heard today from the Scottish prosecutor, so this fell under the, as you rightly say, jurisdiction of their procurator

fiscal in Scotland, and we've heard from the prosecutors in Scotland today, a statement saying that they and the police support what the United States

is doing.

QUEST: Right.

ROBERTSON: The families of some -- the American families of some of the victims believe that the US has jurisdiction, when one of its own carriers

is brought down in a terrorist situation. So this, perhaps, is what we're witnessing.

QUEST: Nic, final question. I was at Kennedy watching the relatives as they arrived. I mean, it is one of the defining stories that I'll never

forget when they arrived and heard about this, or heard that the plane had crashed and there was a bomb at that particular point.

What do you make of this latest development? I mean, this is an event that just does never, never end, in a sense for the relatives.

ROBERTSON: You know, Libya, since Muammar Gaddafi was overthrown is a really messy place where there is an internationally recognized government,

but there are also very powerful militias that control territory, that control influence, and can even have people locked up and keep them in

their custody.

I think, it's a fluid situation that the United States will try to work its way through to bring justice because they knew that the trials that they

had before, were only a partial version of reality as offered up by Muammar Gaddafi. He wanted access back to the international community, giving up

two men, not the whole story was part of the way to do that.

So I think it's been a very, very painful process for the families, and I indeed remember that night when the bomb went off on the plane, trying to

scramble and get teams up there to cover it. It was a huge event at the time. I mean, a complete shock in the UK, right on the eve of Christmas,

when we thought and you witnessed the pain and suffering for those families at Christmas, while waiting to welcome home loved ones for Christmas.

And of course, they've waited 34 years to try to get to the bottom of this, to try to get the truth, and maybe Mas'ud is going to be part of the

answer. They certainly hope so.

QUEST: Nic, thank you, sir. Thank you.

It's QUEST MEANS BUSINESS tonight from New York and the process that fuels the stars appears to be reproduced in a lab on Earth. It's nuclear fusion.

They say it's a breakthrough. I know, we've heard this before.

When we come back, you'll hear the details and you'll hear what it means.



QUEST: Fusion energy, as long as I can remember, people have been talking about it, the Holy Grail, they say of clean power.

Tonight, it might be a step closer. For the first time in the US, scientists have reportedly achieved a nuclear fusion reaction. Basically

this means it gets more energy out than they put in. It's likely to be announced on Tuesday. And if confirmed, it's a milestone in the long

pursuit for limitless, zero carbon energy.

Rene Marsh is in Washington.

I guess you've been hearing fusion energy as long as I have, but this might actually be a shift and a change in a move.

RENE MARSH, CNN NATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: Yes, you know, I have been spending the morning speaking to many people within the scientific community. It is

not an overstatement to say this is a big deal. This is a big wow moment.

As one of the scientists said to me, this is the birth of a new species, they are bringing a new kind of energy source into existence.

So, what we're talking about here is this process and not to get too scientific here, but it is this process of taking two hydrogen atoms and

using these very powerful lasers, which we have the video while, that's the laser that they are using. This laser is shooting out its beam, multiple

beams simultaneously on the same target and the pressure and the heat from that laser is what essentially creates this energy.

This is done, as we said, using hydrogen atoms. So, what does that mean? It does clean. You don't have to worry about a carbon footprint, and that is

why people are so excited here, because as you know, we've been talking about this climate crisis and this need to pivot away from those dirtier

energy sources, this is an example of that.

Hydrogen is limitless. So not only would this be a limitless source of energy, but it would be a completely clean source of energy.

But you know, we should put this all in perspective, Richard. You know, one scientist said to me, we have an embryo now, but it's like, we're asking

when will it graduate from Harvard? So clearly, this is a great step, but so much more growth still necessary before we see this on a wide scale.

QUEST: It is causing an enormous amount of excitement, though, isn't it?

MARSH: It certainly is. And I don't want to be the Debbie Downer to downplay this at all, because seriously, you will not get to the wider

scale without the step that we're talking about here today, where they have been able to produce more energy on the output than they actually have put


And to explain to people why that's so important. Essentially, you don't really have a viable energy source, unless you can output more energy than

you put in. And that is what they were able to do at this Department of Energy lab, and that is why everyone is so excited.

Because before it was a concept, and it was science that they were trying to figure out how to do this. And as one researcher said to me, now we know

this is actually viable. It's not a hypothetical anymore. We have actually done it.

Now they have to figure out how to do this on a much broader scale.

QUEST: So thank you, Rene Marsh with the facts and the details.

You will be forgiven if you think, well, how much of a big deal is this? Is this the defining moment, if you will, of creating a new energy source to

fight against climate change? We need to know what it means and here is our chief climate correspondent, Bill Weir, with the gist.

BILL WEIR, CNN CHIEF CLIMATE CORRESPONDENT: Richard, there's an old joke among physicists that fusion is the technology that's just a decade away,

and always will be. But that seems to be less true with these big breakthrough moments.

We'll see what Secretary Granholm announces from the Department of Energy over what happened at the Livermore Laboratory, where they used the biggest

laser in the country to heat up this plasma and create more energy that they were putting in.

This is after the folks in Oxford successfully doubled the time they created fusion energy back in February, but it was only to five seconds.

But you know, the Wright Brothers first flight was only a few seconds and within a century, we were in outer space. Could this be a breakthrough

moment? It certainly will mean a lot more investments and a lot more debate about priorities as other renewables like solar and wind are about to

explode -- Richard.


QUEST: Gist from a Bill Weir.

There is a growing list of US Republicans, who are now lashing out at the investment group BlackRock. The North Carolina State Treasurer wants the

CEO, Larry Fink to resign, saying the company's emphasis on ESG -- environmental and social issues -- is hurting investors; on the other side,

officials in Florida, Arizona, and Texas have made similar complaints.

On the other side now is Bluebell Capital, who is also calling for Fink's resignation. However, this is because they say the company's ESG policy has

been inconsistent.

Giuseppe Bivona is the Chief Investment Officer, the CIO at Bluebell Capital. He is with me from London.

Okay, we're going to take this bit by bit by bit. Half the people say that BlackRock and Fink are paying too much emphasis on ESG. And you're

basically saying they're not playing enough.

GIUSEPPE BIVONA, CHIEF INVESTMENT OFFICER, BLUEBELL CAPITAL: Hi, Richard, first of all, thank you for having me here today.

But look, first of all, we say two things. First of all, we say that it should not be BlackRock's mission to promote energy policy or to promote

any public debate on environmental and social issue.

Secondly, we are not criticizing BlackRock for doing too much, or doing too little on ESG, but we are criticizing BlackRock for the contradiction and

the purposes between what they say and what they do.

QUEST: Meaning what? Because are you saying that they are either hypocrites and say one thing and do another? Or are you saying that they're

just not going far enough?

BIVONA: No, is the first one. Look, we our fellow shareholder of BlackRock in many companies and if you look at the 2022 AGMS season, you see many,

many situation where the bloc has done exactly the contrary of what they've been preaching.

I can make, you know, few example. Take a luxury company Richemont, which is controlled by a single shareholder or 10 percent in economics, but

control the company to multiple voting rights.

BlackRock vote against the proposal to increase from one to three the director representing the market and owner of 90 percent to the company.

This is from the governance perspective, foolishness, according to us.

I can make another example, at a Defense company, Leonardo this year, BlackRock supported current CEO, Alessandro Profumo after he was sentenced

six years in jail for false accounting and market manipulation at his prior job.

This is socially responsible.

QUEST: Giuseppe, BlackRock say, of you and your company: "We do not consider them to be in the best economic interest of our clients."

So you bought a relative -- you bought a small stake which gets you through the front door. I guess you you've thrown a small pebble and you're hoping

for a big wave.

BIVONA: Look, you know, we are simply doing our job. I mean, we are an activist fund based in London, and this is our job. This could be a small

stake in terms of absolute dread test for BlackRock, but it's a big position. We run on our farm.

And quite frankly, we prove it doesn't matter how big or small the stake we do, it's well known that we did because to defuse this criticism, we did a

full fledge activist campaign against a chemical company called Sorbe, and eventually, we won our day, and so they need to agree with our request.

Coming back to BlackRock, I think they should explain to their clients in which fiduciary interest they invest, why it is good to endorse a CEO which

has been sent to jail or why it is a good and in the interest of the client to support the Glencore's management for increasing coal production by 20

percent after they say in 2020, they want to exit coal.

QUEST: One of the big issues -- finally, one of the big issues now in investment in energy is the lack of -- the energy that we need and to some

extent that is still fossil, that's still LNG and the like are having difficulty attracting legitimate investment, because it is now, if you

will, the dirty word of investment to invest in anything that even smacked, and yet as the latest crisis has shown, we still rely on fossil.

BIVONA: I mean, we totally agree. We still rely or we will rely for many, many decades. That's why it's important to apply policy, very different

from you know, but not investing one, but we're very much in the camp of a responsible ownership and stewardship on this asset, and this is exactly

what we criticize BlackRock for not doing it.


QUEST: Good to see you, sir. I'm grateful. Thank you very much.

As we continue, Twitter Blue is back as the subscription plan, which is part of Elon Musk's business model. iPhone users though -- iPhone users

will have to pay extra, in a moment.


QUEST: Twitter now says its subscription plan is back after a few false starts. People who sign up for Twitter Blue, the benefits are fewer ads,

you get to edit the tweets and a blue checkmark that verifies the account. It is all part of Elon Musk's plans to bring in more revenue.

Twitter Blue will cost $8.00 a month, but here is the problem, Apple users will have to pay a bit more $11.00 a month.

We presume that's to cover the transaction fees for using Apple's App Store.

Paul La Monica is in New York. Is this a subtext to the difference in price or is it just straightforward, well, we have to pay this through Apple, and

yet, but it sucks, we are going to do that.

PAUL LA MONICA, CNN BUSINESS REPORTER: I mean, I think there is obviously some subtext here, Richard given the feud, one-sided apparently that Elon

Musk is having with Apple, you know, being concerned about that extra amount of money, which is not exclusive to Twitter at all on iOS.

But also keep in mind, there are reports of Apple being among many companies to pull back on advertising on Twitter because they're concerned

about the content since Musk took it over which, you know, there are Fortune 500 companies that might be wary of the free-for-all that seems to

be the case on Twitter these days with some more objectionable content that you're seeing on the platform.


So there's definitely that issue, I think as well, Elon Musk having some problems with Apple that, you know, maybe he's not having with Google,

Alphabet hence Android users don't have to pay that extra charge.

QUEST: So the other aspect of this is whether or not they've got it right. And because the initial launch of Twitter Blue, imposter cases and all of

those sort of things, so, I suppose we won't know until it launches, and you know, you put it to the test in the real world.

LA MONICA: Yes, exactly. It's going to be an interesting real time experiment, Richard, to see whether or not as Elon Musk has been proudly

proclaiming over the past couple of days, Twitter may or may not be solving the problem with bots, with spam, with fake accounts, because it's clear

that they are going to need to get that under control.

We had, you know, Elon Musk impersonators, Tesla impersonators. Obviously, that is a big problem for Twitter, if it is easy to pay for a verified

account, and then all of a sudden, get involved with some shenanigans and pretend you're someone that you're not, that doesn't do anyone any good on

Twitter. And obviously, we'd further alienate some of those advertisers, I would imagine.

QUEST: Paul La Monica in New York. Paul, thank you.

We're going to talk about big markets. So let's have a look at the market just updated you with how we're trading in New York. Things are going

rather well, actually, all things considered. The market is up very strongly. The best of the day, we're down at 1.5 percent.

The relationship between big tech and high finance is also getting cozier. Microsoft is buying a 4 percent stake in the London Stock Exchange, the LSE

group. It sent the LSE's group shares up sharply. The deal will include a 10-year partnership on cloud services and analytics, rounding out a

volatile year of the LSE, in which it staked its future on selling data to diversify its business when it bought Refinitiv.

London, though, is no longer Europe's largest stock market. It was outstripped by Paris last month, according to Bloomberg. London's market

cap, there you see the numbers, was beaten by 2 billion -- well you see 2.8 versus 2.2. Designer powers like LVMH and Gucci's owner carrying pushed

Paris ahead. I guess it's a tug of war at any given moment.

They say it's a sign of the times for Britain. The country is navigating decades, high inflation and an energy crisis in the back of a post-Brexit

economy. Stephane Boujnah is the CEO of Euronext, the big competitor in London, Brussels, Franklin Barry, all over the place. He joins me now. Sir,

what bragging rights are you claiming vis-a-vis London, the Euronext?

STEPHANE BOUJNAH, CEO, EURONEXT: Well, the numbers released by Bloomberg just showed that London is not as attractive as it used to be as the

natural listing venue in Europe. That's the consequence of Brexit as you mention it. And in parallel to Brexit, taking place in the U.K. between

2016 and 2020, we created on the continent and in Dublin, an alternative to London which is an integrated market, which is far bigger than than the

London one, the aggregate market capitalizations on the integrated single liquidity pool were built in Europe is approximately Euro 5.7 to 6 trillion

euro, so it's approximately twice the size of London.

And the liquidity pool, the average daily volumes traded on the Euronext platforms in Europe is about -- are about between Euro 12 and 13 billion

per day. So it's about twice the size of the London market. So that's a consequence of Brexit and a consequence of the construction of an

integrated platform for the Euronext.

QUEST: Right. But you wouldn't -- maybe it's the Brit in me that feels the need to rush to the defenses and shore them up, just sort of say. But, you

know, London, obviously, still have, if you like, the critical mass lawyers, advisers, markets, Forex, debt markets that no single European

city capital otherwise has.

BOUJNAH: That's probably true. That's what the situation is today. I'm just trying to highlight that --

QUEST: Right.

BOUJNAH: -- what we have created in Europe is an integrated equity market with a single liquidity pool, a single order book, a single technology

platform. So you are probably right, but I just want to highlight that the consequences of Brexit are there and they are happening because London used

to be the largest financial center of the European Union, it's now the largest financial center of the United Kingdom with a global ambition to be

built on the basis of the strong assets you have mentioned.


So this is what it is. But as far as equity, listing, trading are concerned, as far as financing, the real economy is concerned that the

Universal Music Group is listed on -- in Euronext. Amsterdam, Ryanair has decided to delist from London to be listed on Euronext Dublin. And that's a

trend, which is therefore --

QUEST: So, Stephane, what do you now need of these markets? Because you've got Dublin, Amsterdam, Paris, but you need the European Union and the

Commission to come forward with greater proposals of integration, don't you, to fully benefit from this. So forget London, looking at Europe per

se, what would you like to see in the new financial regulation that allows you to grow these various markets more efficiently?

BOUJNAH: Well, first of all, we already trade 25 percent of the equities trading in Europe S1 form. And all the viewers who are familiar with the

equity capital markets in New York know what an S1form is, a single European prospectus in the same shape all over the block, all over the


And there is a whole series of measures and on clearing, on plus trade, in particular, that are going to shape insolvency laws, that are going to

shape a framework, which is going to accelerate the formation of a single market for financial purposes. And this is happening. This is happening.

It's always slow. It's always more complicated to do it between in a bottom-up way than the top-down way as in the U.S., but it is happening for


QUEST: Good to see you, sir. I'm grateful. Thank you for joining us.

Well, this week, I'm not sure how much work will be done in various parts of the world as the World Cup reaches its final stages. Throughout this, of

course, the question of Qatar's treatment of migrant workers continues to come under intense scrutiny. To be blunt, they couldn't have done or built

the World Cup without migrant workers.

Some of those who now helped build the stadia are refusing to watch the tournament because it reminds them of the conditions they injured. CNN's

Larry Madowo reports.


LARRY MADOWO, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Boniface Barasa is back in Kenya but says he's still suffering from trauma. After three years as a

construction worker in Qatar, before the World Cup.

BONIFACE BARASA, FORMER MIGRANT WORKER: I saw the supervisor call another Kenyan "a lazy Black monkey." Then when the Kenyan countered back, he asked

him, "Why are you calling me a black monkey?" Then he slapped -- the supervisor slapped the Kenyan."

MADOWO (voice-over): The 38-year-old is a lifelong football fan, but says he hasn't watched any matches. The pain is still too fresh.

BARASA: Another one died from that harsh weather condition. And my colleague died. Another one was bitten and was -- and he went missing.

MADOWO (on-camera): You saw somebody die in front of you?

BARASA: Yes. Somebody collapsed and died. And I think that was because of the harsh weather conditions.

MADOWO (on-camera): Because of the heat?

BARASA: Because of the heat, the limited drinking water breaks.

MADOWO (voice-over): Last month, the Qatar World Cup chief acknowledged that 400 to 500 migrant workers have died on projects connected to the

tournament. As the World Cup got underway, some black migrant workers have taken on highly visible roles in a country where they're often invisible.

Part of the workforce, but not the society.

Kenyan traffic officer Dennis Kamal (ph) handing out red and yellow cards, entertains fans and have attracted global media attention. And 23-year-old

Kenyan Abubakr Abbas has become a viral megastar, as Metro guy. Organizers even brought him out to address fans before the England-USA game.

But advocates for migrant workers dismiss these as isolated cases and empty PR that had a dark exploitative work environment.

MALCOLM BIDALI, CO-FOUNDERS, MIGRANT DEFENDERS: As we speak, we still have people not getting paid. People are still living in cramped conditions. We

have people still facing physical, verbal, sexual assault, discrimination. Long working hours, working conditions, horrible working conditions.

MADOWO (voice-over): Malcolm Bidali was a security guard in Qatar, but says he was detained for advocating for migrant workers' rights.

BIDALI: Because I am very worried and scared and concerned when the World Cup ends because like all the media, you know, spotlight and everything

else will, you know, shift and move away to the next big thing.

MADOWO (voice-over): Qatar says it dismantled the previous restrictive migrant labor system, which has been criticized across the Gulf for

exploiting foreign workers from Africa and South Asia and taking away their passports. But critics say that reality has not changed.


Geoffrey Owino was a safety inspector at Lusail Stadium, who believes he too was deported from Qatar for speaking up for migrant workers.

(on-camera): The African migrant workers complain of exploitation despite all these changes Qatar says it's put in place.

GEOFFREY OWINO, FORMER MIGRANT WORKER: On paper, the laws are very good, but implementation and goodwill from the government of Qatar is the

problem. That's why workers will continue complaining until a framework, a robust justice system is put in place whereby violators of these laws

against migrant workers are punished.

MADOWO (voice-over): Geoffrey says he receives complaints and distress calls from migrant workers all over the Gulf, desperate to return home.


QUEST: Interesting. For a moment that's Quest Means Business. Together, you and I, at the top of the hour will make a dash for the closing bell. If you

want to know what's next, you can't escape. Come back with World of Wonder.


QUEST: This is what a vacation looks like.

And now I love a good market.

There's such an energy. You just feel it.


Eating, eating everybody's eating here and enjoying. When you arrive in Istanbul, you'd be wise to leave behind all your preconceived notions and

ideas. For this giant metropolis is where order gives way to some form of chaos, but from that chaos comes great experiences.

(voice-over): The day begins under the famed Galata Bridge, because it is where life so often happens in Istanbul. Here is the rhythm of the city.

The ferries coming and going, the fishermen plying their trade, and seemingly everyone grabbing a bite to eat.

(on-camera): Time and again, you're going to hear people talk about simit. So what is a simit? This is a simit. It's a sort of cross between a bagel

and a pretzel. One, one, one. Thank you. Really cheap. Just under a buck for three.

This is the one that's most bagely. This is the one that's more -- more pretzely, as you can see. Now, even I'm not going to follow the five second

rule with that. But this is the one that's most simiting. It's more bready, it's pretzel with honey. This is exceptional. Simity is your friend.

(voice-over): It often seems Turks basically build their day around their next meal, and I'm no different. I'm making my way to Nisantasi, where I'm

due to dine with one of Turkey's best known and loved comedy script writers and actress, Gulse Birsel.


QUEST (on-camera): Oh, I love shopping.

BIRSEL: You're in a wonderful area for that. You're in the best area, then.

QUEST (on-camera): So this area that we're in is well today?

BIRSEL: Yes, definitely. It's more European, more westernized with a history actually because this place is the symbol of Turkish westernization

since 1800s.

QUEST (on-camera): Where are we going?

BIRSEL: Now we're going to actually a kebab place.

QUEST (on-camera): A kebab place?


QUEST (on-camera): You're taking me to a kebab place?

BIRSEL: No, that's different. That's a Nisantasi (ph) kebab place. We have this Lahmacun. Have you ever tasted it? I don't know. It's called Lahmacun.

QUEST (on-camera): Right.

BIRSEL: Let's call it Turkish pizza. It's basically a thin crust with ground meat on it. It's our fast food. Typical Turkish fast food. You roll


QUEST (on-camera): I'm ready for it.

(voice-over): I'm still not sure if I'm going for a kebab or a pizza. But I'm up for whatever.

BIRSEL: You want it hot. Not hot, spicy, not spicy?

QUEST (on-camera): I'm in your hands.

BIRSEL: This Nisantasi place makes it without onions because you shouldn't smell of onions.

QUEST (on-camera): We would never use a knife and fork.

BIRSEL: No. Why would you, when you can do it like this? With the Ayran, drinkable yogurt they call it in New York.

QUEST (on-camera): Oh, it's good.

BIRSEL: Yes, isn't it. Sort of healthy, too. It's a healthy fast food.

QUEST (voice-over): Welcome to Nisantasi.

(on-camera): Oh, water.


QUEST (on-camera): Two people, three desserts.

BIRSEL: I know.

QUEST (on-camera): The sitcoms, the work that you do. It's very Istanbul- based.

BIRSEL: It was a small sample of Turkey until a few years ago, now it's a small sample of the world. We have so many foreign visitors coming from


QUEST (on-camera): So where is the humor in that?

BIRSEL: Turkish people love to talk to other people. First of all, if we're looking for a street or a shop, we never look at the science, we ask


QUEST (on-camera): It's true.

BIRSEL: Yes. You always talk to someone for anything, for any kind of problem, for any solution. You look for it in someone else. You ask for

someone, they never say I don't know. I always say, let me think about it. Let's this person together or something, you know. We love to give advice

to others.

And when you fill other people from the world. But in Istanbul, there's a lot of talking.

QUEST (on-camera): There's a about it.

BIRSEL: Yes. I know.

QUEST (on-camera): There's a.

BIRSEL: Everybody's after something always.

QUEST (on-camera): Yes.

BIRSEL: Everybody has a plan. It's -- in that way, it's a little like New York. It's a lot of energy. Everybody is running, everybody is in a hurry,

after something. We have about --

QUEST (on-camera): To the dogs.


BIRSEL: Yes, three cats, dogs everywhere, that's different from New York. But I think this city is a little bit like New York with more human touch.

QUEST (on-camera): I love Istanbul.

BIRSEL: Yes, so do I. We have our very joyful chaos here.


QUEST (voice-over): The pandemic change people in places in so many ways. In Istanbul, it gave rise to the search and growth of those places where we

can breathe freely. Think deeply just be.

It is to the Bosphorus Straits that many come in the early hours, not only to take in the tranquility of dawn's first light, but brace themselves and

launch their day.

(on-camera): It's early. The only thing out, me and the cats.

(voice-over): We need to start early to avoid the heavy maritime traffic. After all, this is one of the busiest shipping lanes in the world.

MUHARREM DAKIN, INSTRUCTOR, BALAT ROWING CLUB: This one I believe is the left ore (ph).

QUEST (voice-over): Muharrem Dakin is a lawyer by day.

DAKIN: The ring, the black part, yes.

QUEST (voice-over): And he starts his day right here, with other rowers from the Balat Rowing Club.

DAKIN: Catch it and push. That's the main.

QUEST (on-camera): Well it could possibly go wrong. Don't worry, I can swim.

(voice-over): We're pushing off from the Golden Horn. It's an inlet of the mighty Bosphorus that provides the perfect placid waters for beginners. Oh,

yes, like me. They've been rowing here since the city was still called Constantinople. And long before they began racing in Britain.

DAKIN: Hands, body and legs. Great. That's the way we want it. Exactly.

QUEST (voice-over): I've rode before. My brain remembers the strokes, but my back and leg muscles are already protesting at having to do them.

(on-camera): One of those things having done it before, I know that my hip flexors, my hamstrings, my lats are going to be screaming tomorrow. They

really are, aren't they?

DAKIN: Yes, yes. Let's enjoy the moment.

QUEST (on-camera): Enjoy the moment, he says. Enjoy the moment. OK, it's very beautiful.

(voice-over): I want to capture this moment. It's extraordinary how a city that breeds unrestrained energy. It also creates such immense feelings of


(on-camera): What a magnificent way to start the morning. Why do you do this?

DAKIN: I do this because of this beautiful city. Because it's the only time that you're alone with the city. I had a motorcycle accident when I was

three. And I was hospitalized there on four months. That's when I started.

QUEST (on-camera): What are you thinking about when you're rowing?


DAKIN: It's only you. It's not about business. It's not about family. You are just alone by yourself.

If you have that strength, you're ready to go.

QUEST (voice-over): Simplicity is everything, like the makeshift breakfast we all enjoy afterwards. Simits, of course, Turkish honey, cream, eggs, all

my favorites.

(voice-over): Oh good.

(voice-over): The trains, the ferries, the cars, the early morning commuters, but this is like a bubble. You can hear it, but you're not part

of it. Everything else is just noise. And then you realize you've been running for a while and bits are hurting.

DAKIN: I'm waiting for the next session. Just take your time, take a rest, maybe a breakfast, quick simit and cheese and take another tour.

QUEST (on-camera): How old are you?

DAKIN: 37.

QUEST (on-camera): Got T-shirts older than him.


QUEST: Hello, I'm Richard Quest. Together, we're going to do a dash to the closing bell. And it's two minutes away. Wall Street is set to close

higher. It'll be a start of a significant week. So tomorrow, Tuesday, the latest U.S. inflation numbers, which will be vital because it'll give us a

good idea of what Wednesday the Fed is going to do when it sets interest rates for the last time this year. Half a percentage point is what the

market is thinking.

And as a result of tight inflation, likely possibly maybe tamed. And interest rates moderating? Well, you got a 514, 1.5 percent gain on the Dow

because the market thinks it's turned the corner. 1.2 percent on the Nasdaq, 1.3 on the S&P 500. You can see the numbers for yourself.

The Nasdaq is sharp (ph) as well. After a bumpy year for the U.K. economy, Bloomberg says the London Stock Exchange is no longer Europe's largest.

Euronext CEO Stephane Boujnah told me Brexit is why it's all happening.


BOUJNAH: I'm just trying to highlight that what we have created in Europe is an integrated equity market with a single liquidity pool, a single order

book, a single technology platform. So, you are probably right, but I just want to highlight that the consequences of Brexit are there and they are

happening because London used to be the largest financial center of the European Union.


QUEST: And that's the way it looks. The dash of the closing bell. The market is now closing. Whatever you're up to in the hours ahead, I hope it

is profitable.