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Two-Year Anniversary of Russia`s Invasion of Ukraine; Pig Could Save Life; Elon Musk`s Neuralink Implants Chip in Its First Human Brain. Aired 4-4:10a ET

Aired February 01, 2024 - 04:00   ET


COY WIRE, CNN 10 ANCHOR: Hello, lovely people. Let`s rise up, lock in and take the next 10 minutes to fuel our minds. It`s Thursday, February 1st.

I`m Coy Wire. This is CNN 10, happy Friday Eve.

February marks two years since Russian president Vladimir Putin first ordered his troops into Ukraine for what he called a special military

operation to demilitarize the country. According to U.S. intelligence assessment, Russia has lost 87% of the 360,000 active-duty ground troops it

had prior to the start of the war. But they persist, Ukraine remains heavily dependent upon support in the form of funding and munitions from

its Western allies, including the United States.

But further U.S. support is not guaranteed as Congress remains divided on sending more taxpayer dollars to fund Ukraine`s war efforts. As CNN Fred

Pleitgen explains, the war is as intense as ever and seemingly far from over.


FREDERIK PLEITGEN, CNN SENIOR INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: In 2024, Russia`s war against Ukraine is as brutal as it ever has been. Both sides

are still taking heavy casualties and the battles are ferocious. The action has somewhat shifted though, from the south of the country, more towards

the Southeast and the east of the country. The Russians have unleashed another massive aerial campaign against sites here in Ukraine using drones,

ballistic missiles, and also cruise missiles.

The Ukrainians, though, now also fighting back, hitting some targets in Russia, like for instance, the Belgorod region, where there have been some


Western military support for Ukraine will continue to be essential for the country, but it is far from a certain thing, especially aid from the United

States where U.S. Congress still has not okayed further military aid for Ukraine.

There is the European Union where a decision on further military aid was blocked by the Hungarian. So it`s unclear when exactly that could come

through, even though the countries themselves, the single countries could continue to give Ukraine military aid and are continuing to do so.

The Russians certainly seem to have replenished their ranks after taking heavy losses in 2023. The Russians also appear to have new tanks and

armored vehicles. One of the other things that we`re seeing is that the Russians are firing a lot of artillery on the frontline and a different

picture for the Ukrainians, especially ammunition is something that they`re having a lot of trouble with. They certainly need those replenishment.


WIRE: Pop quiz, hot shot. Which of these words is associated with pigs. Boerboel, bovine, pachyderm, porcine?

If you pondered porcine, put your hooves up. While boerboel is a type of dog. Bovine relates to cattle and pachyderms are thick skinned, hoofed

animals like elephants, rhinos and hippos. Porcine relates to or suggests piggies.

For our next story, we turn to a controversial solution to an ongoing health dilemma. One for which pigs may be the answer. We`re talking organ

transplants. Now, each organ inside our body has a specific function, right? And sometimes due to disease accident or other reasons, it doesn`t

work properly and needs replacement. So during organ transplantation surgeons carefully remove a healthy organ from a donor and place it in the

body of someone in need.

It can be difficult to find a matching organ as there is a big gap between supply and demand for organs needed to save lives. But the company eGenesis

is working on a solution that might end organ shortage in the future. On their research farm, they`re raising pigs that could become organ donors in

the future. CNN Chief Medical Correspondent, Sanjay Gupta got a first look at a facility few other people have seen before.


DR. SANJAY GUPTA, CNN CHIEF MEDICAL CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): These pigs could one day provide a nearly endless supply of organs to save humans.

Mike Curtis is my guide today. He is CEO of eGenesis. That`s a company devoted to raising pigs to try and solve the organ shortage crisis.

MIKE CURTIS, EGENESIS CEO: Everything`s controlled. Like all the feet is clean. Water`s clean, as you can see, the staff is clean. We try to

maintain a very clean environment here.

GUPTA (on camera): And I should just point out that I walked into a room, turned on a filter, essentially clean the air for five minutes before I

could then go shower. That`s why my hair is wet. I`ve -- I`ve washed myself. I put on everything new here, including underwear, socks, shoes,

everything is different just to be in this room, gives you an idea of just how clean it is in here and how important that is.

(Voice-over): It`s more than I typically do to prep for the operating room, all of it to protect the pigs from us.

(On camera): I got to tell you, I did not know what to expect. It`s powerful just to be here with these pigs.

(Voice-over): This pig has 69 different gene edits making it among the most genetically modified mammals on the planet.

They do all of this with the help of CRISPR, the gene editing tool that allows scientists to manipulate the cell`s DNA, knocking out or adding in

genes. In this case, to make a pig`s organs more compatible with the human recipient.

CURTIS: We`ve selected the Yucatan mini pig because fully grown they`re about 70 kilos, 150 pounds, right? So there, the organs are correctly size

for human recipient.

GUPTA: In January of 2022, for the first time in history, a team at the University of Maryland Medical Center, transplanted a genetically modified

pig heart into a living human being. It was allowed by the FDA`s compassionate use pathway for experimental treatments. Something used when

a patient has no other options left.

CURTIS: A patient imminently facing death. Why wouldn`t you try.

GUPTA: But how far are we still to this becoming a reality?

CURTIS: I think for the right patient, I -- we`re going to see it in the next couple of years.

GUPTA: Pigs that could save human lives.

(On camera): It`s really extraordinary science. I mean the culmination of all these Nobel prize discoveries, but it comes with its ethical challenges

as well. How much should we be manipulating the genome and of another species? How much should we be relying on animals to preserve and protect

human life? I mean, these are ethical challenges and even the facility that you just saw there, we couldn`t tell you exactly where it was located

because there have been security concerns.

But at the same time, this is happening. And as you heard, it`s happening pretty quickly, perhaps over the next couple of years, we`re going to hear

more and more about animal organs being transplanted into humans.


WIRE: Let`s turn now to another controversial tech innovation in health, Elon Musk company, Neuralink implanted a chip in a human brain for the

first time this week.

Neuralink has been working toward using implants to connect the human brain to a computer for half a decade. And the company says their current goal is

to grant people the ability to control a computer cursor or keyboard using their thoughts alone. Tech Reporter, Sarah McBride shares the scoop on

exactly what this coin size device can do.


SARAH MCBRIDE, BLOOMBERG NEWS REPORTER: So this is a tiny device about the size of a quarter with a bunch of threads coming off it with tiny, tiny

electrodes attached to the threads. And the idea is surgeons go into somebody`s skull, open up their dura and their brain, put the device in

there, make sure the electrodes go down a few millimeters into the brain. So everything back up and there`s a battery pack in it. It will recharge

wirelessly and it will communicate wirelessly with an outside device that can control, say a computer cursor or an iPad.


WIRE: Elon Musk says the inaugural patient is recovering well, but offered few details. Besides a QR code that adults can scan to sign up for the

surgery, the tweet also encouraged patients with spinal cord injuries or ALS to apply. It`s unclear how significant this advancement is

scientifically, but this could be a milestone for the innovative company`s efforts to create life changing technology.

Today`s story getting a 10 out of 10, reports of a great white shark giving birth in the wild for the very first time. Scientists believe sharks first

appeared on the earth 455 million years ago. So it`s pretty remarkable that this could be a first. The footage you`re seeing right here shot by a drone

off the coast of Southern California might be the first sighting of a great white shark newborn baby in the wild.

It was recorded by wildlife filmmaker, Carlos Gauna and doctoral biology, student Philip Stearns, who recorded their observations in a peer reviewed

study published this week. They admit there needs to be additional evidence to confirm. We are indeed looking at a newborn great white shark. The study

suggests that an alternative explanation could be that we`re looking at a shark with an unknown skin disorder.

A baby shark is called a pup. Did you know?

All right, baby, shout out time now. Let`s send some love to Lebanon, Connecticut in the perfect people at Lebanon Middle School. Panthers, put

your post up.

And this shout out goes to the Blue Streaks of Harrisonburg High School in Harrisonburg, Virginia, rise up. Thanks for learning with me today. Let`s

do it again tomorrow. Shall we?

I`m Coy Wire. And we are CNN 10.