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Quest Means Business

CNN On The Ground In Port-Au-Prince As Gangs Take Over; 2024 Summer Olympics Kick Off In 130 Days; YouTube Now Requires AI-Generated Content To Be Labeled; Israel Launches Major Assault On Al-Shifa Hospital; Biden And Netanyahu Speak For First Time In Weeks; Russian Mark Tenth Anniversary Of Crimea Annexation. Aired 4-5p ET

Aired March 18, 2024 - 16:00   ET



RICHARD QUEST, CNN INTERNATIONAL HOST: There's your bell ringing on Wall Street, the final moments of trading and as you can see, the Dow is up just

72 points or so as trading comes to an end in New York, 4:00 PM in New York, it is 9:00 PM here in Paris.

A special episode of QUEST MEANS BUSINESS comes to you tonight from the French capital.

Tonight, we're talking and bringing to you gang violence explodes in Port- au-Prince. CNN's David Culver gets a firsthand look at the chaos gripping the nation.

The IOC is meeting tomorrow, the International Olympic Committee amid debate over how many Russians will be allowed to compete. The final

countdown to the Paris Games. The Paris Olympics chief is with me next and shortly on QUEST MEANS BUSINESS.

And inside Notre Dame's reconstruction after the fire. It's actually Paris' most popular tourist site. It is closer to the very reopening, and as you

can see from these pictures, I've been to the roof.

We are live tonight in Paris, the Eiffel Tower sparkling magnificently as it does at the top of the hour.

It is Monday, it is March the 18th. It is wonderful to be here. I'm Richard Quest and in the City of Lights, I certainly mean business.

And a very good evening to you from the French capital.

We start our coverage tonight in Haiti, where CNN is most firmly on the ground and reporting live from there. From Port-au-Prince, where the gang

warfare just seems to never end, get stronger, and has no seeming direction.

So far 10 bodies have been found today. It's perhaps an understatement to say chaos is everywhere. Anarchy, more likely. Food shortages as a result -

- everything -- businesses and schools are closed.

You'll recall that the prime minister, Ariel Henry resigned last week, that did not bring any peace to the proceedings.

CNN's David Culver has been -- well, is in Port-au-Prince at the moment and he has walked through a police station, one of those police stations that's

doing everything possible to repel the gangs.


DAVID CULVER, CNN CORRESPONDENT: . like this one here in Port-au-Prince are main targets for gangs, they feel like as soon as they can get hold of a

station like this, they can then take seize and take control of much of the community, and they've tried coming after this, when many of times

reinforcements have been built up not only because of the police, but because of the community. They've built barricades all around here.

For the police station to function properly, they need to rely on the community and to have these almost vigilantes building a lot of the

barricades to keep out any gang members.


QUEST: David Culver is with me live from Port-au-Prince.

Good evening to you, David, from Paris.

The issue -- the level of chaos, the gangs, what is it that the gangs actually want to happen?

CULVER: It seems like they're achieving it, Richard, and that is lawlessness and chaos. And they want that to continue. Because just a few

hours ago, there was an ongoing clash between police and gangs. It was happening about three miles from where we are, it actually woke us up with

a security source calling us saying that gangs were going after two affluent neighborhoods and the higher elevation parts of Port-au-Prince and

folks there were terrified.

And they often communicate through WhatsApp to relay what's going on to others in this city, and for some of them, it's their only way to call for

help. I mean, police are so stretched, they don't have the ability to pick up the phone and call an emergency line. And if they do, it's very unlikely

somebody is going to be able to respond instantly.

So what happens then? Well, you've got the community that has their own self-defense brigade at times and those are individuals who have built

barricades and tried to block entrances and exits to their neighborhoods so as to know who exactly is coming in and, Richard at times, not everyone

gets out.

In fact, we've learned just within the past hour, that one of these extrajudicial killings, if you will, these vigilantes just took place about

a couple of blocks from where I am and that means that they took a suspected gang member in the community then walked him to a location and

executed him.


And they often record these, too, as a message to other gang members to stay out of their neighborhood. But that's what this has resorted to --


QUEST: Okay, so the awfulness of that situation. Now, there is potentially a thousand security forces arriving from other countries, but that's not

going to be enough. To actually put law back into this lawlessness would require a sizable force if it was to be done by force, but that's not

likely either. It's difficult to see that this has any encouragement in the future.

CULVER: I think you're 100 percent right out. And it does take a sizable force to push back on what is a growing force and that is the gangs and at

times, even a united force. And that's what's most terrifying here is when they're coordinating with each other. But that's why the community has

looked at this and said, okay, if we don't have this international force, if we don't have our own police, just hearing a few gunshots there, that

was just off the distance here -- if we don't have our own police who are able to repel with a sizable amount of resources, then we've got to step


And that's exactly what they've done. They've had to basically be self- sustaining, and it's total lawlessness across this city and yet, you have pockets that have been able to maintain some sense of security and


If you ask people what they want, and how this is going to be solved and stabilized, they don't necessarily want to say on camera that it's going to

take foreign intervention. That is a very fraught subject here within Haiti and in Port-au-Prince in particular, but they do realize there needs to be

some sort of international approach here. And it comes down to, you're right, force and a sizable one.

QUEST: David Culver, who is in Port-au-Prince, I'm grateful for you tonight. Thank you for joining us. Thank you.

And so here in Paris, in the French capital, where QUEST MEANS BUSINESS comes from tonight, the world will be watching Paris very closely over the

next few months for all sorts of reasons. There, of course, have been the growing political protests. There has been the rethinking of this ancient

magnificent city, Notre Dame will be reopening, oh, and yes, the Olympics, the quadrennial event, which comes here, and the countdown is now well and

truly underway.

It is just more than four months to go before the Olympics take place. The final throes of preparation, where they have been rethinking pretty much

how to do the games, working on getting the Seine swim-worthy, a project that's caused the best part of a billion.

The construction is almost complete, sustainability. You see, one of the advantages they had here was the focus on 95 percent of the buildings were

either existing, they already existed, or will be dismantled and repurposed.

Tony Estanguet is the president of Paris 2024. First of all, grateful you've given us time, sir, with your time.


QUEST: How ready, are you?

ESTANGUET: We are so excited. We are so excited to be at 130 days before the opening ceremony. As you just said, the five percent of the venues we

have to deliver are already on track, on time and it is fantastic for us. It's a stress and less, and we are now dedicated to hosting the world, to

welcome the world in this city.

QUEST: Right, I know because I've covered London and others. It's not long before people start carping and complaining.

This time, it is about the opening ceremony, 600,000 along the Seine, come on, everybody. It's not going to be that, is it?

ESTANGUET: It's going unprecedented that will be the first time in the history of The Games, that the opening ceremony will be into the city and

not into a stadium.

So we will host all delegations, more than 200 delegations on boats that will cross Paris from east to west from Pont des Arts and crossing on the

Louvre on the Musee d'Orsay, on Grand Palais on boats and having the finish at the front of the Eiffel Tower.

And that's unprecedented and for more than 220,000 people, they will have a free access.

QUEST: Security problems have been intense. The interior minister has already said he's very worried.

ESTANGUET: Yes, they are ready on it because you know, there is an expertise on security. Every year in France, on the National Day there are

millions of people into the city to celebrate. So the police and the military, all the forces are really gathered and making sure that security

that is a priority of such a big event will be met and definitely everything and especially the opening ceremony is based on security.


QUEST: The decision on who takes part, you know, are Russian athletes allowed to compete under a neutral flag? Belarus, the same That doesn't --

the minister in Paris has said that the -- sorry, the vice mayor here in Paris said, he hopes that they don't come? Do you have a stand on that?

ESTANGUET: No, it's up to the IOC to decide finally after the qualification of the athletes by the International Federation in each sport, it's up to

the International Olympic Committee and the International Paralympic Committee to decide and not the country who will host The Games.

QUEST: The Games are only slightly over budget at the moment, on certain things because of inflation and that, so you've done a reasonable -- I'm

saying reasonable job, but you're not there yet -- of keeping it on budget.

ESTANGUET: Yes, definitely. Since the beginning of this journey, I think we had two main goals in mind. On one side, it is to deliver fantastic games,

with passion, with emotions, with having competitions at the foot of the Eiffel Tower, the equestrian in the Chateau de Versailles, the fencing in

the Grand Palais. So it's really unprecedented in having a spectacular celebration of sport.

On the other side, it's also very -- a commitment to deliver games differently, and having in terms of sustainability, cutting by half the

carbon footprint. In terms of budget, maintaining the budget balanced, and it's the case today, and financed at 96 percent by private firms.

QUEST: Right, but the issue in places like London and elsewhere was always not just sustainability, but legacy.


QUEST: And you know, and I know that in all of these cities, large stadia are just empty. I was in Sydney just a couple of weeks ago. The Stadium --

London the same. You don't have that problem, but what's the legacy going to be?

ESTANGUET: So for us, the legacy is first the model of the delivery. We should demonstrate that this is visible to host The Games, by maintaining

the budget and balanced by having a carbon footprint reasonable. And the legacy for us is not the tangible legacy, but the intangible legacy, how we

will make sure that people will do more sport. And we have today, four million people all over the country, in different cities, who will do more

sports, thanks to The Games.

QUEST: What on earth is this? I mean, controversial, a bit like the map. But what is it?

ESTANGUET: The mascot. This is the Phryges. You know, in France, we have a special thing coming from the French Revolution. It was the hat.

QUEST: Right.

ESTANGUET: The people -- it is very French and we are very proud to have these mascot and it is a big success.

QUEST: Well, it speaks English, right? Here we go.

ESTANGUET: And this is another very --

QUEST: Let me take it out.

ESTANGUET: Of course, please.

QUEST: The only time you'll ever see me get one of these. What is it?

ESTANGUET: This is the Olympic medal and it also a very, very nice medal for us and it is a part of France, like for the mascot, there is also a

very important symbol into each medal that the athletes will win.

This is the Eiffel Tower. Every athlete will bring back to home with a piece of the original Eiffel Tower.

QUEST: Thanks very much. Well, no, you better take it because -- you intended me to.

Sir, I'm very grateful to you.

ESTANGUET: Thank you.

QUEST: Thank you very much.

ESTANGUET: Thank you.

QUEST: For joining me.

ESTANGUET: Looking forward to having you in Paris for The Games.

QUEST: Well, that is very kind of you to invite me. I was going to say, I'll come to the opening ceremony, but it's on the -- good to see you, sir.

Thank you.

ESTANGUET: Thank you. Thank you very much.

QUEST: Now, the Olympics headquarters were one of those buildings that was stormed last year by the pension reform protesters.

The unrest has been weighing heavily on President Macron's both domestic, political, and economic agenda. And overall, his big vision arguably some

would say is in trouble.


(PEOPLE protesting.)

QUEST (voice over): They know how to protest in Paris. Take the French Revolution, which ushered in the First Republic. It also led to a legacy of

resistance that thrives to this day.

Two centuries ago, they were storming the Bastille. In 2018, it was the yellow vests who took to the streets. Those protesters were angry about a

green tax on diesel fuel, turning it into a broader rally against the French government.

Five years later, more than a million people protested against the Macron government's plans to raise the retirement age.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: We need to be respected. People want to be respected.

QUEST (voice over): Those protesters stormed the headquarters of LVMH, the world's top luxury goods company and the wave of strikes that followed

nearly brought Paris to a standstill.


Today, it's the farmers turn. They're protesting against EU green regulations and they're using tractors and haystacks to block highways into

Paris and other major cities.

Six years of unrest have hobbled President Macron at home, and complicated his efforts to project French power on the world stage.

QUEST (on camera): All these tensions are hurting politically and economically. The government now predicts that the French economy will only

grow one percent this year.

And on the political front, well, it is harming Macron's ability to appear as the undisputed leader in Europe.


QUEST: As there's more from Paris tonight, you're going to hear from Publicis Chairman Maurice Leavy; also, you'll hear from the European Space

Agency Director General Josef Aschbacher, and we'll be making some baguettes, real baguettes. We will talking about how the baguette is made.

Coming up next, we take a tour of the new Notre Dame restored, magnificent. We'll take you around and we'll show you the inside scoop.

It's QUEST MEANS BUSINESS tonight live from Paris.


QUEST: The most popular landmark -- well, the most popular tourist attraction, by the way for visitors, is not traditionally the Eiffel Tower

as you can see behind me. No, it's actually Notre Dame Cathedral, which of course was devastatingly badly harmed in a fire in 2019.

Eight hundred and sixty years old, and the Cathedral is now being restored. So what's happened? You see that in that picture there? The spire that was

about to fall and crashed into the middle of the Cathedral, now a new spire has been installed.

And a December reopening is planned with potentially services and celebrations by Christmas.

I went up and looked at the restoration of this Parisian icon.



QUEST: Oh my God. look at the scaffolding.

We actually will come through.

"Zut alors" as they say. Did you have to put the roof part?

(PHILIPPE JOST speaking in foreign language.)

TRANSLATION: The oak structure known as "La Forest" burned to the ground. It is now rebuilt.

WE searched for thousands of oak trees in the forests of France.

QUEST: How much technical skill had to go into it?

(PHILIPPE JOST speaking in foreign language.)

TRANSLATION: We had to find extraordinary skills and expertise, but we found them.

Because in France, we have a very extensive heritage, which we maintain. So you have carpenters, stonemasons, sculptors and these people work on all

the monuments.

PHILIPPE JOST, PRESIDENT, REBUILDING NOTRE-DAME DE PARIS: In France, we didn't build such spire since 160 years.

QUEST: More people come to Notre Dame than the Eiffel Tower.

JOST: Notre Dame has a spirit that we don't find in -- it doesn't find in the monument as Eiffel Tower.

QUEST: All aboard.

JOST: Logistic is very important here.

QUEST: So two logistics.

JOST: We have 2,250 companies and artists and 140 contracts.

QUEST: I've always been fascinated by logistics. People think it's boring, but it's logistics that make the whole thing work.

I think what really gets you when you see it is the size and scale, and the fact that it's been done in what -- four years. It is an achievement to

have done this and it will be the best part of a billion dollars.

As I understand it, none of the glass was actually broken. Is that correct?

JOST: None of the lights, correct. It is correct. We have a lot of luck because all big artistic works here were not damaged by the fire.


JOST: Here we are just under the spire. You see? And to rebuild the spire, we had to build the scaffold which goes through the vault.

QUEST: What percentage of completion do you think you are at now?

JOST: I think we are 85 or 90.


JOST: We finished with the roof, the spire. We are all "nettoyage."

QUEST: Cleaning.

JOST: Cleaning. We have we have cleaned all the inside of these wood. We have cleaned the paintings in the chapels.

You see that vault there? That vault. It was crushed.

QUEST: That vault.

JOST: That vault there.

QUEST: Yes, yes, yes.

JOST: It was crushed.

QUEST: So, it comes down.

JOST: It's important that we cannot identify what has been rebuilt because it's with the same stones and the same type of work. We see the respect we

owe to the monument.

QUEST: You and I in our lifetime have seen projects like this taking 20 years.

JOST: After the fire, a lot of people said, you will need 20 years to rebuild this Cathedral.


(PHILIPPE JOST speaking in foreign language.)

JOST: And I said, we will do it in five years for 2024, and we are doing it and we do it perfectly. Perfectly.


QUEST: Extraordinary. Absolutely wonderful to walk around and see Notre Dame and see it indeed from the roof. We get that splendid view.

YouTube: Now, YouTube has a new AI policy. It's a bid to increase transparency and it has just been announced. Starting today, creators will

have to label uploads required for videos made with AI.

So if you make someone say something they didn't, if you alter a footage of real place or events, if you do realistic looking fake videos, well you

have to say.

Clare Duffy is with me. Clare is in California.

Clare, the problem is, if it's a good enough deepfake, and you don't who's going to know?


CLARE DUFFY, CNN BUSINESS WRITER: That is the challenge, Richard.

I mean, with many tech companies and their policies like these it's often much easier to put the policy in place than to actually enforce it.

Now, YouTube said that it is investing in resources to better detect when creators aren't adding these required labels, but it will be sort of like

the proof is in the pudding here as this starts to roll out this requirement starting today.

Now creators won't be required to label videos that are generated with AI, but are obviously not realistic looking, so if I use AI to generate a video

of myself walking on the moon, and it looks like an animation, I won't have to add the label.

This label is really just for videos that look realistic and could potentially be misleading to the viewers who watch them. On the viewer end,

users will now see an AI-generated label, usually in the description of the video. Although for potentially sensitive topics like politics, they'll see

a more prominent label on the actual video player itself.

So an effort by YouTube certainly to increase transparency around AI generated content and avoid misleading users, but we'll have to really see

how the company does in terms of detecting when creators aren't adding that required disclosure.

QUEST: Right now, Apple and Alphabet and Gemini AI, this is a major development, one that certainly popped share prices.

DUFFY: Yes, a huge deal. I mean, Apple has sort of been behind the ball in terms of the artificial intelligence movement. Many of the big tech players

in this space -- Google, Meta, OpenAI has become a very big player -- have sort of been ahead of Apple in terms of generating these large language

models incorporating artificial intelligence into their products.

So this report that Apple will be partnering with Google to incorporate Gemini AI, Google's AI product into the iPhones into the latest iOS update

is a really big deal for Apple.

And you know, it comes as CEO Tim Cook has indicated that AI certainly is a priority for the company. And also as Apple's own researchers say that

they've been developing their own multimodal AI models. That means they are models that could interpret and generate both text and images, different

kinds of data.

But it's clear that Apple's own products are not quite where the company wants to be. I think that's what we're seeing in terms of why Apple would

be partnering with Google for its upcoming releases -- Richard.

QUEST: Thank you. Interesting note, you know, it takes a lot to move a stock like Alphabet by that number, as we were just seeing, some four

percent, so that's a good indication of how important this is.

Clare in California, I think it must be about eight or nine or 10 hours behind me here in Paris. I wish you well for the rest of your day.

QUEST MEANS BUSINESS in Paris. Two milestones for Russia. It is the 10th anniversary that Crimea was annexed and it was President Putin's umpteenth

election victory. He could be there till 2030 and beyond.




QUEST: Warm welcome back to Paris. President Biden and Prime Minister Netanyahu have spoken by phone. It's the first time in many weeks that they

have done so.

Israel is currently having an assault on the Al-Shifa Hospital where 30,000 people are taking shelter at the moment. For Israel, Hamas terrorists are

inside the hospital. But as a result, the opioid explosions and smoke has been seen in the vicinity.

Jeremy Diamond, our correspondent is in Jerusalem. Jeremy, good evening to you. The -- I mean, this is another occasion where Israel is saying that

there are Hamas terrorists sheltering amongst the civilian population. It's not a fact that we can either confirm or deny. But it gives greater

concern, of course to what's going to happen.

JEREMY DIAMOND, CNN WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT: Yes, no doubt about it. I mean, just the fact alone that 30,000 civilians have been sheltering inside

that hospital raises concerns and the Israeli military, you know, carrying out a major military operation overnight. There are reports of multiple

tanks, armored vehicles troops as well as airstrikes being carried out in the vicinity of Al Shifa Hospital.

The Israeli military says that it engaged in a firefight with Hamas militants who they say were sheltering inside the hospital. They set the

Israeli military saying they killed about 20 of them Hamas also confirming that it was engaging Israeli forces in the area around the hospital. The

Israeli military also said that it killed a senior Hamas operative who was operating from within the hospital grounds.

But it is also clear that among the dead and the wounded once again, there are also a number of civilians that as the Israeli military carried out

this operation at Al Shifa hospital, they also appear to have carried out a number of airstrikes in the Al-Rimal neighborhoods surrounding that

hospital. And among the destruction there were also a women and children among the dead and the wounded.

Although some of the wounded still remain trapped under the rubble with crews unable to reach them because of the intensity of the fighting

throughout the day.

QUEST: And so, I guess the disagreements between the U.S. and Israel and we'll put it more bluntly between Netanyahu and Biden and Schumer

(INAUDIBLE) they are -- they are -- they are contained but always threatening to explode again.

DIAMOND: Yes. I mean, this public spat has really escalated over the course of the last week. We've seen Netanyahu really on the defensive, but also

going back out on the attack as a result of what he has felt was kind of a substantial criticism coming from not only Senator Schumer, the top Senate

Democrat, but also increasing -- increasingly vocal criticism from the White House.

And we've seen Netanyahu decry that criticism, saying that Israel is not a banana republic that American politicians should not be involving

themselves in the domestic affairs of Israel, but he is also trying to defend the conduct of the war and trying to make the case for the military

necessity of carrying out this military operation in Rafah. The southernmost city in Gaza where about 1-1/2 million Palestinians are

currently sheltering.


That was part of the conversation between President Biden and Prime Minister Netanyahu today. Prime Minister Netanyahu on the call agreeing to

Biden's request, to send an Israeli delegation of military leaders to meet with American military officials to discuss alternatives to the plan that

Israel has come up with. So, in the next week or so those will be some very intense discussions about the fate of that operation.

And, of course, the implications that it holds for humanitarian aid getting into Gaza via that Rafah crossing from Egypt into Gaza. And also, of

course, for the civilian population in Russia itself.

QUEST: Jeremy Diamond in Tel Aviv. Jeremy, I'm grateful to (INAUDIBLE) I'm grateful to this evening. And so, take a look at the countries with the

allies, if you will, who offered their congratulations to Vladimir Putin on his reelection as president. Well, you had China, North Korea and India.

The West, of course is calling the whole election a sham. 87 percent of the population or 87 percent of the electorate voted for President Putin.

And there was no genuine opposition, so says the critics. As for President Putin himself, he appeared at a red square rally where he was marking the

10th anniversary of the annexation of Crimea. Life Inside Crimea has changed greatly over the last 10 years.

CNN's Clare Sebastian reports.


CLARE SEBASTIAN, CNN INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT (voiceover): Ten years ago the woman in blue dreams of being a teacher, life under Russian occupation

brought Lutfiye Zudiyeva a new calling. Journalist and Human Rights activist.

LUTFIYE ZUDIYEVA, JOURNALIST AND HUMAN RIGHTS ACTIVIST (through translator): This was the first time I was searched. But I had been

preparing for this for many years. I was expecting them.

SEBASTIAN (on camera): You're not afraid you have a family, children.

ZUDIYEVA (through translator): I hope that my work will lead to the end of repression in Crimea.

SEBASTIAN (voice-over): This was Zudiyeva's third arrest in four years. This time for several social media posts. Scenes like this are increasingly

common, especially in Crimea and Tatar communities.

Forcibly deported by Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin in 1944. And only allowed back in the early 1990s. 2014 brought another decade of persecution

to anyone opposing Russia's rule. President say the full-scale invasion intensified crackdown.

ZUDIYEVA (through translator): In the current situation, even those who before this were protected from prosecution are at risk.

SEBASTIAN (voice-over): On March 5th, 10 Crimean and Tatar men were arrested in mass pre-dawn raids.

ZUDIYEVA (through translator): They came through this way. The FSB or riot police officers says the wife of one visibly out of breath. A few hours

later, she gave birth to her sixth child.

KRZYSZTOF JANOWSKI, SPOKESPERSON, U.N. MONITORING MISSION TO UKRAINE: Well, we have seen a systematic effort essentially to raise Ukrainian identity,

forcing people to take Russian passports, drafting Crimea men for Russian military.

SEBASTIAN (voice-over): Another key policy the U.N. says is to replace those who leave.

JANOWSKI: They brought in at least the 100,000 Russians to Crimea since the annexation. That changes the demographic composition of the peninsula.

SEBASTIAN (voice-over): When unmarked Russian soldiers, the little green men began surrounding Crimea as military bases in March 2014. Ethnic

Russians were already a majority here. The referendum which delivered a 97 percent yes vote to join Russia was illegal in the eyes of much of the

world. And at one polling station, our CNN camera film demand dropping two ballots into the box.

Ten years on, Russia's propaganda machine is celebrating. This news report showing off shiny new highways.

EMIL KURBEDINOV, CRIMEAN LAWYER (through translator): If you drive along the roads, walk around the shops, it would probably seem like everything is

wonderful, but there is another side, all right? I just came back from the pretrial detention center visiting my defendants. This is young people

being accused of terrorism.

SEBASTIAN (voice-over): Some don't even get a trial. The U.N. has documented more than 100 cases of forced disappearance in Crimea since


KURBEDINOV: This is how we live. Today you drive along nice roads, arrive home and then tomorrow you simply disappear.


SEBASTIAN (voice-over): As Russia tightens its grip on Crimea's people, Ukraine has stepped up attacks on the peninsula on land and sea in recent

months. In the place this war originally started, military tensions are rising again.

Clare Sebastian, CNN, London.


QUEST: It simply wouldn't be QUEST MEANS BUSINESS in Paris, if obviously, if it he wasn't with us to help us understand what's going on in the

economy in the advertising commercial world, and also enjoy a little bit of French living. Maurice Levy with me after the break.


QUEST: Welcome back to Paris. Several large global businesses are based not only in Frankfurt, here in Paris. And one of the world's largest ad

agencies and commercial companies and tech companies all in one really, a company of the third type is how it's -- Maurice Levy like to describe. Had

a very good year, solid 2023. Up 6.3 on revenues. But of course, for the ad industry itself and market media and tech layoffs.

And the industry is here about to have a bit of a bonanza because of course the Olympics are around the corner. Maurice Levy is the chair of Publicis

supervisory board. It is good to see you, sir. Thank you.

MAURICE LEVY, PUBLICIS SUPERVISORY BOARD CHAIRMAN: It's always a pleasure to see you and welcome to Paris.

QUEST: Thank you very much. I always say I'll be here in Paris. The issue - - this is a good year for you. You've got a U.S. election, which is always good for your industry. And you've got the Olympics, doesn't get much

better than that.

LEVY: The U.S. election is much better for the media than for the advertising agencies because most of the advertising agencies don't work

for the candidates. So, it's good for the media, but not so much for the ad agencies. However, where we are right that Olympic Games is a very good

game. And it is something which is always fueling the growth of the ad agencies and the media also.

QUEST: And as you look at the way you have constructed Publicists with some investments on tech. You would say you're positioned better than your


LEVY: This is what everyone is saying and it is --


QUEST: But in what way?

LEVY: It is because you mentioned the third type. It is a combination of creativity media, data, tech, and A.I. So, the best combination, which is

possibly nowadays, because we are covering the idea industry, the creative industry, as well as the take and the future of A.I.

QUEST: The French economy is not doing particularly well. Growth of one percent this year. And the President seems to be mired in political


LEVY: I wouldn't say that this way. Yes, the French economy is not doing great, that's clear. But it's doing better than the average of the E.U. So,

it's not doing that bad. If you compare, for example, France and Germany which is the largest economy of Europe, it is in favor of France.

QUEST: How bad is the relationship at the moment do you think between Macron and Schultz?

LEVY: I would say to be improved.

QAZZAZ: That's lovely. Read between the lines.

LEVY: No. It looks that it has been better in the past and it looks like Germany nowadays is facing some issues. The relationships could be


QUEST: The shift to the right in this country is quite noticeable. And it has even brought President Macron to shift his policies from center

arguably to center right or at least more right wing. You wrote an article recently concerned about the level of anti-Semitism that is now in France.

What drove you to do that?

LEVY: The reality and the fact that we see a wave of anti-Semitism, not only in France, by the way, unfortunately, it is also in the U.K., much

bigger that wave and much stronger than what we see in France. It is in the U.S., in the universities in the U.S., which is a shame to see that the

best U.S. Global universities are covered with that issue of anti-Semitism --


QUEST: But you're trying to get people to just -- to be aware of how this is growing.

LEVY: What I'm trying to do is to be a kind of alert gonged in order that people wake up. We are talking about weak link. They have to wake up to

what is happening. And when you look at all the history, and particularly when it comes to anti-Semitism and what happened with the Nazis, it started

with the words. It always start with words. And when you let the word taking that kind of possession, then at the end of the day, you come up

with murder and this is what we don't want to see.

QUEST: Maurice, it is great to have you here. Unfortunately, my visit has been so short. I can't take you up on your promise of lunch. Next time.

LEVY: Next time.

QUEST: I promise you.


LEVY: Let me know. And you will be my guest.

QUEST: Thank you very much. Good lunch indeed. Thank you.

Now as we continue on CNN. Some news to bring to your immediate attention. Donald Trump and his co-defendants are going to seek an immediate appeal

against last week's ruling that allowed the Georgia District Attorney Fani Willis to stay on the case. Remember her paramour since we're in France has

had to leave his job but she's unable to stay on the job. So now they needed the permission of Judge Scott McAfee to appeal.

He issued last week's ruling. If he approves it, a three-judge panel will decide whether or not to take up the appeal.

The European Space Agency is based right out in Paris. They showed me around (INAUDIBLE) six rocket that's getting ready. And of course, we

discussed politics because nothing in Europe happens without politics. QUEST MEANS BUSINESS.


JOSEF ASCHBACHER, DIRECTOR GENERAL, EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY: -- different situation we have, first of all, many more space players or we have about

80 spacefaring nations. But the thing that is completely new today is the commercial sector.




QUEST: Warm welcome back to Paris. If you're wondering where we're getting such a magnificent view from right over the rooftops of Paris. It's the

Eiffel Tower. That way it Nostra Dame. It's the Hotel Dame des Arts who have kindly lent us their rooftop bar and grill. And we'll be thanking

them. The kind Hotel Dame des Arts.

Now, I'm sure if I look close enough, I will see the headquarters of the European Space Agency which now says that a new revolution of space flight

is underway. Recent high-profile missions. You had SpaceX rocket last week, you've got moon missions, you've got the U.S., India and Japan. And really

you ask well, where does Europe sit in all of this with the European Space Agency. The head of it explained the space of the -- state of space travel



ASCHBACHER: I mean, we are at quite a huge inflection point. We call it sometimes a new renaissance of space or a revolution that is taking place.

The first one obviously, having been the race to space between the U.S. and the USSR at the time, the race to the moon. Today we have a completely

different situation. We have first of all, many more space players or we have about 80 spacefaring nations. But the thing that is completely new

today is the commercial sector.

QUEST: Is Elon Musk a help or a hindrance to global space?

ASCHBACHER: He's -- first of all, it's quite fascinating what he is doing. It's really an inspiration. And I think this is something that the whole

world has taken off. It's not only in Europe, it's in Japan and China, everywhere. And this will equate. On the other side, of course is Europe.

Now speaking as Europe compared to U.S. company, of course, Europe needs to make sure that we have our own capability which is in competition or which

can compete with services offered there.

QUEST: All these flights. They are your strength and your weakness.

ASCHBACHER: These are all the countries, 22 member states of the European Space Agency that we are managing and that put their resources together to

have major space programs. But we have a lot of flexibility built in our system because only 20 percent of our budget is because of a member state

sir size of the economy. So, it's a basic country what we call level of resources. The other 80 percent of our member state programs we do as

optional programs.

That means we propose a mission, let's say go into Mars with a rover. We put it on the table and member states can or cannot contribute. Some put a

lot of money in, some with no money in but also --


QUEST: Yes. But that's how I caught it.


QUEST: I have a bit of Mars, but I won't -- no, no, no, no. I'll take the moon but not Mars.

ASCHBACHER: Exactly. Exactly. But it's not --


QUEST: It's not efficient.

ASCHBACHER: No, that is -- no, it is good. Because if one country does not want to be on Mars, but on the moon, they can do so (INAUDIBLE) it's very


QUEST: I realized the ISS And the relationship with Russia is already embedded in treaty. And though we put that to one side.


Can you imagine in the near in the near future five, 10, 15 years that you can work again with Russia?

ASCHBACHER: Well, this is not for me to decide, because this is something that certainly is decided on geopolitical level. I mentioned another

example, we have been encouraged by our politicians to work with Russia 20 years ago, and we have done so. Now, of course, with the war in Ukraine,

our politicians, that means the member states of ESA have imposed very heavy sanctions on Russia.

And the sanctions make it simply impossible to work with Russia in anything but the space station. And this is what ESA is doing. We are defining our

programs, aligning our priorities and programs according to the political priorities or for our countries collectively.

QUEST: You spend your entire life on space. And if Jeff Bezos says, Doctor, here's your free ticket. And the E.C. allows you to (INAUDIBLE) would you

take it?



ASCHBACHER: I would go to space if I have a job to do. That means if I do some meaningful work, some experiments, some research. Not as a tourist,

QUEST: Why not?

ASCHBACHER: Because I want to --


QUEST: I mean --

ASCHBACHER: I want to work.

QUEST: You have spent your entire professional life. Your PhD. What was your PhD ni?\


QUEST: I guess it's this idea of space. What's the attraction for you?

ASCHBACHER: I mean, space is fascinating. Can you imagine or first everyone is asking very fundamental questions? Where do I come from? Where do I go?

Actually, this happened when I was a kid of seven years when Neil Armstrong was setting foot on the moon. And my parents said, look, there's somebody

flying to the moon. And I said, this is impossible. How can somebody -- as a seven-year-old, how can somebody fly to the moon? How does it work?

It is just so fascinating. And this is something that keeps driving me for the rest of my life.


QUEST: The best news of the day. It concerns our producer who -- Ronan O'Kelly who is -- he and his wife have just had a wonderful beautiful baby

girl. Congratulations to Ronan and Sophie as we welcome Clementine Noel O'Kelley (ph) who was born on Friday. Mother and baby are doing well.

Father remains shell shocked and is probably in a darkened room.

Also on this, bring your family to work day. Our producer tonight is Josh Girsky and his mother has decided to join to make sure that things are

going according to plan. You are most welcome ma'am. Most welcome indeed. We will take a profitable moment after the break.


QUEST: It is wonderful to be in France here in Paris.


Tonight's profitable moment. It's easy to point out the difficulties the problems, the economic woes at the moment. But the atmosphere as they get

ready for the Olympics and Spring (INAUDIBLE) is around the corner as they say. And then what's after that but Summer. Just lovely to be here.

And that's QUEST MEANS BUSINESS for this Monday night. I'm Richard Quest in Paris. Whatever you're up to in the hours ahead, I hope it's profitable.

I'll see you in Brussels later in the week.